תמונות בעמוד


Sed quum clamoris notio voci naye sine Ged.The cormorant. idonea ratione tribuatur, ego, coll. Arab. Booth.--The sea-gull. 172p?, terra dura et sterilis, dictionem He- Gesen.-01. Levit. xi. 17; Deut. xiv. 16; braicam verterim filiam deserti, quemad- Ps. cii. 7, according to the versions : owl. modum pater desertorum, unum est ex According to Bochart. (Hieroz., p. ii., p. struthionis nominibus apud Arabes. Ce- /267,) pelican, from bis, cup, which he refers terum en na designare struthionem femi- to the bag in its crop, comp. in Latin truo nam, verisimile est Bocharto, qui feminæ from trua. esum nominatim prohibuisse putat ideo, Prof. Lee.--A certain unclean bird, most quod feminæ struthiones sæpius et facilius likely the rough-billed pelican, which has a capiuntur, mares vero, quum sint velocissimi, sort of bag attached to the lower part of his in manus hominum raro incidunt. Sed bill. See Boch. Hieroz., ii., p. 275. quum struthionis nomen genericum Hebræi Rosen.-diz omnes veteres vertunt nocnullum habeant, ne horum unum prohibens, tuam. LXX, Vuktikopaka, quo nomine invideretur alterum concedere, necesse habuisse dicari videtur ea noctue species, quam Mosem, utrumque diserte prohibere, idque Latini vocant bubonem longioribus circa fecisse addito opre, quod Bocharto est aures pennis, nos, gehörnte Eule. Ceterum nomen struthionis maris, a dant, inique in nonnullis codd. pro bis legitur dia, quod agere, ob immanitatem in pullos, quod ova etiam invenit Hieronymus. Plura vid. in in arena relinquere solet, illi inditum, quem- Michaelis Suppll., p. 1236, sqq. admodum et Arabes struthionem vocabulo Au. l'er.--The cormorant. So Booth. prorsus synonymo, bibig, impium, iniquum

Bp. Patrick.-Cormorant.] Though Bovocant (vid. Hieroz., t. ii., p. 832, sq.), qui chart doth not approve of this translation,

sexum hujus avis ita distinguunt, ut yet he acknowledges the Hebrew word feminam nomine care, marem nomine domn salach signifies some sea-bird, which sits designent. LXX, Vulgatus, et Onkelos upon rocks; and strikes at fishes with great noctuam vertunt, quod sequutus Edmann force, and draws them out of the waters. (Vermischte Sammll., p. iii., p. 45), oorn | And so the Talmudists, in the treatise called putat esse strigem Olum Linn. (die mittlere Cholin, expound it; and the gloss upon it Ohreule, der kleine Schuhu), hoc maxime there says, it signifies the crow of the waters, argumento nixus, quod up? Arabibus signi- that is, a cormorant. ficat unguibus vulnerare, quod huic avi ap- Ged.The sea-gull. prime conveniat, quæ, ut auctor est Hassel- Gesen.-de, m.

Levit. xi. 17; Deut. quist Itiner., p. 291, ubi vespera fenestras xiv. 17, probably the plungeon (so Parkinvenit apertas, ædes intret, et infantes, hurst, Horsley, Rosen.], karapákins of the custode destitutos, necet. Quasi vero non ancients, Pelecanus Bassanus, Linn. It quævis alia avis rapax a vulnerando unguibus derives its name from the characteristic nominari possit.

habit of watching on high cliffs, and on du. Ver.- The cuckow.

perceiving a fish in the water, of darting Ged., Booth.The horn-ow).

down like an arrow, and seizing its prey. Gesen.-ATO, m. Levit. xi. 16. Name LXX, katapáktus. Vulg., mergulus, Syr. of a bird, according to the LXX and Vulg., and Chald., trahens pisces. Comp. Bucharti lurus, the sea-gull, or mew, a bird which is Hieroz., p. ii., lib. ii., cap. 21. Edemann's indeed


lean and slender, But the l'ermischte Sammlungen aus der Naturkunde, mention of a sea bird among others de- H. iii., p. 68. Michaelis, Orient. Bibliocidedly of a land species, is rather singular; thek, th. iii., p. 63. hence others the horned owl, an owl which Au. l'er.- The great oul. is the leanest of all birds, although it is a Bp. Patrick.Great owl.]

There are great eater.

various translations of the Hebrew word Ver. 17.

jansaph, which St. Jerome takes for a stork,

and others for a bustard ; but Bochart : ? και νυκτικόρακα, και καταράκτης, και βιν. lation to be the most probable, which is the

Au. Ver.-17 And the little owl, and the same with ours. cormorant, and the great owl.

Bp. Horsley.--Perhaps the bittern. (See The little owl.


-acknowledges the Syriac and Chaldee trans וְאֶת־הַכְּוֹס וְאֶת־הַשְׁלָךְ וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשׁוּף :




Ged., Booth.-The.

estis. a species of beron. Perhaps the Grzoning- , m. 2:1. Iaah :09. f. 5. with reference to the 2114, , un macron bird, 2 con 09:51 0:erpeise of the pouch. Leit. zi. 17: Dr. xiv. 19. ir. Cancer. As. L'ee.- The perican. So Geddes, with an oral 01. water-f9, and Bobc... Jwajah xxxí, ll, *?. raser,

as an ir- Bj. Potrict.-That the Hebrew word habitant of the wees. Verber ite and times a pelican is not disputed. ancient transla:60*, nor the tree, grise Bir sa: . aso snifies the bird we call a here any thir? certain: tie L and hurch, is to improbable: being joined with Vulgate sopraas it by, this 'cono. E jo- Chris P. c. 6. wbich is a bird that makes manni's Sammlungen) i Syr. and Chaid.. an unpleasan: arise. ripeciaily that kind of 12-23, , parhaps cal: Arab., in -on tha: cries ise a bitter, and is called

br later writers tutorius. the Pattatruch, cins, a pigeon-1.20 k, 9? Genn.--. fem. with the art. , gou-hawk; in l-ai. xxxiv. 11,

*'74.Cors.*, arter-furl. Levit. xi. 18;

D-u:. xis, 17, wich al-o frequents deserts bustard, a sort of large fowl. Bichar:

ard ruin Isai. sxxiv. 11; Zeph. ii. 14; Illierom., part. ii., p. 251, &c., exprenge


Ps.cii. ī, according to the old translators, by owl, from ?, tu ilight; others compare policin. Root probablı , to romit, from

a bat, from Cai, nortu ragari. the habit of throwing up shells and other Prof. Lee.-t, arcording to Bochart. indigestible things which it swallows, comHieroz. ii., p. 281, seq. Chald. and Syr., mon to the pelican, with other water-fowls. the ourl. Gosenius, the common crane or

Prof. Lee.- , the name of a waterheron (" der Troinpeter-logel"), from its bird: according to Bochart, the word is used cry, as derived from my, blew. Bochart, both for the pelic'in and the heron. on the other hand, takes a as the root.

Au. l'er.-The gier eagle. One thing only is cortain, that it was pro

Bp. Horsley.- Probably some species of scribed as unclean.

Bp. Patrick.Gier eagle.]

There are
Ver. 18.

many various opinions about this bird, which ? ? ? the Hebrew's call racham. But Bochart

hath shown out of the Arabian writers, that

Itt it signifies, a kind of eagle, or vulture : for και πορφυρίωνα, και πελεκανα, και κύκνον.

sometimes they call it by one of these Au. Ver.-18. And the swan, and the

names, sometimes by the other.

It being pelican, and the gier eagle.

of a dubious kind, between an eagle and a The sun. So Vulg., Ged., Booth.

vulture; and therefore happily by us transBp. Patrick. -Swan.) In this translation lated a gier-eugle, that is, a vulture-eagle, we follow St. Jerome; but Jonathan takes which Aristotle calls yuraietos. See Hieroz., it for a kind of owl, which he calls oria. par. ii., lib. ii., cap. 25—27, where Bochart Wherehy he means, no doubt, that bird shows it is such a harmless and goodwhichi Aristotle calls wtós : which he saith natured bird, that thence it had the name of is like an owl, having tufts of feathers racham, and in Arabic of rachama ; and was about its cars, from whence it hath the made the hieroglyphic of mercy and tendername of otus (lil). viii., cap. 12). And so ness among the Egyptians, if Horus Apollo the Chalder, the Syriac, and the Samaritan

may be believed. here translate the Hebrew word thinsemell, Booth. The king-fisher. which is great many modern interpreters Gesen.-077, m. Levit. xi. 18, and 1977, follow: who take this for that which the Deut. xiv. 17, the carrion-hite, vultur, Lutins call noctua, as the former for that percnopterus [so Geddes, Rosen.), Linn. owl which they call bubo.


See Bocharti
Bp. llorsley. noun. Thegoose. (Mi-

livroz., t. ii., p. 297–322. Cirson oben, Lerit. vi. 18; Dent. xiv.


pium esse; from which this bird receives its 10:an unclean water-fowl. LLI, Topovpiwv,

name (like 77077, the stork). See Bochart., thoseu-gull. Vulg., the suu. Syri 2323, p. 318, 319.

וְאֶת־הַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת וְאֶת־הַכָּאָת וְאֶתי הרחם :

-رخعة tul

,יהם Root

וְאֵת הַחֲסִילָה הָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָה וְאֶת־


Ver. 19.

Bp. Patrick.Lapwing.] The Hebrew doctors take dukiphah for a mountain-cock,

which had a double crest, and thence hath : FunnnN? 7215777 its name, according to R. Solomon. Or και ερωδιόν, και χαραδριον, και τα όμοια rather it may be so called from the place αυτώ. και έποπα, και νυκτερίδα.

where it resorts ; for dik in Arabic is a Au. Ver.-19 And the stork, the heron cock, and kapha a rock, from whence after her kind, and the lapwing, and the Bochart probably conjectures this bird had bat.

its name, because it lives in mountainous Stork. So Gesenius, Lee, and most com- places. And he thinks the LXX and the

Vulgar have rightly translated it čeroma, and Gesen.-770??

, fem. the stork, prop. (avis) upupam: which is the sense also of four pia, thus named on account of being praised Arabian interpreters. It is a portentous by the ancients for tenderness towards its kind of bird, which hath a crest from its bill young, Levit. xi. 19; Deut. xiv. 18; Job to the hindermost part of its head; and one xxxix. 13; Ps. civ. 17; Jer. viii. 7; Zech. of principal birds used in the ancient v. 9.

Vid. Bocharti Hieroz. ed. Rosen- superstitions of the magicians and augurs, müller, t. iii., p. 85, &c. Others, the heron. as he observes cap. 31.

Rosen.--.770 LXX, Aquila, Theodotion Gesen.-00?17, f., Lev. xi. 19; Deut. xiv. interpretantur épwdiòv, ardeam, quod se- 18, an unclean bird, according to the LXX, quutus Vulgatus. Onkelos : milvus albus ; Vulg., and Arab., hoopoe. There is nothing Syrus xn, nomen obscurum ; Arabes to be determined from etymology, although it py et po, fortasse milvus. Bochartus

may be compared with the Arab. word slun,
probare studuit, TOP esse ciconiam, quam signifying a cock; the last syllable no is
interpretationem plerique sunt sequuti. Sed
nemo ex antiquis de ciconia cogitavit, deinde derived by Simonis from lis, excrevit
Ps. civ. 17, dicitur, nito habitare in altis stercus, who translates, dunghill-cock. Chald.
abietibus, quod non cadit in ciconias, quippe wood-cock, probably according to the ety-
quæ non in Europa solum, sed etiam in mology, x??? 797, rock-cock. Comp. Bocharti
Asia in tectis ædium nidulantur.

Hieroz., tom. ii.,
Au. Ver.- Heron. So Ged., Booth. Prof. Lee.-79/717, f. The name of a cer-

Bp. Patrick.Heron.] There are at least tain unclean bird, Lev. xi. 19; Deut. xiv. 18. ten different interpretations of the Hebrew Bochart. Hieroz., ii., col. 334, proposes the

P. 316.

But it being derived from a word which sig: Arabic Gum, Cock, and Chald. or Syr.


. الهديد ,versions

ذو + Giesenius proposes .الهدهد

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nifies anger, Bochartus rather takes it for a xD), rock, i.e., cock of the rock; by which he mountain-fulcon, which is a fierce bird, and seems to mean a woodcock twice the size of very prone to anger.

the common one; and for this he cites several Gesen.-7978, fem. Lev. xi. 19, an unclean Rabbinic writers. The LXX give é TOTA, bird, of different kinds (. LXX, Lat. upupa: and, atier them, the Arabic xapáồplos, plover, strand snipe. Comp. Bocharti Hieroz. ii., 335, &c.

Prof. Lee.-777, f. Name of an unclean ?. i.e., Arab. Lord, and Chald. rock : i.e., bird, of which there were probably many Lord of the rock ; which he says is the same species.

thing as gallus montanus. But, is the particle Rosen.- LXX, Xapaðplov, aris cujusdam, quæ in paludibus vivit etlys ever found in any shape whatever cominsectis vescitur; magnitudine cornicis vel pounded with either Hebrew or Syriac pici cornicini, et frequens in Ægypto in- words? And, if it were, are we at last any feriori. Quatuor ejus species descripsit more certain about this word than we were Hasselquist, p. 308, sqq. Apud Leskium, before? I think not. p. 272. Regenpfeiffer, Gall., Pleurer, Angl., Rusen.---79217, in textu Samar. 2017, Plover. Onkelos vertit 128, cujus nominis LXX, Vulgatus, Arabs uterque vertunt significatio ignota est. Syrus retinet vocem upupam,

quam significationem defendit Hebræam. Arabes: psittacus.

. ,

quæ Au. Ver.-The lapwing. So Ged., Booth. verba Castellus (Ler Heptagl., p. 3950)


, תַּרְנְגוּל בָּרָא Boclhartus

Srus habet

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21 אַךְ אֶת־זֶה תּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע אֲשֶׁר־לֹא כְרָעַיִם cale , seems to have its name from the מִמַּעַל לְרָגְלָיו לְנַתֵּר בָּהֶן עַל־הָאָרֶץ: .vast company wherein they fly together

99 אֶת־אֵלֶּה מֵהֶם תּאכֵלוּ אֶת-הָאַרְבֶּה Islut it is not fitly translated a beetle ; for לְמִינוֹ וְאֶת־הַפָּלְעָם לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־

vertit upupam; sed Bochartus gallum not different kinds of locusts, but different agrestem montanum. Sequitur eum colours of the same species are denoted, is Michaelis Suppll., p. 416, additque, Ephræ- confuted by observing, that in the cited

et plerosque Judæorum intelligere passage of Levit. ipp, according to its gallum montanum. Posse etiam pro hac kind, is placed with each of them. significatione vocis Hebrææ id afferri, quod Au. Ver.-The bald locust. Arab. Ti gallinam et ng'? petram significat. Ged.It is supposed to be the gryllus Attamen ob veterum auctoritatem upupam eversor. intelligere mallem.

Gesen.-plan, m. a four-footed, winged, Ver. 21, 22.

and eatable kind of locust, Nunb. xi. 22 only. Root in Chald. oro, to derour,

consume (so Bochart), i.q. sola. :

Au. l'er.- Beetle.

Bp. Patrick.—This sort of locusts called

22 . ? But a ; :57 inanan n? 55777 Footed, with legs to leap withal

. Therefore none ever ate beetles ; nor are they four.

chargol is another sort of locusts, unknown 21 áltà tauta páyеode åtò TWV ÉPTETÔV to us in these countries: and so is that των πετεινών, και πορεύεται επί τέσσαρα, και έχει which follows; for a grasshopper is not a σκέλη ανώτερον των ποδών αυτού, πηδαν εν sort of meat : but there were locusts of that αυτοίς επί της γης. 22 και ταυτα φάγεσθε shape, which were large and Heshy in the απ' αυτών. τον βρούχον, και τα όμοια αυτω. eastern countries, and very good food. και τον αττάκην, και τα όμοια αυτω. και οφιο

Ged. It is supposed to be the gryllus μάχην, και τα όμοια αυτω. και την ακρίδα, verruciorus of Linnaeus. και τα όμοια αυτή.

Gesen.-ham, Levit. xi. 22 only, the name Au. Ver.-21 Yet these may ye eat of of a kind of locust, eatable, and winged. every flying creeping thing that goeth upon (Arabie

, byp, a drove of horses, and, a all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth;

swarm of locusts.) 22 Even these of them ye may eat; the

Prof. Lee.-5297, m. once, Lev. xi. 22. locust after his kind, and the bald locust


Ch. 01997, locusla genus after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind. impenne, dopakos. Diosc. ii. 57. Castell.

Ged.--Yet those of them, which although they crawl on four feet, have moreover legs

“ Arab. Jos , saliit, saltitavit equus"for leaping on the earth, ye may eat; “ a saltando dieta," Gesenius. But the 22 Such as, &c.

Arabic word has no such sense. A locust, Booth.21. Yet those of every kind of having no wings, Hieroz. Bochart., ii., lib. iv., fowl that creep, going upon all four, which c. ii., p. 157, where the error, now adverted have legs above their feet, to leap with upon to, was probably first committed. the earth, ye may eat. 22 Even of them Au. l'er:--The grasshopper. ye may eat, &c.

B). Patrick.—The Hebrew word chagab 22 du, l'er. The locust.

signifies a sort of locusts, the original of Gesen.-778, m. The locust, (Root 727, whose name Aben Ezra intimates may be to multiply), Exod. x. 4, &c.; Levit. xi. found in the Arabic tongue. In which 22; Joel i. 4; Ps. Ixxviii. 46. It is often ghuhageba signifies to cover as with a veil: mentioned with other kinds of locusts, in and in such troops these locusts fly, that which the East so much abounds (Bochart. sometimes they seem to darken the sun Ilieroz., t. ii, p. 111), and denotes then a itself. But by what marks these were dispeculiar species; perhaps the most common tinguished from one another, the Hebrews of all, gryllus gregarius (so Geddes), the differ so much, that it plainly shows they locust of passage. The idea, that by these are wholly ignorant in this matter. The different names (Levit. xi. 22; Joel i. 4), most that can be made of what they say, is

رجان .Arab

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29 וְזֶה לָכֶם הַמָּלֵא בַּאֶרֶץ הַשָּׂרֶץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַחלֶד וְהָעַכְבָּר וְהַאָב Ged

It is supposed to be the gryllus
וְהָאֲנָקָה וְהַכְּחַ וְהַלְטָאָה
לְמִינֵהוּ :
וְהַחֹמֶט וְהַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת :



.v ל' רבתא

(as a man very learned in these things hath gerit immundus sit. Vivis enim animalibus observed, Job Ludolphus, in his dissertation immundis, ut asinis, canibus, etc., uti de Locustis, cap. 23), that chargol hath licebat Israelitis. Hinc LXX, Tôv Ovnoriboth a bunch on its back and a tail also : paíwv aút@v. arbeh hath neither : solam only a bunch,

Ver. 29, 30. and not a tail ; and chayab a tail, but no bunch.

? —? ? coronatus of Linnæus. Michaelis was of

: only one insect, at different periods of its

: ? ! existence, and in his German version thus

. . renders the colon: “Die heuschrecken nach

29 και ταυτα υμίν ακάθαρτα από των ερπεder ersten, Zweiten, dritten, und vierten των των επί της γης. η γαλή, και ο μυς, και ο hautung." But this, in my opinion, is

κροκόδειλος ο χερσαίος, 30 μυγάλη, και highly improbable, and repugnant to the χαμαιλέων, και χαλαβώτης, και σαύρα, και text, which adds 15 after every one of

ασπάλαξ. . the four insects. This alone destroys Mi

Au. Ver.-29 These also shall be unclean chaelis's conjecture.

unto you among the creeping things that Gesen.-317, A locust, according to Lev.

creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the xi. 22, it is a winged and eatable species.

mouse, and the tortoise after his kind, Prof. Lee.-n, m. pl. bian, A sort of locust, so called, perhaps, because their flight and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole.

30 And the ferret, and the chameleon, is said to conceal the sun Lupa , velavit); 29 The creeping things. but this is extremely doubtful.

Rosen.-7h. I. non significat animalia

reptilia, ut vermes, serpentes, etc., sed aniVer. 26.

malia quadrupedia, quæ habent pedes ita
breves, ut incedendo venter prope terram

29 Au. l'er:- The weasel.

Bp. Patrick. Weasel.] Though most :

Hebrew word choled; yet Bochartus hath και εν πάσι τοις κτήνεσιν ό έστι διχηλούν όπλήν, και ονυχιστηρας ονυχίζει, και μηρυκι- it signifes a mole; and one is, because it is

alleged a great many probable reasons that σμόν ου μηρυκάται, ακάθαρτα έσονται υμίν. joined here with the mouse. See Hierozoicon, πας ο απτόμενος των θνησιμαίων αυτών ακά

par. i., lib. iii., cap. 35, where he treats of θαρτος έσται έως εσπέρας. .

this very largely. Au. Ver.26 The carcases of every beast Rosen., Ged., Gesen., Lee.- Mole. which divideth the hoof, and is not cloven- Au, l'er.-Mouse. footed, nor cheweth the cud, are unclean Bp.Patrick.-All acknowledge the Hebrew unto you: every one that toucheth them word achbar signifies mouse, and more espeshall be unclean.

cially a field-mouse (so Gesen.), which doth Ged.-All beasts of which the hoof, great mischief there; and thence hath its although divided, is not cloven into two name, as Bochartus shows in the foregoing [Syr.), and which chew not the cud, are to chapter of that book. But all sorts of mice you unclean : whatsoever toucheth their are here to be understood, as Jonathan carcases (LXX, and seven MSS.], shall be observes, who thus paraphrases this word, unclean.

“the black mouse, the red, and the white; Booth.-All (two MSS., 521, Ken.] beasts for they are of so many colours. whose hoof is divided, but is not cloven, and

Prof. Lee

7?, the jerboa. Dipus chew not the cud, to you shall be unclean; jaculus of Linnæus. whatsoever toucheth their carcases (LXX, du. V'er.-The tortoise. and seven MSS.) shall be unclean.

Bp. Patrick.-Bochartus has taken a Rosen.26 ??? C779 it?, Quisquis ea great deal of pains to prove that tzab doth (vel potius per antecc. eorum cadavera) teti- | not signify a tortoise; but, as the LXS and

לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר הִוא מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה אֵינֶכָּה שֹׁסַעַת

אֵינֶנָּה מַעֲלָה טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־ interpreters follow this translation of the הַנֹגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִטְמָא :

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