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respondence of the character of the little horn with the character of the Papacy, D. 127.-The three horns, which were to be plucked up before the little horn, are not the Greek sovereignty in Italy, the kingdom of the Lombards, and the western imperial authority in Italy, p. 131.—Neither are they the Exarchate of Ravenna, the kingdom of the Lombards, and the state of Rome, p. 132.-But they are the kingdom of the Heruli, the kingdom of the Ostrogoths, and the kingdom of the Lombards, p. 135.—The body of the fourth beast comprehends the whole Roman empire, both in the East and in the West, p. 144.—But the ten horns are to be sought for only in the West, p. 144.—For the Constantinopolitan Emperor was the representative of the sixth head, and consequently cannot be esteemed one of the ten horns likewise, p. 145.—The ten horns are the ten kingdoms, into which the Empire was eriginelly divided, p. 148.
Concerning the vision of the ram and the be-goat, and the little born of the bengoat.
THE ram symbolizes the same power as the bear in the preceding vision ; and the he-goat, the same as the leopard : the ram therefore is the Medo-Persian empire; and the he-goat, the Macedonian, p. 149.-The great horn of the be-goat is the imperial dynasty of Alexander, p. 150.-His four horns are the four Greek kingdoms erected by Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus, p. 150.- The little horn of the he-goat is not Antiochus Epiphanes, p. 151.- Neither is it the Roman power in Macedon and the East, p. 151,-Nor is it a compound symbol, typify. ing at once Antiochus Epiphanes, the Roman power in the East, Mohammedism, and the infidel republic of France, p. 158. But it relates to Mohammedism alone : because nothing, except the spiritual empire of Mohammed, corresponds with it in every particular, local, circumstantial, and chronological, p. 159.—The tyrannical reign of both the spiritual little horns, Papal and Mohammedan, is to be dated from the same year 606, p. 163.-The propriety of fixing upon this date shewn, both from the circumstance of the saints having been delivered into the hand of the Papal horn in this very year, and from its being the only date which will make all the prophetic numbers of Daniel harmonize together, p. 164.- Date of the vision of the ram and the he-goat ascertained by a computation deduced from the year 606, p. 173.The character of the little horn of the he-goat perfectly corresponds with the character of Mohammedism in every particular, p. 185.- Whence it is concluded, that it symbolizes Mohammedism and nothing but Mohammedism, p. 211.
Concerning Daniel's last vision, and the king wbo magnified bimself above every god.
THE first part of this prophecy is both unconnected with the period of the 1260 days, and has been so amply and satisfactorily explained by Bp. Newton, that it is impossible to add any new observations to those which he has already made, p. 212.- But the second part is attended with considerable difficulties, p. 213. What power did Daniel mean to describe under the character of the king, who was to magnify himself above every god ? p. 213.—He is not a compound power, including both the Eastern Emperors and Western Popes, p. 213,216.-Neither is he a double type ; relating primarily to the Papacy, and ultimately either to Mohammedism or Infidelity, p. 214, 233.-What are we to understand by his disregarding the desire of women ? p. 225.—He cannot be the same power as the man of sin, p. 230.-The power, which he typifies, must be sought for after the Reformation, as appears from the chronological series of events detailed by Daniel previous to the first mention of him, p. 221, 234.-It must likewise be sought for, as is manifest from the character of the king, in the last days of Atheism and Infidelity, p. 225.--The king however is not to be, like the mockers of the last days, any single individual, but a nation composed of individuals who openly profess the principles of the mockers, p. 238.—This nation is revolutionary France, the long-predicted Antichrist, p. 240.—The Atheism of France, p. 241.-Her worship, notwithstanding this Atheism, of a foreign god and tutelary deities, p. 241.-In what manner she caused her foreign god, and the upholders of her tutelary deities, to rule over many, p. 243.-In what manner she honoured them with desirable things, p. 247.-In what manner she has divided the land among the upholders of her tutelary deities for a price, p. 248. Although the principles of Antichrist were workingeven in the apostolic age, yet eventually the main cause of his success in propagating his blasphemous opinions was the corruption of the truth by Popery, p. 249.-It was predicted however, that some of those, who had clean escaped from them that live in error, should be deluded by the false teachers of the last days, p. 251.–This accordingly has happened in various protestant countries, p. 251. The possible objection, that the French have again professed themselves Christians, answered, p. 251.-1. The established religion in France is a mere political puppet, p. 251.-2. The prophecies, relative to the duration of the great dominant Apostacy, could not have been accomplished, unless Antichrist had be come the avowed supporter of it, p. 252.-3. The prophecies, relative to the great events which are about to take place at the close of the 1260 years, could not have beep exactly fulfilled, unless Antichrist, at some period or another of his existence, had actually leagued himself with the Papacy, p. 253.—The wars of the infidel king with the kings of the North and the South are not to take place till the time of the end, and consequently are still future, p. 256.-Such likewise is the case with his invasion of Palestine, and his destruction there, at the period of the restoration of the Jews, p. 267.
Of the four first apocalyptic trumpets.
THE seven apocalyptic trumpets may be divided into the four, which prepare the way for the revelation of the man of sin ; and the three which comprehend the whole history of the Apostacy in its dominant state both in the East and in the West, and which are styled woe-trumpets, p. 270.--The silence at the opening of the seventh seal indicates the anxious expectation of the troubles about to be produced by the sounding of the trumpets, p. 271.-By the sounding of the four first trumpets, he, that letted or prevented the revelation of the man of sin, is taken out of the way, p. 273.–At the sounding of the first trumpet, the northern nations, under · Alaric, Radagaisus, and Attila, overrun the Roman empire, p. 273.–At the sounding of the second, Genscric king of the Vandals assaults the Western Empire from the South, and hurls it from its base, like a huge blazing mountain, p. 278.-At the sounding of the third, the line of the Western Cesars becomes extinct in the person of Augustulus, p. 280.-At the sounding of the fourth, the Roman Empire, considered as one great whole, experiences an eclipse of its power and splendor, by the downfall of its Western half, p. 282.–Statement of the grounds, on which this explanation of the four first trumpets is adopted in preference to that of Bp. Newton, p. 283.
Of the tbree last apocalyptic trumpets, or, as they are peculiarly styled, the three woe-trumpets.
THE prophecy here divides itself into two distinct lines, treating severally of the Eastern and Western branches of the great Apostacy, p. 285.—The first of the three woe-trumpets describes the commencement of the dominance of the twofold Apostacy, p. 286.—The second represents it in the zenith of its power, till the primary and only partial manifestation of Antichrist, p. 286.—The third exhibits its downfall, displaying at the same time the multiplied horrors of the harvest and vintage of the Lord, or the uncontrolled reign of the atheistical king and his subsequent destruction along with the other enemies of God, p. 286.
. CHAP. IX.
AT the sounding of the fifth trumpet, or the first woe-trumpet, in the East, the Apostate star Sergius opens the door of the bottomless pit, and lets out the impostor Mohammed with his Saracenic locusts, p. 287.–At the sounding of the sixth trumpet, or the second woe-trumpet, the four Sultanies of the Turkish horsemen are loosed from the river Euphrates; and, in due season, slay the third part of men, or subvert the Constantinopolitan monarchy, p. 291.
A DISSERTATION, $c.
General Statement of the Subject.
IN the Prophecies of Daniel and St. John frequent mention is made of a certain period, during which, for wise purposes unknown to us, the enemies of God should be allowed to persecute and oppress his Church. This period is indifferently described as consisting of three times and a half, 42 months, or 1260 days : for, if we reckon a time or a year to contain 360 days, 42 months, or 1960 days, will in that case be exactly equal to three such years and a half. In the language of prophecy however, as it is well known, natural years are termed days. Hence 1260 days mean 1260 years : and, by a parity of reckoning, 42 months mean so many months of years; and three years and a half the same number of years of years. · Consequently the period, during which the Church is to be oppressed by her enemies, amounts to 1260 natural years.*
* That days mean years, may, I think, be proved, so far as matters of this nature. are capable of proof, from the writings even of Daniel and St. John themselves.
We may venture to assume, that the same mode of computation, which is used by these writers in one passage, will be used by them in all other passages ; at least in all those, which are marked by the common feature of treating, not of the fate of individuals, but of the fortune of communities. Hence, if any of their numerical prophecies be already accomplished, we shall thereby have a clue for ascertaining the proper method of interpreting all the rest.
Upon these principles, when we find that Daniel's famous prophecy of the 70 weeks has been proved by the event of our Lord's advent to speak of 70 weeks of years or 490 years, we may infer that his three years and a balf mean years of years, and that his 2300, 1290, and 1335, days mean the same number of natural years. In a similar manner, finding equally from the event that the ten days persecution of the cburcb of Smyrna mean the ten years persecution carried on by Diocletian, that the five montbs ravages of the Saracenic locusts mean 150 years, and that the year, the month, the day, and the bour, of the Eupbratèan borsemen mean 391 years and 15 days : we may thence infer, that St. John's three years and a belf are years of years ; his 42 montbs, montbs of years ; and his 1260 days and his three days and a balf, the same number of satural years. But we find, that the three years and a balf, the 42 montbs, and the 1260