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but to make this diftin&tion Nill clearer, if, instead of pronouncing the word fame Nightly, he does but give it a strong emphatic force, and let it drawl off the tongue for some time before the found finishes, he will find it slide upwards and end in a rifing tone; if he makes the same experiment on the word blame, he will find the found Nide downwards, and end in a falling tone; and this drawling pronunciation, though it lengthens the sounds beyond their proper duration, does not alter them essentially; the fame inflexions are preserved as in the common pronunciation; and the distinction is as real in one mode of pronouncing as in the other, though not so perceptible.
• Every pause, of whatever kind, must neceffarily adopt one of these two inflexions, or continue in a monotone : thus when we alk a question without the interrogative words, we naturally adopt the rising inflexion on the last word; as,
Can Cesar deserve blame? Imposible! Here blame, the last word of the question, has the rising in Aexion, and impollible, with the note of admiration, the falling : the comma, or that fufpenfion of voice generally annexed to it, which marks a continuacion of the sense, is most frequently accompanied by the rising inflexion, as in the following sentence :
If Cæsar deserves blame, he ought to have no fame. Here we find the word blame, marked with the comma, has exa&tly the same inflexion of voice as the same word in the interrogative fene tence immediately preceding; the only difference is, ihat the riling inflexion flides higher at the interrogation than at the comma; especially if it is pronounced with emphasis.
• The three other points, namely, the semicolon, colon, and peo riod, adopt either the rising or falling inflexion as the sense or har. mony requires, though in different degrees of elevation and depresfion. But these different degrees of rising or falling on the side which ends the word, are by no means so eflential as the kind of fide we adopt. Thus in the following:
As we cannot discern the shadow moving along the dial-plate, so the advances we make in knowledge are only perceived by the distance gone over.
As we perceive the shadow to have moved, but did not perceive it moving; so our advances in learning, consistiog of insensible steps, are only perceivable by the distance.
As we perceive the shadow to have moved along the dial, but did not perceive it moving; and it appears that the grass has grown, though nobody ever saw it grow: so the advances we make in knowledge, as they confilt of luch minate fteps, are only perceivable by the distance.
• Here, I say, the words dial-plate, moving, and grow, marked with the comma, femicolon, and colon, muit neceffarily end with the upward slide ; and provided this fide is adopted, it is no: of any very great consequence to the sense whether the slide is raised inuch or little; but if the downward slide is given to any of these words, though in the smallest degree, the sepse will be materially afa fected.
s The same points, when the sentence is differently constructed, adopt the other infiexion.
• Thus the inflexion of voice which is adopted in a series of empharic particulars, for the sake of force and precision, though these particulars are marked by commas only, is the falling inflexion : we have an example of this in the true pronunciation of the following sentence :
I tell you though you, though all the world, though an angel from heaven were to affirm the truth of it, I could not believe it.
· That this is the proper inflexion on each of these particulars will more evidently appear by repeating them with the opposite inflexion of voice, or that suspension usually given to the comma.
I tell you though you, though all the world, though an angel from heaven were to affirm the truth of it I could not believe it.
• In pronouncing this sentence, therefore, in order to give force and precision to every portion, the falling inflexion ought to be adopted on you, world, and heaven; and for the sake of conveyiog what is meant by this inflexion, we may call each of these words emphasical, and print them in Italics, not that all emphasis necessarily adopts the falling inlexion, but because this inflexion is generally annexed to emphasis for want of a juft idea of the distinction of infexion here laid down.
I tell you, though you, though all the world, though an angel from braven, were to afirm the truth of it, I could not believe it.
• The falling infiexion annexed to members of sentences generally marked with the semicolon and colon, may be seen in the following example:
Persons of good taste expect to be pleased, at the same time they are informed; and think that the best sense always deserves the best language: bue ftill the chief regard is to be had to perspicuity.
• In this example, the word informed is marked with the semicolon, and the word language with the colon, and from the sense and structure of the sentence both require the falling inflexion, contrary to that annexed to the fame points in the preceding sentences. The period in each sentence has the falling inflexion, and in the last fentence is pronounced in a lower tone of voice than the same inflexion on the colon and semicolon.'
Farther to explain this doctrine of Inflexions, the Author makes use of engraved lines, rising and falling with the rising and falling inflexions of the words annexed to them ; but, we apprehend, with little advantage to the learner. The preceding explanation will be sufficiently clear to those whole ears are capable of an accurate distinction of sounds; to others, no visible helps will be sufficient to answer the purpose.
The Author's application of this ingenious theory in particular rules of inflexion, with some of the principal of his observations on the remaining branches of Elocution, shall be laid before our Readers in a future Article. [To be concluded in our next.]
ART. II. A critical Elay on Oil Painting ; proving that the Art of
Paincing in Ol was known before the pretended Discovery of Joha and Hubert Van Eyck; to which are added, THEOPHILUS de drie Pingendi, ERACLIUS de Artibus Romanorum, and a Review of Fa. rinator's Lumen Anina. By R. E. Ralpe. 410. 7 s. 6 d. sewed.
Cadell. 0781. IT is always with pleasure that we peruse any performance
which tends to throw a light on the history of the arts, or to correct the public opinion, when it has been misled by fallacious stories, and groundless reports : on both these accounts the present work merits our attention. : That John Van Eyck of Bruges was the inventor of oil-paint. ing, has been so long received as an uncontroverted truth, that a man who attempts to disprove it must appear, at first sight, to the generality of readers, to engage in an undertaking, in which they will hardly expect him to succeed. This, nevertheless, is done entirely to our satisfaction, in the Esay before us. To enable our Readers to judge of this work, we shall, as briefly as may be, state the Author's arguments, in the following manner:
Vajari, a Florentine, published the first edition of his lives of the painters in the year 1566. In this work he speaks of the invention of oil-painting in two different places, in each of which he gives the honour of it to John Van Eyck. Before Vafari's time (our Author observes), no Flemish or Dutch Historian has alcribed this invention to their countryman, although 150 years had elapsed, between the time of the pretended discovery, and the appearance of Vasari's book. but since that period, every chronicle, or other Flemish or Dutch historical compilation, is obferved to mention Van Eyck's invention, and very often to puff and found it with the most extravagant praises.
· Aubertus Miraus* seems to have been the first, who looked upon the accounts of John Van Eyck's invention as very exceptionable. He mentions fome Flemish oil-paintings, done before his period. Mal. vasia + described some of the same kind which are preserved at Bologna in Italy; and Mr. Herace Walpole I has lately favoured the Public with some unquestionable facts, which prove to the unbiassed, that oil painting was known and practised in this kingdom long before the times in which John Van Eyck is reported and supposed to have invented it in Flanders.'
• Mr. Lelling, first librarian to the Duke of Brunswick at Wolfenbuttel, has lately published an excellent German pamphlet on this
• In Chron. Belgico ad ann. 1410.
I Anecdotes of Painting in England. Strawberry Hill. 1762. Vol. I. p. 6--23.
subjeci, s and it is partly with his arguinents that I shall endeavour to treat of it in a satisfactory manner. He fuys, “That scarce any !" thing can be answered to theie queitions, that the newelt and best “ authors on the art of painting have referred him from one to ano. “ ther, and latly to Vasari, as the only evidence in behalf of Van “ Eyck.”
• All then depends on Vafari's word and evidence. Let us see therefore, who Vajari was, and whether his evidence be admiffible, and fufficient.
• As to the first, he is known to have been neither a countryman of John Van Eyck, nor to have lived at the same time. He wrote and published his book about 150 years after Van Eyck; he wrote and published it in Italy, at a great distance from the country and place in which Van Eyck's invention is reported to have been made, and at a great distance from the monuments, which might have ascertained the truth, or pointed out the falsehood of his affertion. Yet, how strange! he speaks of John Van Eyck's discovery with the confidence of an eye-witness, and gives us no authorities, except his own word, and the names of some pictures pretended to have been the first done in oil.'
Many other arguments and facts are alleged by Mr. Raspe, to set aside the claim of the Van Eyck's to the honour of this invention, and invalidate the teltimony of Vafari; among others, he observes, that in the epitaph of John Van Eyck, in the church of St. Donat, at Bruges, although his excellencies as a painter are celebrated with the highest encomiums, no mention is made of his having invented oil-painting, a topic which we cannot believe his panegyrist would have overlooked, or neglected, had there been any truth in Vafari's story.
The same filence on this subject prevails in the epitaph on the tomb of his brother Hubert, in St John's church at Ghent.
Mr. Raspe afterward informs us, that two celebrated antiquaries, J. F. Reimman, and Count Caylus, have disbelieved this story: the former, indeed, contents himself with doubting; but the latter, says, We have, it is true, the custom of mixing our colours with oil, and making it the basis of the greatest part of our operations; “ but it is likely the ancients were leis igno6 rant of its use, than we imagine. They knew of many pre“ parations and mixtures, and that we are speaking of is cer« tainly the fimplest of any."
• But let us fee rather, and candidly examine, what Count Caylus, or any other fond and partial admirer of the higher antiquity, might have said in favour of the Egyptians, the Grecians, and the Ro. mans, and in support of their knowledge of oil colours. He and other Antiquaries have left us the tak to try the's monuments and their written accounts; and I shall attempt it to the best of my knowledge, and to the utmoit of my powers.
Vom Alter der Oelmahlerey. Braunschweig. 1774. 8vo.
"I must "I must first then speak of the Egyptian paintings, as being fup. pofed to be in point of time anterior to those of the Grecians and Romans. There are many remaining, some on walls, some on wood, fome on cloth, and some perhaps of a different kind, burnt-in by fire, or laid-in as Mosaic of the latter kind are some enamelled figures, which are now and then found in the cabinets of the curious, and that celebrated Ifiac table in the cabinet of the King of Sardinia, which is of brass, inlaid with silver and other metals *. They can. sot give us any light in respect to the subject and method we are fpeaking of here. The Egyptian pictures on walls, preserved in the ruins of Thebes, and in other parts of Egypt, have not been suffi. ciently examined by the learned travellers, who saw and noticed them, as very remarkable on account of the brightness of their unimpaired colours. Therefore no inference can be drawn from their accounts t. But the pictures on the Mummies will enable us to trace some mechanical practices of painting to the remotest antiquiiy. I have examined some of them, preserved in the British Museum, in Dr. William Hunter's cabinet here in London, and in the public libyary of the univerfity at Cambridge, with that attention and respect to several arts, which these monuments of the earlier antiquity deserve; and if the result of my observations should prove fatisfactory to the antiquaries and dilettanti, chey are indebied for it to the neglect of other obfervers, and to the liberality of those gentlemen who indulged my inquisitiveness, even so far as to allow me to try some experiments.
• Dr. Hunter's mummy is rather in a state of decay, which proved an advantage to my enquiries; for the coffin or box of fycamore wood is almoit entirely deprived of the paintings, which formerly embel. lished its ouilide, but the chalk or plailler-ground, on which they were executed, remains in many parts, and appears to be laid imme. diately on the wood. It is loose and friable; and does not for that stalon appear to have been applied, mixed, or much faturated with any gum or any oil.
• The same chalk ground appears on the paisied cloih, in which The mummy itself is wrap up. It appears every where on the wood as well as the cloth in the chickness of a fixpence or a thilling; in fhort, it has in every respect the appearance and nature of the chalk. ground, which is prepared with fize, and has been used by many painters of the modern schools for ditlemper painting, as well as for oil colours.
• I have observed the same chalk-ground under the paintings of the cofin and mummy at Cambridge, and under the paintings of those which are preserved in the British Museum. · • Here then we have traced a mechanical practice of the art to a very remote antiquity, not by any written account, but by unquestianable monunients.
• * Laur. Pignorii Tab. Isiaca, and Keysler's Travels through [saly; but especially Recherches philosophiques sur les Chinois, par Mr. de Pauw, Vol. I. where the Iliac table is proved to be a work of abe fecond century, done in Italy.'
• + See Pocock's, Shaw's, Norden's, Mailler's, and other modern travels to Egypt.'