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verb being thus distinguished from every other, may be one reason, that, when modified, they so readily admit a paute between them; because words that are separately modified may be prefumed to be more feparable from each other than the words that modify, and the words modified. The modifying words are themselves modified by other words, and thus become diviable into fuperior and subordinate claffes, each class being composed of words mo e united among themselves than the several classes are with each other. Thus in the lentence, The passion for praise produces excellent efiets in women of sense.
"The noun passion, and the verb produces, with their several adjunéls, form the two principal portions, or clasles, or words in this sentence, and between the classes a pause is more readily admitted than between any other words: if the latter class may be thought too long to be pronounced without a pause, we may more easily place one at effe£ts than between any other words, because, though produces is modified by every one of the succeeding words, taken all together, yet ir is more immediarely modified by excellent effe&ts, as this portion is also modified by in women of Jense; all the words of which phrase are more immediately modified by each other than the preceding phrase, produces excellent effe&ts, is by them.
After pursuing these ideas into their consequences, and ilJustrating them by further examples, Mr. W. takes pains to fix an accurate distinction between a period and a loose sentence. A period he defines, "an assemblage of such words or members as do not form sense independent on each other, or if they do, the former modify the latter, or inversely : a loose sentence he defines, an assemblage of such words or members as do form sense independent on those that follow, and at the same time are not modified by them. On the foundation of these definicions, he proceeds to form such rules for dividing sentences by pauses, as will, he apprehends reduce punctuation to steady principles. In these rules he makes use of three degrees of pause, the smaller, the greater, the greatest. As these rules appear to us to be in general exceedingly juft, we shall lay them before our Readers, with a single example of each, referring them to their own sagacity, or to the work itself, for the reasons on which each rule is founded.
N. B. The pause referred to in each rule, is found in its example after the word printed in Italics.
Rule'l. Every direct period consisting of two principal constructive parts, between these parts the greater pause must be inserted. Ex. As we cannot discern the shadow moving along the dial-plate, so the advances we make in knowledge are only perceived by the distance gone over.
Rule II.' Every inverted period consisting of two principal constructive parts, the latter of which modifies the former, between these parts the greater pause must be inserted. Ex. Every one that speaks and reasons is a grammarian and a logician,
though he may be utterly unacquainted with the rules of grammar or logic.
Rule III. Every loose sentence requires a pause between the principal constructive parts of the period, and between the period, and the additional member. Ex. Persons of taste expect to be pleased, at the same time that they are informed; and think that the best sense always deserves the best language.
Rule IV. When a nominative consists of more than one word, it is necessary to make a short pause after it. Ex. The great and invincible Alexander wept for the fate of Darius.
Rule V. When a clause intervenes between the nominative case and the verb, it is of the nature of a parenthefis, and re: quires a short pause before and after it. Ex. When the Romans and Sabines were at war, and just upon the point of giving battle, the women, who were allied to both of them, interposed.
Rule VI. Whatever member intervenes between the verb and accusative case, must be separated from both by a short pause. Ex. A man of fine taste in writing will distinguish, after the same manner, the beauties and imperfections of an author.
Rule VII. When two verbs come together, and the latter is in the infinitive mood, if any words come between, they must be separated from the latter verb by a short pause. Ex. Because our inward passions and inclinations can never make themselves visible, it is impossible for a jealous man to be thoroughly cured of his suspicions.-Without such intervening words, the rule holds good when the verb to be is followed by a verb in the infinitive mood. Ex. Their first step was, to poilers themselves of Cæsar's papers and money.
Rule VIII. If several subjects belong in the same manner to one verb, or several verbs to one subject, each should have a short pause after it. Ex. Riches, pleasure, and health become evils to those who do not know how to use them.
Rule IX. If several adjectives belong in the same manner to one substantive, or several substantives to one adjective, every adjective coming after its substantive, and every adjective coming before the fubftantive, except the last, must be separated by a short pause. Ex. A polite, an active, and a supple behaviour is necessary to success in life. - A behaviour polite, active, and supple, is necessary to success in life.
Rule X. If several adverbs belong in the same manner to one verb, or several verbs to one adverb, the adverbs coming after the verb are each of them to be separated by a short pause, before the verb, all but the last. Ex. To love wisely, rationally, and prudently, is, in the opinion of lovers, not to love at all. Wisely, rationally, and prudently to love, is, &c.
Rule XI. Words put into the case absolute, must be sepalated from the rest by a fort pause before and after it. Ex. If a man borrow aught of his neighbour, and it be hurt or die, the owner thereof not being with it, he shall surely make it good.
Rule XII. Nouns in apposition, or words in the same case where the latter is explanatory of the former, have a short pause between them. Ex. Cæsar has himself given a detail of them in his Commentaries, a work which does as much honour to his abilities as a writer, as his conduct did to his talents as a ge. neral.
Rule XIII. Who, which, that used as a pronoun, when in the nominative case, require a short pause before them. Ex. A man can never be obliged to submit to any power, unless he can be satisfied, who is the perfon, who has a right to exercise it.
Rule XIV. When that is used as a causal conjunction it ought always to be preceded by a short pause. Ex. Forgive ine, that I thus your patience wrong.
Rule XV. A short pause should commonly precede, and not follow, prepositions and conjunctions. Ex. I will not let thee go, except thou bless me.
Rule XVI. Words placed in opposition to, or apposition with each other, should be separated by a short pause. Ex. The pleasures of the imagination, taken in their full extent, are nei. their so gross as those of sense, nor so refined as those of the understanding. --To suppose the planets to be efficient of, and ano, tecedent to, themselves, would be absurd.
The length of the pauses is relative and variable, and the length of the principal pause is generally greater or less, accord. ing to the fimple or complex Aructure of the sentence. This head is concluded with the following remark:
• I doubt not but many will be displealed at the number of pauses • I have added to those already in use; but I can with confidence af.
firm, that not half the panses are found in printing which are heard in the pronunciation of a good reader, or speaker; and that, if we would read or speak well, we must pause upon an average at every fifth or fixth word. It mut also be observed, that public reading or speaking requires pauling much oftener than reading and conversing in private; as the parts of a pi&ture which is to be viewed at a dircance, muß be more diftinctly and strongly marked, than those of an object which are nearer to the eye, and underhood at the first inspection.'
Our Author next treats of the inflexions of the voice, a subjeét hitherto little regarded by writers on elocution, and he advances many things in this part of his work which merit particular attention. His leading ideas on this head we shall give in bis own words:
' All vocal sounds may be divided into two kinds, namely, speak. ing sounds, and mufical sounds. Mafical sounds are such as continue a given time, on one precise point of the musical scale, and leap, as
it were, from one note to another; while speaking sounds, insead of dwelling on the note they begin with, nide * either upwards, or downwards, to the neighbouring notes, without any perceptible reit on any; so that speaking and musical sounds are elleniially diftind; the former being constantly in motion from the moment they commence; the latter being at rent for some given time in one precise note.
• The continual motion of speaking sounds makes it almost as imposible sor the ear to mark their several differences, as it would be for the eye to define an object that is swiftly paling before it, and continually vanishing away : the difficulty of arreiting Speaking founds for examination, has made almost all authors suppose it ialpollible to give any fuch distinct account of them, as to be of use in Speaking and reading; and, indeed, the vast variety of tone which a good reader or speaker throws into delivery, and of which it is impollible to convey any idea but by imitation, has led us easily to suppore, that nothing at all of this variety can be defined and reduced to sule : but when we consider, thai, whether words are pronounced in a high or low, in a loud or a fofi cone; whether they are pronounced (wiftly or slowly, forcibly or feebly, with the tone of the passion or without it; they must necessarily be pronounced either sliding upwards or downwards, or else go into a monotone or long; when we consider this, I say, we shall find, that the primary division of speaking sounds is into the upward and the downward side of the voice, and that whatever other diversity of time, tone, or force, is added to speaking, it must necessarily be conveyed by these two slides.
"These two fides, or inflexions of voice, therefore, are the axes, as it were, on which the force, variety, and harmony of speaking turn. They may be considered as the great outlines of pronunciation; and if thele ouilines can be tolerably conveyed to a reader, they must be of nearly the same use to him, as the rough draught of a picture is to a pupil in painting. This then we shall attempt to accomplish, by adducing some of the most familiar phrases in the language, and pointing out the inflexions which every ear, however unpractised, will naturally adopt in pronouncing them. These phrases, which are in every body's mouth, will become a kind of data, or principles, to which the reader must constantly be referred, when he is at a loss for the precise found that is understood by these different inflexions; and thele familiar sounds, it is presumed, will sufficiently infruct him.
"Much of that force, variety, and harmony which we hear in speaking, arises from two different modes of uttering the words of which a sentence is composed; the one, that which terminates the word with an inflexion of voice that rises, and the other, that which termisates the word with an in Aexion of voice that falls. By rising, or falling, is not meant the pitch of voice in which the whole word is pronounced, or that loudness or softness which may accompany any pitch; but that upward or downward side which the voice makes when the pronunciation of a word is finishing; and which may, therefore, not improperly be called the rising and falling in flexion.
• So important is a just mixture of these two inflexions, that the moment they are neglected, our pronunciation becomes forceless and
* Smith's Harmonics, p. 3. Note (c).
monomonotonous; if the sense of a sentence requires the voice to adopt the rising inflexion on any particular word, either in the middle, or at the end of a phrale, variety and barmony demand the falling infiexion on one of the preceding words; and on the other hand, if emphasis, harmony, or a completion of sense requires the falling inAexion on any word, the word immediately preceding almost always demands the rising inflexion; so that these inflexions of voice are in an order nearly alternate.
• This is very observable in reading a sentence, when we have miltaken the connexion between the members, either by supposing the fense to be continued, when it finishes, or supposing it finished when it is really to be continued : for in either of these cases, before we have pronounced the lait word, we find it necessary to return pretty far back to fume of the preceding words, in order to give them such inflexions as are suitable to those which the sense requires on the succeeding words. Thus in pronouncing the speech of Portius in Cato, which is generally mispointed, as in the following example:
Remember what our father oft has told us,
The ways of Heav'n are dark and intricate,
Nor where the regular confufion ends, "If, I say, from not having considered this passage, we run the fecond line into the third, by suspending the voice ar intricate, and dropping it at errors, we find a very improper meaning conveyed; and if, in recovering ourselves from this improper pronunciation, w@ take notice of the different manner in which we pronounce the second and third lines, we shall find, that not only the lait word of these lines, but that every word alters its inflexion ; for, when we perceive, that by mistaking the pause, we have misconceived the fense, we find it necessary to begin the line again, and pronounce every word differently, in order to make it harmonious.
• But though these two inflexions of voice run through almost every word of which a sentence is composed, they are no where so perceptible as at a long pause, or where the sense of the words requires an emphasis : in this case, if we do but attend nicely to that turn of the voice, which finishes this emphatical word, or that member of a fentence where we pause, we shall soon perceive the different inflexion with which these words are pronounced.
• In order to make this different inflexion of voice more easily ap, prehended; it may not, perhaps, be useless to attend to the following directions. Let as suppose we are to pronounce the following (entence :
Does Casar deserve fame or blame? · This sentence, it is presumed, will, at first sight, be pronounced with the proper inflexions of voice, by every one that can barely read; and if the reader will but narrowly watch the sounds of the words fame and blame, he will have an example of the two inflexions here spoken of: fame will have the rising, and blame the falling inflexion ;