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ceflity. Such is the admirable mechanism of the mind, that though it believes itself to be under the controul of necesity, yet it hath all the feelings, and all the enjoyments of what is called, liberty!

What should hinder, but that with the most advanced knowledge, there should exist the most perfect felicity in superior intelligences, even though they should be confcious that every sentiment and every action were but parts of one grand scheme; settled by the wisdom, and produced by the power, of the great Author of all? We are now, like this Writer, reasoning only on the precarious grounds of analogy: and our object is, not to demonstrate the doctrine of neceffity, but only to thew how futile and inconclusive this, Writer's main argument against it is, and what little claim this pamphlet hath to the confident title it hath aflumed.. • The Author attempts to evade the force of the common argue ment of Christians in favour of neceffity, arising from the Din vine Prescience. The attempt is weak, and may be truly called an argument “ ab ignorantia." The argument is of the conmodious sort; and is generally adopted in case of an infuperable difficulty. “ Foreknowledge in God may not be of the same nature with foreknowledge in man; therefore we cannot reasoni from the one to the other.”- This point may be soon brought to a decisive issue. Doth the Divine Being forefce what will happen? Is the event such as justifies the infallible certainty of his prescience; or, in any case is that prescience baffled by a contrary event: or the knowledge of the Deity increased by the production of any thing new or accidental? These are plain questions; and every attempt to evade their force, by a recurrence to human ignorance, proves but the weakness of that cause which is neceffitated to seek for a refuge in an equivocal hypothesis.


Art. XIV. An Ffay on the Diflinction between the Soul and Body of

Man. By John Kocheram, M. A. Rector of Houghton-le-Spring, Vicar of Senham, and Chaplain to the Right Rev. John Lord

Bishop of Durham. 8vo. 1 s. Robson. 1781. 1F we were to speak of this Essay as a literary compofition, we

| should pronounce it elegant: if as a philosophical difquifition, we should not hesitate to pronounce it futile. As a declaimer, the Writer hath very considerable merit ; as a reasoner, scarcely any. He seems to be ignorant of some capital points of the controversy; and in the management of those which he is acquainted with, he appears to be indebted to rhetoric more than to logic. The following quotation may serve as a specimen of the Author's skill in the arrangement of metaphors, and if the


Reader should say _" All this splendor of language leaves the argument still in the dark," he will at once pronounce our opin nion, not only of this quotation, but of the whole Essay. All material objects in themselves, and to each other, are dark and naked : to the mind alone they are clothed in all the pleasing variety of sensible qualities. Mind, like a bride from a nobler family, enriches Matter by its union, and brings as a dower, por.. seffions before unknown. Henceforth Matter appears clothed in a gayer and richer garment, and the fruits of this union are a new progeny, to which Matter confining its alliance to its own family, could never have given birth. The marriage of Matter and Spirit is a pretty, poetical conceit; as much so, at least, as the celebrated hypothesis of Valentinus concerning the marriage of Bythus and Sigé, lo gravely discussed (with the qualities of mother Achamoth) in the first 16 books of Irenæus, and so Aippantly dispensed with in the two or three concluding lines of the roth section of Dean Swift's Tale of a Tub*.

• That incomparable wit ludicrouny instructs those who would become adepis in occult sciences, incomprehensible mysteries, the dreams of Cabbalists, Roîcrusians, &c. &c. to “ beware of Bythus and Sigé, and not to forget the qualities of Achamoth: A cujus lacry. mis humela prodit subftantia, a rifi lucida, a triftitia folida, et a timore mobilis." The editors of the Tale of a Tub confess themselves ignorant of the particular part of Irenæus from whence these words are transcribed; and “ believe that one of the Author's designs was to set curious men a hunting through Indexes, and enquiring for books out of the common road.” We were hunting after passages of more confequence, when we accidentally lighted on thas which Swift hath quoted. To save all trouble for the future to those whose curiosity may chance to run this way, we will cite the book, chapter, and section where this strange passage is found ; viz. B. i. C. iv. § 2. Amo yae των δακρυων αυτης γεγονεναι πασαν ενυγρον ουσιαν, απο δε του γελωος την $7:317. do Tns At ; xa: Tỷ E27 Ant as 3 Collegg Tot xuat sorgere

For a more particular account of the properties of Achamoth, we must refer the learned and curious Reader to the book and chapter above quoted, where he will be informed of very furpriâng marriages, births, &c. &c. and what it was " that thickened an incorporeal af. “ fection into a bodily substance; or so fitted the one for the use of " the other, that though they were two diflinct effences, yet their " powers met and acted in one common centre ' Sed jegregantem leparatim commifcuisse & coagulale, & de incorporali passione in corporalem materiam tranftulife, &c. &c. Vid. § ult.



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For J U LY, 1781.

Art. 15. Considerations on the proposed Renewal of the Bank

Charter. By David Hartley, Esq. 8vo. 18. Stockdale. 1781.
M R . Hartley maintains, that the present worth of a new char-
JV rer to the Bank Company for twenty-five years, together with
the value this renewal will add to the unexpired term of five years in
their present charter, should, in the agreement for renewal, be di.
vided between the Company and the Public. To this he states, that
the offer of the Bank, accepted by the Minister, bears no proportion ;
and hence be reproaches the latter for unnecessary precipitation in
bringing this important negociacion before the Public ad the close of
a seflion, merely có rarify a clandestine bargain by the fanation of
empty forms in empty houses.
Art. 16. A Plan for the Confideration of Parliament ; with most

necessary Instructions for the trading Part of the Community, ,
· against the various Frauds daily committing by that pernicious Set

of Men called Swindlers, &c. By a Gentleman of Lincoln's-Ion,
8vo. 13. Stockdale, &c. 1781.

This Writer considers pawn-brokers as the chief encouragers of
swindling, by the facility they afford of raising money on goods of
all kinds, when the fraudulent could not otherwise find so ready a
market for absolute sale. He therefore wishes wholly to extirpate the
race of pawn brokers, or at least to reduce their numbers onder such *
reftri&tions, as to prevent any one person pledging the property of
another. He also proposes some regulations for brokers and auctio-
neers, to check the practice called we know not why) fwindling, on
a larger scale : and there is certainly more policy as well as huma-
nity, in preventing as much as pofble, the perpetrating of crimes,
than in adding punishment to punishment on offenders.

Art. 17. Observations on the Bill now depending in Parlia-

ment for the Relief of Debtors, &c. In a Series of Letters, ad.
dressed to Lord Beauchamp. 8vo. 1S. Millidge.

These Letters seem to have been intended for insertion, and we
presume aciually made their appearance, in some of the daily papers
at the time when the bill to which they relate, was depending before
parliament. Though that particular bill was dropt, the subject did not
drop with it, but has since been much agitated by men of great name ;
and on one hand the inconveniences of commerce, and on the orber
the rights of humanity, have been strongly urged, and very warmly
and perhaps erroneously contrasted to each other. The Letters be-
fore us are not unworthy of being rescued from the fate that attends
an bsolete newspaper, and of chat further fate of existence which
(utcunque brevem) the size and form of a pampblet can bestow on
them. They contain a fenfible amplification of a certain old text
that may be found among our proverbs, though not yet in its due
extent among our laws, viz. that a gaol pays no debis. .


EAST INDIE S. Art. 18. The History and Management of the East India Com.

pany, from its origin in itoy, to the present Times. Volume che First; containing che Affairs of the Carnatic, in which the Rights of the Nabob are explained, and the Injustice of the Company proved. The whole compiled from authentic Records. 400. 8 s. fewed. Cadell,

The professed object of this publication is to expose and condemn che conduct of the East India company, particularly wiih respect to the restoration of Tanjore. For this purpose, the Author bas col. Jected, with much indultry, a long detail of facts drawn from the ori. ginal papers, published under the inspection of the directors, and from other papers of equal authority, which a gentlenian employed by the crown for some years in a public capacity on the coast, put joto his hands. He profesies to have weighed his facts and authori. ties with the most scrupulous attention to truth, and impartial justice; and affures himself, that his charges again the Company arc eltablished, beyond the reach of any just reply. .. How far this is in reality the case, it is not our province to deter. mine. Nor indeed is it in our power, confiftently with our other en. gagements, to lay before our Readers the long and intricate details, which muft necessarily be gone through in judging of affairs of this kind. On such quettions, each party ought to be heard, in the full extent of their evidence and pleadings, before a decisive sentence be paísed. Despairing, therefore, of being able to afford our Readers any farisfaction on points on which so much, not only may, but must be raid on both sides, we must refer them to the work at large; after informing them, that the Author promises to lay open the Secret In. trigues of Leadenhall Street, in a second volume, speedily to be published. Art. 19. The Origin and authentic Narrative of the Marratta War; and also the late Rohilla War, in 1773, and 1774; whereby the East-India Company's Troops (as Mercenaries) exterminared that brave Nation) and openly drove them for Asylum and Existence into the Dominions of their former molt inveterate Enemies. To which is added, the unaccountable Proceedings in the Military Score Keeper's Office in Bengal. 8vo. 2 s. 6 d. Almon. 1781.

This acculing Narrative seems to come from the Author of the Abstract of Minutes in the Supreme Council of Bengal, mentioned in our Cat. for May, Art. 20. The Author continues his attack on Governor Hastings, and in course gives a very favourable account of !he conduct of Meffrs, Francis and Wheeler, Gentlemen in the minority of that council. This performance abounds with information, but we wish it had not been anonymous. We wish too, that we saw les apparent reason for appiying to some of our leading men in the East, an observation quoted by this indignant Writer, from another * publication relative to the Company's affairs, viz. that “ A thirst for plunder, and an avidity for power, have ever been motives of hoftility and injustice to avaricious men!' HISTORY AND MANAGEMENT OF THE Ea$T-INDIA COMPANY.

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Misce l'LA NEO U s. '
Art, 20. The Siege of Penobscot by the Rebels ; containing a

Journal of the proceedings of his Maj:Aty's Forces, &c. when be. lieged by the Rebels, in July 1779. By ). C. • Volunteer. 8yo. 28. 6 d. Kearily."

This appears to be a very correct and proper journal of a memorable lege, in wnich zor British troops repelled the attacks of 3000 land forces of the American party, under the command of Brigadier General Lovell, aided by 18 rebel fhips and vessels of war, belde 20 transports, and obliged them to raise the fiege, wich the loss of their whole Aeet. The commander of the victorious troops was Brigadier General Francis Maclean, in conjunction with Capiain Mowat, who hid the command of three of the King's Noops. The fiegelalted 21 days,

The Author has illustrated his narrative by a large chart of the pe. ninsula of Penobscot, and another of the river, fort, &c. To the whole is added a description of the country, which is bur little known here. It is a large diftri&t of the province of Massachusets. bay; having above 40 towns, and about 16,000 inhabitants; mofly in tbe British interest, Art. 21. A Letter to the King, on the subject of a new pro

posed Institution in the Medical Department. 410. I S. 6 d. Becker, &c. 1781.

This Writer has very considerately guarded against the loss of time of the royal personage to whom his letter is addressed, and of his orher readers, by informing them, that the substance of bis epifle is contained in an abstract annexed. Using, therefore, his implied per. mislion of skimming over all that matter which has given his address the bulk and form of a quarto pamphlet, we find in the abstract a proposal for founding a public professorship of anatomy and surgery, the lectures of which should be free to all persons who had served an apprenticeship to a regular surgeon, and were acquainted with the Latin tongue. The whole annual expence of this inftitution, the letter write: calculates at £ 50; and we cannot but be of his opi. bion, that the public advantages resulting from it in the education of army and navy surgeons, would much more than compensate such a moderate expenre so the Public. Art. 22. An affectionate Tribute to the Memory of the late Dr. 1. John-Fothergill: By W. tiird. M. D. 410, is Philips, 1;81.

The character of the truly great and excellent man whose loss is lamented by so many in common with the Writer before us, muft ex. cite such sentiments of regard and veneration in all who knew him, thai an attempt,' though haity and inadequate, to commemorate his virtue", cannot tail of being received with candour and good will. While, therefore, we express our with that some memoirs, more me. thodically arranged, and judiciously feleded, of Dr. Fothergill's public and private life, may hereafter be offered to the world ; we cannor bue declare our obligations to Dr. Hird for a piece which agreeabiy coincided with our feelings on a recent loss. The future biographer will also be probably indebted to this flight ketch for some Haluable information, or is .1 . i.is

А. . Probably Mr. John Calef, agent for the inhabitants of Penob• frot; this namc being subcribed to the charts. '. .


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