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place called i Zappei della Cagna, stratified sparry rock dipping to the south, and soon after appearing in a perpendicular situation. The ground sounds hollow, and corroborates his notion, that, some downfall and ruin of higher mountains must have taken place. Further, on the top of mount Trinita, which is granite rock, it plainly appeared that part of an opposite calcareous mountain had tumbled down on this, and buried part of it. .
At Bondione they obtain sky blue iron slags from a particular iron ore of Mont Pomel. He concludes this letter, with summing up the result of his orological observations in these val. lies, viz. that rivers, “ running between two mountains have often divided them, and cut and made their own beds; that water was to all appearances the greatest destroyer of moun. tains ; that the masses and elevations are conftanily diminished by the rivers ; that mountains, being thus lesened, and the vallies raised, it is no easy matter to form an idea of the prior state of the plains; and that the direction of mountains is very often crossed, by that of others; that orological maps would greatly facilitate this kind of enquiry,”-for which a man's life. is rather too short.
On his journey to Zurich in Switzerland (Letter 5.), he observed, that the flat country between Bergamo and Milano is an immense level of pebbles, which from Canonica to the Adda is, in many places, scarce covered with any soil. Towards Milano, and thence to Como, the ground, though better clad with soil, is of the same nature, Near Como, a stratified mountain seems to have undergone either a violent shock of an earthquake, or the alterations arising from a downfall; because its strata appear in some places, overturned, hanging perpendicular, or otherwise inclined, He had no opportunity to enquire into the origin of the famous Lago di Como; but hopes that the celebrated Spalanzani, who examined the adjacent mountains, may perhaps have found amongst them some relative phenomena,
On the lake of Lugano he observed some fingular stratifica. tions, viz. some of " a circular form, leaning, as it were, with their convexity against the fide of a mountain.”
Beyond Ligano the mountain is hard, schistous, or late rock, whico higher up seems to be, or to degenerate into, granite, and continues as far as Bellinzona more or less mixed with yellow, white, or black mica. Where the yellow mica .. disappears in the mixture of the granite, it begins to break into cubic, rather than into Naty or scaly forms.
Near Stalveder che granite seems to be stratified, and in perpendicular beds. There can be no doubt about its stratification, and scaly or Paty nature; as even the cottages of the inhabitants are sometimes covered with large and na:u al rude plates of granite.
many rivers harkable and trouble to di
At Airolo he examined the collection of a rock chryftal mere chant, in which be observed not only a great variety of curious crystaks, but likewise of green and black lbirls in different forms and matrices. Some had a matrix of flate, which at the same cine conrained mica and garnets. There was a great variety of garnet dodecaedrons, of amianth, of asbest and of talc, all found in the neighbouring highest Alps, towards S. Gotbard.
Near Airolo the road is almost entirely paved with white quartz, filled with thirl, or with garnet Nate.
On the ascent to S Gothard, beyond Airolo, the mountain is Naty; but the top, or the plain of S. Gothard, is granite of a milk white colour, with black or greenish spots of mica. This continues of the same nature a long way, on the descent on the other fide;' which downwards exhibits the same fucceffion of granite, flate, and limestone. ..
Although we have been at the trouble to climb up with the Author to this remarkable and high part of the Alps, from which many rivers run to opposite parts of the compass, wc muft deprive ourselves of the pleasure of attending him through those many picturesque and romantic scenes (which he, and many other travellers, have seen and described) between S. Gothard, downwards to Altorf, Zug, and Zurich.
Of the last mentioned place the Author gives us a description which does credit to his heart and understanding; and which is very honourable to the many worthy and learned inhabitants with whom he was acquainted there. The botanical garden, that for economical experimenrs, the museum of thesociety of natural philosophy, those of Meff. Gefner, Schultes, d'Hottingen, Hirzel, &c. the peat pits in the neighbourhood, and the ovens for drying corn, were the chief objeds of his attention, We fee with concern that Mr. Gener hos dropped his idea of a great botanical work, in which he intended to describe all the plants according to the Linnean fystem, and to have engraved the constituent parts and characters of every species. He faw the original drawings of this botanical work, with a great collection of drawings for other parts of natural history, in Mr. Gesner's library. Among o:her observations on this little republic, and its patriotic and polite inhabitants, he remarks, p. 76, That " this fmall republican state, which produces no overgrown and purse proud Mecenas's, and is not led away by ambition ; which is under the necessity of looking on commerce and trade as the chief support of its inhabitants; and in which every subject, after having answered the calls and duties of his place, may indulge bis own mind, and spend his time as he pleases, – That this little stare abundantly proves, that principles, wisdom, and disposition determine the merit of individuals, and of whole nations and governments,"
At Bern, where he stopped but a few days, he was not less pleased and entertained by the learned patriots, to whom he had access. Haller, though almoft reduced to the last extremity by that complaint, which soon after brought him to the grave, received him in his study surrounded with books, and in as warm pursuit of knowledge and improvement, as if he had been but a young candidate for fame. He observed to him, that in Switzerland “ those farmers are the poorest, who, possessed of the richest ground, plant it with vines ; that those are richest who have the poorest ground and cultivate it for pasture, or grazing;; and that there was another class between rich and poor, who hold a middle kind of land, and cultivate it for corn,
At Basel on the Rhine he saw that famous Letter Foundery, whose intelligent director has inserted in the Yverdun edition of the French Encyclopedia, a valuable dissertation on various improvements of the art of cafting types. He mentions the China manufactory at Strasburgh; but was not at all pleased with the Artists making a mystery of their furnaces.
On leaving Switzerland, one of the moft mountainous parts of the world, he sums up the general result of the orological observations he made there ; which, backed and supported by Scheuchzer's map of Switzerland, led him to conclude, that the Helvetic mountains have no regular dire&ion, and that the rivers, following their direction, these mountains must be looked upon as having determined their course from the beginning; which perfectly agrees with our own observations, and is not very favourable to certain closet-philofophers, who have not so much as dreamed of that irregularity, because they examined the mountains only as they saw ihem on maps.
We cannot follow our traveller to Manheim, to the quicksilver mines, and the Agate manufactories in the Palatinate, left we should be drawn into too many orological details; yet to oblige the few qualified mineralogists, we observe, that his hypothetical explication of the origin of the Variolites, so common in those parts, and of the stratification between Kirn and Oberflein, though, perhaps, a little too minute, is accurate and satisfactory.
We haften with him to Paris and Versailles; of the pleasures, falhions, and entertainments of which polite places, the common travellers, and chietly the French themselves, tell us, and have told us so much, that we are the more obliged to Dr. Gualandris for passing them over in filence, and for having entertained us rather with good accounts of more interesting, i.e. scientifical subjects. It would be impoffible for us, and inconsistent with the confined limits of a Review, to enter here with him into details of the numerous magnificent collections of natural history which he saw and admired in both places, as no
ble instances of that literary luxury now in fathion among the great and the opulent; nor can we spare room enough for many of his accounts of the present pursuits of the most celebrated. French chemists and naturalists.
It is very fingular, that there should be so striking a similarity between the nature, matrix, and accidents of the numerous Swedish iron ores, and those which are found in Corfiea. Mr. Rome Delife first observed this in an excursion to Corsica; and this Author found it verified in the noble cabinet of Prince Condè at Chantilly (which is remarkably rich in Swedish foffils), and in some others at Paris and Versailles, which abound in the productions of Corsica.
The Author's apology for the filthy river water they drink and generally use at Paris, seems to be satisfactory, and applicable to what the Englith drink near London-Bridge : tho' we own, that when formerly we heard the Parisians praise their nafty water, we could not help ascribing it to that narrow-minded partiality for their own country, which is not the most amiable trait in their character, and which exposes them so often to contempt and ridicule ; nor are we yet convinced that filth, bowever innocent, and however decomposed, can make any water the more palatable and wholesome.
The Author's account of the Plaster quarries in Montmartre, is such as might be expected froin so good a naturalist. In the clay pits close by, near Zentilly, he oblerved that the clay does not exhibit there any internal mark of stratification, or of luccelfive accumulation, but that in the galleries, which are driven inco it, it breaks down from the roof in large concave scales, so exexac?ly interted one into another, that their insertion is scarce diftinguishable. The common depth of these concave (cales is about one foot ; and, what is still more remarkable, their surface is externally striped and striated : both which configurations the Author ascribes to the particular nature of this kind of clay; in the same manner as many other substances of the mineral kingdom, earths, clays, falis, ores, and stones, have each a natural tendency to break rather in one determined form than into ano:her."
We acquiesce with the Author in bis warm affectionate respict for the anviable character and the uncommon ingenuity of Mr. Sage, the celebrated chemist; and we are sorry to be convinced, with him, that his brother chemists in France have been rather too cautious in respect to some of his very curious and interest. ing discoveries and observations. These are here partly reviewed P. 153, 169, and chiefiy from p. 173–202, 216–219. where the Author very warınly espouses the cause of Mr. Sage, in respect to his fyttern of mineralising substances, and to his meihod of parting the sold from auriterous pyrites, rather by the
contraThere are yefar from
nitrous acid than by vitrification. He seems to have been very careful in representing the undecided controversy between Mr. Sage, and some other philosophers about fixed Air, which we could wish to state here in the faireft and fullest manner; that we may not be accused of any national parciality for some of our best modern experimental philosophers, who were the first and most successful discoverers in this new branch of natural philosophy: but we must confine ourselves to a few remarks.
The questions chiefly to be examined are, 1. whether with some of the ancients, we must consider this elastic fluid as air, and as an indeftru&title element, which is essentially the same in all the bodies from which we expel it, and in the composition of which it enters as a substantial part for their cohesion? Or 2d, whether this elastic fluid be of a different nature in different bodies, though al ways to be considered as one of their effential parts? Or 3d, Whether it be only a mixture of common air, and of some particles of those bodies from which it is expelled ? We own, that after so many experiments on this delicate subject, we are still far from being fully enabled to decide upon it. There are yet difficulties and perplexing equivocations and contradictions on every side. If elasticity be the characteristic quality of air, how can we form an idea of its fixity ? The Author therefore adopts Mr. Sage's opinion, " that this elastic Auid does not pre-exist in a state of fixity, but is produced or generated in the fermentations, effervescences, and decompositions, whatever be the means employed; and he frankly declares, that there is but one kind of air, which is apt to be alternately compounded and decompounded; and which, being a fluid, is accordingly apt to diffolve an infinite number of substances, and when diffolved, to carry them along in the fame manner as water, oils, and other fluids, which we make use of for solutions." What can possibly be said in favour of this opinion, and of Mr. Sage's hypothesis of phosphoric and marine acid, Dr. Gualandris has said, warmly, modestly, plainly, in
short, in such a manner as does credit to his manners, under• standing, and chemical knowledge; and which must recommend him to the candid perufal of every real friend of science.
The Author's accounts of the chalk pits near Calais, and on the opposite Kencih fhore, and of the flints horizontally dispored in their stratifications; and what he says of the cabinets and collections of natural history, and of the learned here at London, is less interesting to English than Italian Readers ; buc his observations on the mines about Matlock, near Ajnover, and on Eeton mine, are curious, instructive, and will serve as confirmations of Mr. Whitchurst's sections of the Derbyshire mounrains. These, though not then published, he mentions, and he owns, in many places, that some rocks in the Derbyshire