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pose, and are relative principally to manufactures, agriculture, all the branches of medicine, and partly to belles lettres, hiltory, and the antiquities of India. Besides these discourses, there are memoirs composed by the members of the society. Those contained in the volume before us are as follows:

I, An accurate Account of the Pollefsions of the Dutch Eal? India Company, together with a Description of the Kingdom of Jaccatra, and of the City of Batavia. By Messrs. RadenMACHER and HOGENDORP. The facis cuntained in this Memoir are to be found, with very few exceptions, in the General History of Voyages, published formerly at the Hague, and at Paris, and whole enormous and ill-digested mass was lately reduced to twenty volumes, in large 8vo. by M. De LA HARPE, whose elegant abridgment was mentioned in a former Review. They are also to be found in the Abbé RayNAL's Philosophical and Political History. But the Authors of the Memoir before us are more worthy of credit than either of these writers, as they are nearer the sources of information, not to mention other reasons known to us.

II. Researches concerning the Nature of the Small Pox at Batavia, together with Observations on Inoculation, as it has been practised in that City. By M. VAN DER STEEG. It appears from this Memoir, that the small.pox which attacks the Europeans in that warm climate with less malignity than in their native land, makes dreadful havock among the slaves and the natives at Batavia. This M. VAN DER STEEG attributes partly to the manner of treating the disorder usual among these latter, who, during the fever that accompanies the variolous eruption, make use of heating diet and medicines, and plunge themselves in cold water in the hottest fits, but principally to the density and callosity of the cuticle or epidermis of this class of persons. Inoculation appears to have met with much opposition to its progress in the Isle of Java, whose inhabitants are not more free from narrow prejudices in this respect, than many of our enlightened European cities and provinces, who, in enumerating the victims of this dreadful malady, do not seem poffefsed of arithmetic enough to know the difference between one among eight, and one among a hundred ; and who are afraid of offending God, by performing salutary acts of beneficence to man. For the rest, the Author of this Memoir seems to be a generous and intelligent operator, as well as a succefsful one, and, by his disinterested proceedings, has given a progressive motion to the cause of inoculation.

III. Concerning the different Methods of calculating Time, that are employed in different Parts of Asia, together with a Com. parison of their Results, for the Years 1779 and 1780. By M. RADERMACHER. This Disquisition is accurate, and may be

useful;

useful; but it is not susceptible of abridgment. It is concluded by an observation that deserves notice. It relates to the very imperfect manner of reckoning which is employed by the Chic nese, and the Gentoos, whose intercalations are irregular, and whose year is composed sometimes of 354, and at other times of 384 days, and is thus founded on no fixed astronomical principles. - It is no wonder, therefore, as M. RADERMACHER juftly observes, that these two nations carry up their chronology beyond the flood, since their defective manner of reckoning must naturally expose them to the most extravagant errors.

IV. The Commencement of a Javanese History, entitled, Sad. jara Radja Djawa, with a Preface. By M. VAN IPEREN, This is a fable that feems to belong to the sacred hiftory of the Javanese. But we cannot make much out of it, as we do not see the end of it; and if we did, perhaps we thould not be much wiser. There are passages in it that carry some diftant fimilitude to incidents and pallages in the Mosaic history, and to the circumstances of initiation into the Egyptian mysteries; but these affinities are too feeble to admit of any conclusions of consequence to the illustration of sacred philology.

V. A Dissertation on the present State of Agriculture in the Country about Batavia. By John HOOYMAN. This Writer is really eloquent, but not laconic; he is, however, well-informed and instructive, and his Memoir seems to exhibit a very accurate, judicious, and interesting account of the subject he treats. It contains eighty-nine pages, and of these, seventy-four are employed in an ample description of the sugar plantations and mills, in which the natural historian, the manufacturer, and the merchant will find both curious and useful information. Our Author proposes continuing the subject in the second volume. In that now before us, he begins by an eulogy of agriculture, well composed, and happily expressed. He lhews, that zeal for its improvement was the character of ancient states and kingdoms in the true periods of their grandeur; and that the Dutch have done more to encourage and propagate it in their colonies, than any other nation. He does not deign to compare the Dutch improvements in the island of Java, with those that are observable in the meagre colonies of the French and Danes; but he compares them with the rural improvements and economy that are carried on at Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, and other parts of the British empire in India, and asserts their superiority. He gives the Abbé Raynal a rap on the knuckles for his account of Batavia; observing, however, that a man must be on the spot, in order to give an accurate descriprion of that city and the adjacent country. The Chinese, who traded in several parts of India, before the discoveries of the Portugueze, and the settlement of the Dutch in that country, were numerous in the Ille

of

pendance buqueze, -andland Porruditricts, the

of Java, before the arrival of the latter there. They were also active and industrious; and our Author gives an account of the progress that was made in agriculture in that settlement from their time to the present.

VI. A Description of the land of Timor, as far as it is hitherto known. By M. W. VAN HOGENDORP. The Academician divides this isand into four districts, those of the HolJanders, the black or inland Portugueze,-the white or European Portugueze, - and the original natives, who have no dependance but on their own kings. After an historical account of these different nations, he treats of the nature of the climate, the rivers, the gold and copper mines (which are not worked, from a superstitious notion, that their treasures are the property of certain subterraneous inhabitants); the trees, plants, and pearls, that form objects of commerce in that isand ; the complexion, character, clothing, and nourishment (which is very poor) of the ignorant and lazy inhabitants; the fruits that grow in the country ; the tobacco and indigo which it produces in large quantities; and animals and insects, among which serpents, scorpions, and poisonous flies are very numerous.

VII. Å Description of a white Negro in the island of Bali. By M. VAN (PEREN. This is a curious piece for the lovers of natural history; it overturns the hypothesis of certain authors, who think that the white-negro forms a distinct and permanent species, for the man animal in question was born of black parents. He is married and loves his wife, His breast resembles that of a woman : the lower part of his body is covered with hair, his feet excepted ; and his head is almost hid under a load of hair, whose colour is a mixture of white and red of a yellowilh hue. . All things considered, this first Volume is a proof of the merit, and an omen of the future success of the Batavian fociety, which consists of 192 members; of this number 103, besides the 16 directors, reside in Batavia. Their undertaking is intitled to the applause of all who have a zeal for the progress and improvement of knowledge, in the dark corners of our globe; and we hope the return of peaceful times will contribute to the success of their generous efforts.

.

ART. XII. Journal d'un Voyage fait en 1775 16 1776, dans les Païs Meridio. naux de l'Europe. i. e. The Journal of Travels through the Southern Countries of Europe. By the late M. John GEORGE

SULZER. 8vo. Hague. 1781, W H ATEVER bears the name of this excellent philosopher, this good man, has a claim to the attention

of

of those who are acquainted with his eminent merit. Even this Journal of á Voyage, undertaken for the recovery of bis health, during which he made cursory remarks on the moft interesting objects that came in his way, shews both the writer and the man in a very advantageous point of view. There is an agreeable variety in these Remarks; they are relative to the state of arts, sciences, agriculture and commerce, geography and politics, in the countries through which he passed. In bis route from Berlin to Leiplic, and from thence by Francfort, and the southern parts of Germany, to Bafil, he makes several observations which we read with pleasure in the Journal itself, but which would lose a part of their merit, if separated from their place, their connexions, and the incidents that occafioned them. We shall not therefore follow bim step by ftep, but lelect here and there such facts and observations as we think may prove either agreeable or instructive to some of our Readers,

The peasant (says M. S.) seems more industrious and intelligent, the more we advance towards the fouthern parts of Germany. The villages of Swabia appear to be towns, when compared with those of Saxony and Brandenburg: agriculture in Swabia is upon a' much better footing, and the people of that district are more industrious, active, frank, polite, and better clothed than in the northern parts of Germany. Our Author's description of the beautiful and romantic views in the environs of Bafil is quite picturesque. Such also is his ac. count of the Canton of Bern, of Morat, Lausanne, the country of Vaud, Vevay, and the delightful rural scenes which transport the traveller between Lausanne and Geneva; as also of the little town of Aubonne, from which a view opens of the whole Lake of Geneva, of the Duchy of Chablais, of an innumerable multitude of villages, caftles, and country feats. It was here that Tavernier fixed his reficence, considering Aubonne as the moft beautiful 'spot he had seen in all his travels.

At Nyon our Traveller visited M. l'Espinasse (who was for. merly honoured with the instruction of our present Sovereign, and his royal brothers, in experimental philosophy), and found his collection of instrumenis (many of them his own invention), and his electrical apparatus superior to any that he had ever seen. Among other excellent initruments in this collection, he observed a micrometer, constructed after the divisor in the cabinet of the Duke de Chaulnes. A square line of an inch (Paris measure) was divided with this inftrument, by the point of a diamond, into 400 small squares. M. SULZER examined these divisions with a microscope, and admired their ac. curacy.

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· Our Author's account of Geneva is very interesting. It is well known, says he, that Geneva is, considering its fize, one of the richest cities in Europe. As the traveller approaches it, he perceives marks of its opulence; and its environs announce a people living in the midst of plenty. I had seen, adds M. Sulzer, no where so many country. scats as in the territory of this little republic: the borders of the lake are covered with them, and they exhibit charming points of view. All these rural buildings have an agreeable aspect; they are neat and elegant in their fimplicity. Each house has a handsome garden : many are fituated in the midst of vineyards, meadows, and arable land. Almost all are placed with such magnificent views of nature before or around them, as would render the artificial beauties that are often introduced into country seats, infipid. The high roads swarm with comers and goers, on horseback, on foot, in carriages, and are as much frequented here every day, as they are in other countries on holidays. (M. SULZER had lived many years at Berlin.) The lake grows less broad as it approaches the city; and this circumstance contributes greatly to the beauty of the prospect, which is exhibited by the opposite side of that noble sheet of water. The city, which is placed at the mouth of the Rhone, occupies the centre of this magnificent landscape, and rises with an air of dignity, in the midst of its smiling territory, supported, as it were, by a high mountain, which forms the back ground of the delightful piece. The whole excites a pleasing and sublime emotion. The entrance of the city does not hy any means counteract this impreffion. Art, in its sphere, has done its business here with elegance, and even with a degree of splendor. The city is well built, and there is a good, and often a grand taste of architecture in the houses. There is also a certain air of liberty, ease, and gaiety in the external appearance of the inhabitants, that forms immediately a prepossession in their favour. I have scarcely seen any where, more energy of features, more Jiveliness in the eyes, and more expression and spirit in the countenance. There are also very few places, perhaps none, where a taste for literary improvement, and the desire of inftruction, is so generally diffused among the common body of the citizens, and where it is so usual to see the tradesman palling his evening leisure in the perural of some work of merit ; several branches of historical, literary, and even of philosophical knowledge, are familiar to this class at Geneva, in a degree, that would do honour to persons of the first rank in other countries.'

To this well deserved eulogy we may add, that, considering the extent of this little republic (the number of whose inhabitants does not exceed 24000), it contains more eminent men

APP, Rev. Vol. xly.

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