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Death." Amihi, particularly Hogarth's designs,

went to bed, he boafted of having eaten a pound of beef-steaks for his supper *. 'His disorder was a dropsy in his breast + (the same that killed. Mr. Pope); and his corpse was interred ar Chiswick, where an elegant Mausoleum is erected to his memory, with a poe. tical inscription, written by his friend Mr. Garrick.'

The narrative of Hogarth's life, is succeeded by a Catalogue of. his Prints,' arranged in chronological order. We have already mentioned the most considerable.

The last of Hogarth's prints, published in the year 1764, are the following, 1. 'FINIS, or the Tail-piece. The Bathos, or Manner of linking in fublime Painting, inscribed to the dealers in dark pictures. TIME breathing out his last; a ruinous Tower; and many other allegorical devices; among the rest he hath introduced bis own “ Times.” 2. The sleeping Judges, with the heads after L. da Vinci. 3. The Bench. The preceding plate with alterations, 4. His own portrait, fitting and painting the Muse of Comedy...,

Several engravings from Hogarth's designs, were published after his death; particularly, “ Hell-Gate, Satan, Sin, and Death.” Milton's Paradise Lost, B. II. It was engraved by C. Townley. The place was afterwards destroyed; and only three of the impresions remain. Mr. Garrick possessed the unfinished original. The united labours, says our ingenious Biographer, of Teniers, Heemskirk, and Callot, could not have furnished a more absolute burlesque of this noble subject than Hogarth, who went seriously to work on it, hath here produced. " How art thou fallen, O Lucifer, thou son of the Morning!" will be the exclamation of every observer on seeing this unaccountable performance, in which Satan and Death have lost their terrors, and Sin herself is divested of all the powers of temptation,'

The character of Hogarth as an engraver and a painter of life and manners is here drawn with equal judgment and impar. tiality.

• The merits of Hogarth, as an Engraver, are inconsiderable. His hand was faithful to character, but had little acquaintance with the power of light and shade. In some of his early prinis he was an afliduous imitator of Callot, but deviated at last into a magner of his own, which fuffers much by a comparison with that of his coadjutors, Rarvenet and Sullivan. In the pieces finished by there maliers of their art, there is a perfpicuity that Hogarth could never reach. His strokes sometimes look as if fortuicously disposed, and sometimes confusedly thwart each other in almost every posible direction. What he wanted in skill, de atrave to make up in labour; but the result of it was a universal haze, and indistineness, that, by excluding force and transparency, has rendered several of his larger places less capti

* Mifinformation. He only eat an egg or some such trifle. R. + It was an aneurism. R. G g 2

varing

varing than they would have been, had he entrusted the fole execution of them to either of the artists already mentioned.'... But, 'surely, of all the fraternity, whether ancient or modern, he bent the keepest eye on the follies and vices of mankind : and exprefled them with a degree of variety and force, which it would be vain to seek among the saciric compositions of any other painters. In short, what is oba served by Hamlet concerning a player's office, may, with some few exceptions, be applied to the designs of Hogarch : “ Their end, both at the first and now, wag and is, to hold as 'twere the mirror up to Nature, to thew Virtue her own feature, Scorn her own image, and the very Age and Body of the Time his form and preffure.”

In these · Biographical Anecdotes,' Mr. Nichols hath illustrated several striking circumftances alluded to in the prints of Hogarth, and corrected some errors of Mr. Trusler, who was employed, to the great prejudice of Mrs. Hogarth, to explain the several prints, as they were published in a small compass, in a work called “ Hogarth moralised;" See Review, Vol. xxxv. p. 239.

In the ist plate of the Harlot's Progress, is a portrait of the notoricus Francis Chartres, Mother Needham, a procuress, called by Pope, “ Pious Needham ;" and a pimp, whom Chartres also kept about his person. In Plate 6th, the woman seated next the clergyman was designed for Elizabeth Adums, who, at the age of 30, was executed for a robbery, Sept. 30, 1737.

In “ Midnight modern Conversation," the divine was meant for Parson Ford, and the Lawyer for Henley (Lord Chancellor Northington], when young.

The preacher in the “ Sleeping Congregation,” was designed to represent Dr. Defaguliers.

The Lady adoring the Italian Singer, in Plate IV. of “ Mar. riage à la Mode,” was designed for Mrs. Lane (afterwards Lady Bingley). The Gentleman asleep, in the same plate, was meant for her husband, Mr. Fox Lane --So says our Author ; but it is a millake. Neither Mr. nor Mrs. Lane, nor any other particuJar person, was meant.

We have thus given the curious Reader a taste, and only a taite, of what he inay expect from the perusal of the narrative itself, which, notwithstanding a few mistakes wherein the Writer must have been milled by wrong information, may be regarded as a proof of the united diligence, good sense, and ingenuity of the Author.

- B... k.

307*** Midnight and the Lawyer

ART.

ART. XII. An Examination of Thelyphthora,' on the Subje& of Mare : riage. By John Palmer, late of Macclesfield, 8vo. is. 6 d. : Johnson. 1781. O NE grand object of Thelyphthora is to vacate the necellity

of marriage ceremonies. We observed in the very origin of the controversy, that Mr. Madan's reasonings on this subject were fallacious, even on the ground on which he pretended to reft his argument. Mr. Palmer hatb gone over the ground which we first chose in our attack on Thelyphthora: and hath adduced fresh proofs in support of our position " that something, besides the bare act of union, was ever esteemed necellary, under every divine dispensacion of religion, as well as among all civilized nations of every age, to conftirute a legal and an honourable marriage.” To the proofs already advanced, Mr. Palmer hath added the following, which he scruples not to call decisive.' • My authority (says he) is no other, than the testimony of the holy Jesus, who spake the words of truth. See Match. xxiv. -38. “ For as in the days that were before the Flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the Ark, &c.” See also, Luke xvii. 26, 27. “ And as it was in the days of Noe, so thall it be also in the days of the Son of Man. They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage until the day that Noe entered into the Ark." ". : • Here is no room for evasion. Marrying, giving or being given in marriage, are words absolutely descriptive of some ceremony previous to perfonal union, though most probably not of the whole matrimonial form. And as the above texts do fully shew fome form to have been observed “ until the day that Noe entered into the Ark,” so they also thew, that some ceremony was used even to the very end of the Jewish State : “ So shall it also be in the days of the Son of Man." And as our Author would do well to notice, if these words refer also, as they most probably do, to the day of the dissolution of this world, they may teach him some modesty, and give him to understand, that he is not only fighting against God, but that his defeat is certain ; for in the days of the Son of Man they shall marry, give and be given in marriage. The form fill continues among the Jews in their dispersion. From the Jews the Christians received their forms, in several respects the same. But he that would teach the sexes to copulate like brutes, may be assured that the pious and virtuous, the friends of man and lovers of God, will ever hold his doctrine in detestation; and either pity him as a veak me, or abhor him as a bad citizen!' Gg3

Mr.

colented to the Europea to Book Iloriginal He

in the opis translatioThalamum with

• Mr. Palmer observes, from the learned Grotius's Annotations on Matth. xxv. 1. that amongst the laudable customs which the Jews received from the Fathers, this was one ; to celebrate marriage not in a private but in a public manner; in an assembly of the pious: and that it was accompanied pred sudories with a prayer of blefling, the form of which still remains in their rituals, which the ancient Christians imitated, as well as several other Jewish practices.” In a note, Mr. Palmer says

If any gentleman, Jew or Christian, will oblige me with a copy of the Eurozio, it will be esteemed a favour, and fall be presented to the public, if I have occasion to write again on this subject.' The Eurogie is too long for us to transcribe; but if Mr. Palmer will turn to Book II. Chapter 12th of Selden's Uxor Ebraica, he will find it in the original Hebrew, as it stands in the Talmud, together with a Latin translation. Mr. Selden entitles the chapter BENEDICTIO deductioni in Thalamum atque ipfis Nuptiis PRÆVIA." These benedi&tions were common with the Jews on solemn and even convivial occasions. A curious one respecting the latter is extracted from the Targum of Onkelos, and publihed by Paul Fagius in his Annotations on Deut. viii.; and also by Zepper, in a work entitled Legum Mo* Saicarum ferenfam Explanatio. Edit. Herborn. 'Nasov. 1614.]

Vid. Lib. iv. Cap. 21. This latter Author hath' a passage exactly corresponding with the above, from Grotius. Qui conjugium legitimum inituri sunt angelorum et hominum ecclefiâ tefte, non tam ex parentum, quam Dei ipfius, patris nofiri cæleftis, per miniAri fui os loquentis, manu conjuges, tanquam preciofum Dei donum, accipiant Hinc orationes illo, benedictiones et apprecationes faufla piorum Veteris Tejlaminti, in nuptiarum fuarum feftivitatibus ; quæ quocunque tandem habitæ fuerint loro, publica tamen femper et ecclefiafticæ, fuerunt. Enque confecrationum harum et benediétionum 'matrimonialium publicarum frequens apud patres et fcriptores ecclefiaflicos mentio. It is evident, beyond all dispute, that the earTieít Fathers of the Christian Church considered marriage as fumething more than Mr. Madan's “ fimple act :” and their concurrent testimony to a plain fact' niuft weigh with every considerate and unprejudiced mind. But there is no reasoning on this ground to any good purpose with Ochinus, Lyserus, John of Leyden, or Mr. Madan, who, boldly rejecting all auihorities however venerable, and all testimonies however numerous, and however correspondent, that square not with their figments, vainly and infolenily exclaim-" We are the men, and wisdom will die with us," ..

... ... Book.

FOREIGN

FOREIGN LITERATURE.

FRANCE.

ART. I. · VOYAGE dans les Mers de l'Inde, fait par ordre du Roi, &c.

i. e, An Account of a Voyage in the Indian Seas, by the King's Order, on Occasion of the Passage of Venus over the Sun's Dilk, June 6, 1761, and June 3, 1769: By M. Le GENTIL, Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences. Vol. II. 4to. 844 Pages, with 27 Plates. Price 14 Livres. -13 s. Paris, 1781.

In our appendix to the LXII volume of the Review, we gave an account of the first volume of this learned and entertaining work. This second volume, the publication of which was retarded by some incident, contains several new and interelting details, relative to the Philippine Illands, and to the illes of France, Bourbon, and Madagascar. The Author's long refidence at Manilla, and his connexions with the principal inha. bitants of that city, furnished him with ample informacion concerning the natural, moral, and political history of the Phil. lippines, which the Spaniards have taken the utmost pains to conceal from the knowledge of the other European nations. As these islands were a gracious present made by the Pope to the · King of Spain, the monaftic orders (warm in the country, and exercise over the inhabitants the most despotic authority. They have learned the languages of the different nations which people that vaft Archipelago, at the same time, keeping them

in an entire ignorance of the Spanilh tongue; a circumstance :which does not a little contribute to maintain their influence

and dominion. . ... Our Author's account of the volcanos of these islands is cu.

rious, and his description of their fertility, riches, and tempera• 'cure, is moit:inviting. The heat of this country is tempered

by a high degree of moisture, which is not unhealthy; the soil is refreshed by rivers and streams, which crown it with a perpe

tual verdure, and no reason, but the spring, is known in these ? happy islands. The air is embalmed with the most exquisite . perfumes; the trees bend with the most delicious fruits; their

seas, lakes, and rivers, abound with excellent fish; their woods and mountains are full of game; capons, venison, and pullets, · are the common and abundant food of the multitude, and the diseases, and physicians that afflict humanity, in the greatest

part of Europe, are unknown to these islanders. They haye, is however, the monks among them, about them, and over them. · Nihil eft ab omni parte beatum. There must be compensations every where in this globe. . . Gg 4

The

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