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In the second Part, the Author treats of the tune of the organ, and other instruments of the same kind ; which, he observes, will be found capable of being freed from the two great defects to which the ordinary fiddle, unreformed, muft ftill be Jiable. - In the first place, the organ can be freed from the irregularity in the connection of the keys :--because, being uno der no necessity to attend to the tune of four fixed notes (the open strings), which govern the whole tune of the fiddle; in tuning the organ, we have it in our power, after deriving a variety of notes from one fixed tone assumed as the ground of the whole, to fix all these several notes, and derive others from them. Secondly, it is not liable to the uncertainty of finding the true tune of any note in performance; because, in cuning the organ, every degree of tune being deliberately adjusted, and subjected to a great variety of check-examinations, may be fixed, and stand ready for the performer.'

Here the Author lhews, that, instead of 12 degrees of tune, in the common computation of the octave, there must be no less than 44 furnished for putting the organ in perfect diaconic tune. Although, says he, it probably will seem amazing to such as are [con) versant in the subject, that this should be accomplished by so small a number of degrees; there is no doubt mere performers will be alarmed because it is so great. Indeed, if no other method could be devised than furnishing a finger key to each tone of the instrument, we might give ourselves up to despair ; notwithstanding the assertion of those violin pertormers who, pretending to draw true tune from that instrument, really undertake a task of much greater difficulty. For they must not only take all those precise given intervals, varying according to the change of the keys, but also find them in an immense variety of proportions; for, in every different situation of the hand upon the finger-board, the proportional distance of the ftop alters,'

According to this system of the Author's, never less than three, but much more frequently four degrees of tune, or notes, belong to each of the present finger-keys of the organ : and the whole number constitutes a series or system of noies, all in perfeet diatonic tune. ? The Author next gives the general plan of an organ, in which every sound, compared with the key note, is in true diatonic tune in all the keys; and some hints are given relative to the manner in which this improvement may be reduced to practice. It is true, however, thạt a few false intervals, when compared with each other, still appear among these degrees of tune ; which have been considered as internal defects inherent in the very nature of tune, and which it is impoffible to remove; shough numerous attempts have been made to pallia:e in m.


The Author undertakes the solution of this difficulty with reem. ing success; and afterwards indicates fome curious properties of tune, which cannot with propriety be explained here, or indeed be understood, without having recourse to the work itself, and ftudying it very attentively.

In one of his chapters, the Author confiders the doctrine of : the late Mr. Harrison, concerning the connection between mu-' fical ratios, and the properties of the circle. According to this fanciful theory, the elements of music are all reduced to equal tones and semitones; each femitone being the exad half of the tone. He fhews that this theory is founded only on a fancied analogy, which is contradicted by the most decilive experiments, and the uncontrovertible doctrine of numbers.

In an Appendix, the Author offers some further hints respecting the practicability of realising his system, and of giving perfect tune to fixed instruments ; by employing a piece of mechanism, consisting of a cylinder or barrel; by the turning of which, any of the pipes assigned to each finger-key may be occasionally opened or shut; when, in consequence of the modulation into a new key, a change of any of the degrees of tune becomes necessary. He shews, that an organ may be constructed upon this plan, that shall have no more pipes than the present inftruments; which, says he, ' are furnished with more than triple the number of pipes to each finger-key that this refined fyftem of tune requires; and this, too, for the sole purpose of obtaining variety of noise; for pure and dilindt ione being the true Materia Musica, all other differences of found, in contradistinction to this, deserve no better epithet '[appellation]: and if it has been thought worth while to labour for variety of found, true tune is certainly a nobler object to excite ingenuity.'

After this account of the present performance, we scarce need to add, that it is the work of a person well acquainted with the subject, and the produce of much labour and ingenuity. The Author appears to have accomplished his principal object-the Thewing how the organ may be put into perfect tune, in all the ke;s; provided that no insuperable difficulties attend the mechanical, or, what we may call, the executive part of his scheme. With regard to the violin, we apprehend that the ear must be the performer's principal guide, and that few, as we have al. ready hinted, will be found who will submit to the task of perfecting themselves in his rules respecting that inftrument; and fewer still who will be able strictly to execute by these rules. The complaisance of the car, as we may call it, undoubtedly screens the Inaller defects of the common diatonic scale, in fixed instruments, from the notice both of the performer and the hearer; so that pleasure, and even rapture, are produced by

music formed on that scale: and with respect to the performers on the violin, violoncello, &c. there can be little doubt that they continually, we may almost say instinctively, use a temperament, when the modulation requires it, by which all senlible or offensive discordance is avoided; or play in perfect tune, in the judgment of the ear, according to circumstances. The Author's labours, however, more particularly with relpect to the organ, highly merit the aitention of those who are inclined to favour improvements in science, or who aspire after the luxury of per feel tune ; and we hope they will incite some good mechanifts to exercise their ingenuity on the subject.


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Art. XII. Biographical Anecdotes of William Hogarth ; and a Cata

logue of his Works, chronologically arranged; with occasional
Remarks. 8vo. 35. sewed. Prinied by and for the Author]
J. Nichols. 1781.
THE unrivalled merit of Hogarth, in that original walk to

which his genius pointed him, hath been long determined by that general voice of the Public, from which there lies no appeal. The warmest encomiums have been bestowed on him by the best writers, in their best works : but, independent of their applause, his own performances would have secured his reputation with the present age, and transmitted it to a more distant period.

When a man hath distinguished himself by any extraordinary efforts of genius, and gained the summit of popular fame, we naturally wish to be acquainted with the most interesting circumitances of his life and character: and even those circumstances, wbich may be triling in themselves, and which by no means would bear to be recorded, did they refer to persons of little fame, yet, when connected with a charaéter that hath excited our admiration, or with works that we have contemplated with delight, they derive a kind of adventitious consequence from their relation, and are fought after with infinitely more avidity than greater matters of lefler men.

No writer seems more desirous (and we know few more capable) of gratifying the curiolity of the Public in this line of enquiry, than the ingenious and industrious Author of these • Biographical Anecdotes.' He may be thought to be too mi. nute in his relations: and many of the relations themselves may be deemed either dull or trifling. But Mr. Nichols accommodates himself to various classes of readers; and there are many who are entertained with what affords no amusement to others; and who would think the Author deficient in his plan, by omitting what chose, who consult nothing but their own particular Laste, would pronounce tedious and redundant.


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The present performance is acknowledged by the Author ta be so incompact and disjointed as to need some apology. His numerous engagements would not afford him leisure to arrange his materiais by chat regular method which was necessary to make his work a complete and finished narrative. But, conseious (says he) that these meets, rude and imperfect as they are, may serve to promote a publication less unworthy of its Subject, he dismisses his present work without any laboured apology for the errors or repetitions that may be detected in it; claiming, indeed, some merit on account of intelligence, but not the least on the score of arrangement, or composition.' ••• Notwithstanding this modeft concession of the Author, this

little work is by no means fo deficient in point of arrangement and compofition as he himself hath represented it: though if it were more lo, the very curious particulars, and judicious as well as entertaining remarks communicated by it, would amply recompense for the defect.

From the present narrative we shall select those - Anecdotes' which are most calculated to afford entertainment to the general class of our Readers, and to serve as a supplement to the Account of this eminent Artist, given, from Mr. Walpole, in our Review for March laft: and fall insert a few of Mr. Nichols's observations as a specimen of bis judgment and tafte.

• Hogarth is said, by Dr. Burn, to have been the descendant of a family originally from Kirby Ibore in Weftmoreland: and I am as. sured that his grandfather was a plain yeoman, who possessed a small tenemeot in the vale of Bampion, a village about 15 miles north of Kendal, in that county. He had three sons. The eldest affifted his father in farming, and succeeded to his little freehold. The second feccled in Troutbeck, a village eight miles north-west of Kendal, and was remarkable for his talents at provincial poetry t. The third, who had been a schoolmaster in the same county, went early to Lon. don, where he was employed as a corrector of the pres, and appears to have been a man of no inconsiderable learning. A Dicionary in Latin and English, which he composed for the use of schools, still exists in Ms. He married in London; and our hero and his Giders, Mary and Anne, are believed to have been the only produd of the marriage.

• William Hogarth was born in 1698, in the parish of St. Bartholomew, London, to which he was afterwards, as far as lay in his power, a benefactor. The outset of his life was, however, unpro.

* Hogart was the family name; probably a corruption of Hogberd. mising. “ He was bound, says Mr. Walpole, to a mean engraver of arms on plate." His master, it Gnce appears, was Mr. Gamble, a filver-Smith of eminence, who resided on or near Snowhill f...“ His apprenticeship was no sooner expired, says Mr. Walpole, than he en. tered into the Academy in St. Martin's Lane, and Audied drawing from the life, in which he never attained to great excellence. It was chara&er, the paflions, the foul, that his genius was given him to copy."

of A curious account of this provincial poet, and particularly of a remarkable dramatic exhibition of his on the banks of Windermert, called “The Destruction of Troy," is inserted in this narrative. The account was given to Mr. Nichols by the ingenious Mr. Walker, the Lecturer on Natural Philosophy.

iTo a man, who, by indefatigable industry, and uncommon Itrength of genius, has been the artificer of his own fame and for. tune, it can be no reproach to have it said, that at one period he was not rich. It hath been asserted, and we believe with good foundarion, that the skill and assiduity of Hogarth were, even in his servi. tude, a fingular ailistance to his own family and that of his maiter, It happened, however, that when he came on his owun hands, he certainly was not rich. The ambition of indigence is ever productive of distress : so it was with Hogarth, who, while he was furnishing himself with materials for subsequent excellence, felt all the contempt, which penury could produce. Being one day distressed to raise lo trilling a sum as twenty millings, in order to be revenged of his landlady, who ftrove to compel him to payment, he drew her as ogly as poflible, and in chat fingle portrait gave marks of the dawn of fun perior genius,'_This, we are well informed, is all apocryphal. Ho-' garh was never in such distress as he is here said to have experienced, In the earlier part of his life, he was happy in the kind regard of his relacions, and wanted for nothing.

" How long he continued in obscurity, we cannot exa&tly learn ; but the first piece in which he diftinguithed himself as a painter, is supposed to have been a representation of an assembly at Warfread, the seat of Lord Tylney, in Effex (where the picture is still preserved).

From the date of the earliest plate that can be ascertained to be the work of Hogarth, it may be presumed that he began business, on his own account at least, as early as the year 1720.

• His firit employment seems to have been the engravipg of arms and shop-bills. The next step was to design and engrave for Booksellers, and here we are fortunately supplied with dates. Twelve folio prints, with his name to each, appeared in “ ubry de la' Motraye's Travels,” in 1723; seven small prints (two of them chara&te. ristically bis own) for “ Apuleius's Golden Ass," in 1724; thirteen head-pieces to “ Beaver's Military Punishments of the Ancients," and five small prints for the translation of Cassandra, in 1725 ; seventeen for the 12mo edition of Hudibras (with Butler's head) in 1726; and a variety of prints and frontispieces between 1726 and 1733.

“ No symptom of genius, Mr. Walpole says, dawned in these plates. His Hudibras was the first of his works ibat marked him as a man above the common; yet, what made him then noticed, now surprises us to find so little humour in an oudertakicg so congenial to his own talents."

I He lived in Cranborn Alley, Leicefer-fields. Ri

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