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powers to avoid ; it is therefore to be hoped this public admonition may have its due effect. Art. 39. Appeals relating to the Tax on Servants; with, the.

Opinion of the judges thereon. 8vo.. 3 8.. Cadell, &c. 1781.1

Published by permission of the commisioners of Excise; anda nfeful to all who wish to become acquainted with the manner in which the commissioners for bearing appeals against i be dury on Scrol vants, and the judges who affirm or reverse the determinations of those commifioners, have interpreted the act of parliament relative to this subject, in a great variety of cases on which appeals from che charges made by the surveyors have been founded. The book would have been Itill more generally useful, if the Editor had given a proper abitract of the act in its own words.

MEDICAL
Art. 40. A Treatise on the Gonorrhæa ; to which is added, A

Critical Enquiry into the different Methods of administering Mercaiy. Intended as a Supplement to a former Work, &c. &c. By Peter Clare, Surgeon. 8vo. Is. Cadell. 1981.

This, like the Writer's former work, is composed of ihreds and patches, from which the informed Reader will learn no more, thanThis Mr. Clare approves of the method of curing the gonorrhea at once by a vitriolic injection. With respect to his Critical Enguiry, it is a very concise one indeed. Some cases are men:ioned of the fura ther success of his method of rubbing in mercury on the inside of the mouth; but, unluckily, motives of delicacy have prevented ibeir being properly authenticated.

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SERMONS. 1. The Incurable Abomination! or, God's asserving that Popery never

did, nor ever will alter for the better ; considered in a Sermon on Rev. ix. 20, 21. With an Appendix respecting the Duty of the Civil Magiltrate in Matters of Religion. By Thomas Reader, Svo. 6d. Buckland. 1781.

This curious gentleman hach already exhibited himself to the Pube lic as a spiritual almanac-maker ;--deep-learned in times and seasons ; together with all their figns and fore-tokens! Old LILY never funk deeper into the PROFOUND of occult sciences: and our modern Wings never foared with fo bold a flight to reach the lunar boule! How astonishingly various mult the powers of that man be, who (as Pope says) is, “now in the moon - now under ground!

Mr. Reader hath fixed his DATES with more cunning (if not with more certainty) than some other adventurers in this track of calculation. The ten horns will not make the wbore naked, and eat ber fele, and burn her with fire, till the year 1942! Thus Mr. Reader hath wisely contrived to be out of the way at the time. · The Appendix is purposely written to prove the right of the magiftrate's inter!erence in matters of religion : and the proof of this sigbr is chiefy founded in the directions given in the Old Teftament to the Kings of Israel to punish idolatry. His argument, however, is not fufficiently guarded for bis own security ; tor, by the Mosaic Law,

wizards,

belly of

wizards and necromancers, and all false prophets, are to be put to death. Now, if the English legislature were to adopt the Mosaic code, what would become of Mr. Thomas Reader?

Book, II. The indispensable Neceflity of Faith in order to the pleasing God.

Being the Subitance of a Discourse preached ar Eydon in North

amptonshire, April 8, 1781. By Francis Okely, formerly of St. : John's Coll. Cambridge. Spall 8vo. 6 d. Lackington. 1781.

An amiable spirit of unaffected piety breathes through this plain and erangelical discourse. We love and eficem the worthy and ingenious Author, though the justice of criticism hach conlirained us to Speak with little ceremony of some of his German matters.

The ftern and untoward bigotry of Mr. Thomas Reader is admi. rabiy contralied by those gentle and engaging principles which Atruggle through all the darkness of good Mr. Okely's myftical divie nity, and throw a pleasing lullre on his character. We can excuíc a thousand theological errors, when we behold so much charity and good will to men : while the soundell faith is debased by uncharitable. aess, and the brightest ralents are obscured and dishonoured. If io,

how disguftfol is bigotry, when its object is a nonsensical creed, and its principle a weak vodertanding? As it can make no plea, surely it can expect no leoity. .: We were led into these refe&ions, by contrasting the modely of Mr. Okely with the confidence of Mr. Thomas Reader, in an intricate maze where fools are apt to be impertinent and decifve, but where a wise man would be cautious and diffident. • You have seen (fays Mr. (..) every nerve of verbal criticism itrained to apply the full completion of obe propbecies respecting Antichrif in the Revelations, to the Pope, and to the popedom ; though endless incontitencies, and even hurtfui consequences, in fact, havę attended such premature ia. terpretations. We with Mr. Reader had attended to this wife and falutary caution, before be sat down to expose himself and the book he undertook to illustrare, by a presumptuous application of every thing terrible in it to what he calls the Incurable Abomination : and by a ftill more presumptuous attempt, to ascertain those cimes and feasons which Inanite Wisdom hath foided up in impenetrable darkness,

To close this subject, we will transcribe a passage from a Pari. tan divine of the last age ; and we transcribe it as a curiosity, becauie few of that class of divines were so liberal in their opioions, or fo pointed in their expressions, as the author of the following: “I know well the general vote is—that the Pope is Antichrist. Well, ler it be so ;-let it be so that he is externally the Antichrill--that he lives chiefly at Rome-chat the Pope shall be destroyed :-hat then Antichritt will fall. For my part, I will not contend about it. Let most voices carry it! But-but take heed you do not look so long for Antichrift abroad, as to neglect one at home."

Now, with this good Doctor, we are of opinion that we need not wander far to meet with this incurable abomination i-the whore, the beast, borns and all!

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CORRESPONDENCE.

To the MONTHLY REVIEWERS. GENTLEMEN, READING, in your Review for June, fome extracts from letters * and papers published by a member of the Bach Society for the Encouragement of Agriculture, I found, among other useful and important speculations, an enquiry into the nature, cause, and method of preventing and curing the rot in theep. And this appearing to me to be an object of great pational importance, I have taken up the pen, nor from an idea that I am capable of explaining, in a clear and satisfactory manner, the nature, and pointing out to the Public a certain remedy for a disease, which appears to be fo fatal to thofe very useful animals : but to re&tify a very palpable error which that ingenious writer appears to have been led into. He imagines (as the most probable cause of the rot) the eggs of insects to be depos fired among the blades of grass, with which they are swallowed by the sheep, and, from their stomach and intestines, absorbed by the lacteals, and passed, with the chyle, into the sanguiferous system, and meet with no obstruction, until they arrive at the capillary ver. fels of the liver ;' where the writer fupposes them to be too large to pass with the blood in circulation, Anatomy teaches us, that it is very improbable that the lacteal vessels of the intestines, should receive any substances which are not fit to pass through every blood vessel in the body. Even admitting, for argoment's fake, that the lacteal veslels of the intestines do admit substances into the fanguiferous system, which are too coarse to pass through the minute capil. lary vessels, those rubliances would be no more liable to be obstructed in the liver, than in any other glandular or extreme parts of the body; where the capillary veifels are always found to be of equal minuteness with those in the liver. In feets, of a great variety of geDera, are found to be innumerable in the animal and vegetable worlds. The human species, particularly the younger fort, are fres quently troobled with worms of different kinds : and, though they sometimes occafion troublesome complaints, it is very rare, if ever, we find them prove fatal. It is, therefore, extremely improbable, that the ova of insects, received with the food into the bodies of theep, are ever the cause of the rot. If there are not the cause of this disease, let us enquire what it may most probably be. As the liver is always remarkably affe&ed in that diforder, the first thing to be here considered, is the use of that viscus: and that is the very same in a theep, as in the human body; viz. to separate the bile or gall from the mass of blood. Now this bile is one of the most tenacious and moft acrid of all she animal juices. The tenacity of it will dispose is to stagnate in the small biliary vessels in the liver. Its acrimony (which will increase by ftagnation) will necessarily be the cause of inflammation, suppu: sation, gangrene, and, laitly, a mortification in the liver. This is what frequently happens in the human liver. What is the cause of the bile obstructing more 36 one time than another? Those who are most subject to biliary obstructions are of hot plethoric confiru. rions, or, in other words, are pofiefied of too much blood, and that

too

too thick and rich ; and agreeable to this (if I am right), we find only fa: sheep are subject to the rot'. From there, and many other concurring circumsances, it appears to me highly probable, that the rot is a disorder of the liver ; and that the principal cause of it is obstructed and inspiffated bile; and not insects conveyed chicher by the food. It may therefore be called the sheep's jaundice. As there are very few branches of useful knowledge with which I am. Jess acquainted than that of farming, breeding, and preferving Meep, I enforce this doctrine only, as I find it analogous to what actually takes place in the human body. As another proof that a superabundance of thick and rich blood is the remote cause of the rot in theep,, the above mentioned writer observes, that ‘No ewe ever rots while Mhe has a lamb by her fide;' the same writer here requefts the gen. tlemen of the faculty to determine, whether it is not probable that the impregnated ovum partes into the milk, and never arises at the liver. As the whole chyle, formed in the stomach and bowels, is conveyed into the venal system, and from thence to the heart, to circulate, with the blood, in common through all parts of the body : there can be no power in the animal system, that can convey those supposed ova into the udders of the sheep, rather than into their lungs, kid. neys, or any other part of their bodies. I come now to confider a circumstance, which, I think, will explain that phenomenon on ra. tional principles. It is simply this ; When a ewe fuckies a lamb, the chereby consumes daily a considerable quantity of her blood (all that circulates in the arterial and venal fysiems may bear that name); she rest is thinner and poorer than at other times; consequently forms less and thinner bile; which, with the blood, readily padies through the liver. The Writer then submits two questions to the confideration of the gentlemen of the faculty. First, Why is the rot fatal to Theep, hares, and rabbits, and fometimes to calves, when cattle of greater bulk, which probably take the same food, e!cape una injured ? Besides your remark upon this question, it may be observed that the former have very little exercise, and drink little or no water to attenuate their blood: while the latter, though they feed upon herbage, drink a confiderable quantity of that attenuating wholefome fuid, and are subject to severe exercise. The second question proposed by the above mentioned writer, is the digeftive matter in the ftomach of these, different from that of the others, and such as will turn the ova into a state of corruprion; or rather, are not the secretory ducts in the liver large enough to let them pass through, and be carried on in the usual current of the blood? This question I have, in effect, already answered. The writer farther observes, that it feems to be an acknowledged fact, that falt marshes never rot. Salt is pernicious to most infects; common falt and water is a powerful expellent of worms bred in the human body. We are also presented with an instance of a ' farmer having cured his whole flock of the

. This is a considerable millaken lean sheep are equally subject to this distemper, and what is fingular, if the saint be discovered in time, they may even be made fas enough for the butcher before che diforder gets to any great height,

rot,

sot, by giving each Meep a handful of Spanish falt for five or fix mornings fucceffively.' Coinmon (alt, however powerful in expelling worms from the stomach and bowels, bas, I believe, little effect on those fi.uared in the substance of the liver; therefore I cannot help hazarding an opinion, thai salt doch not become a remedy for the ror in theep, becaole it is pernicious to insects, but because it purges the sheep, and attenuates their blood and juices, and ibereby prevents obstruction in the vefleis of the liver and disperses that which may be there already formed. That the rot in sheep is an hepatic dir. order, occafioned by obitructed, tenacious, acrid bile, I thick farther appears from the observations which you have made on che liver of a rotten theep; viz. that when boiled it dissolves and forms a fedi. ment at the bottom of the vessel, relembling mud; this, in my opi. nion, clearly proves that the liver must be reduced, previous to the boiling, to a high degree of putrefaction. Therefore it seems highly probable, that any article, capable of opening bilious obstructivos in the liver, and simrely used, will prove effectual in curing the rot in sheep. Whether a portion of soap, aloes, and pearl-athes, may not be given to advantage in this disorder, I leave to the confideration of thole who have better opportunity of examining the nature of that disease, which is so very fatal to those animals, who, in a great degree fupply us with food and raiment.

If you, Gentleinen, think these curfory remarks worthy of a place at the end of your Review. I shall be glad to fee them inlerced. .

I am, GENTLEMEN,

Your most obedient Servant, Grafton Street, Soho.

JOHN ROBERTS.

. A principal objeclion to the theory of this diftemper, which this ingenious Writer lays down, is, that the rot will be contracted in a night's time.

That the ror is a putrid disease, is very probable, and the reme. dies Mr. R. propofes, might in the early itages of the disorder be aitended with delirable effects.

K The Reviewer, who has detained the foregoing importang letter so long from the publick eye, offers only the truth by way of apology :- He was on a tour into the northern parts of the king. dom, where Mr. R.'s favour was transmitted to him ; and fince then it has been for some time mislaid.

.:+++ A Correspondent, who ligns himself “ Nimrod," informs us,
that we were mistaken in our conjecture respecting the Author of
" Thoughes on Hunting :" See Review for September last. Nimrod
allures us, that the Public are indebied for that performance to Peter
Beckford, E!q; of Stapleton, Dorsetshire, son of the late Julinis Beck.
ford, Esg; and, he believes, the gentleman to whom Mr. Brydone
addreses his Letters. - Wrongi-vee comediane

** Two Letters have been received from “ A Conflant Reader and General Admirer of the M. Review," which will be further as tended to in our next.

tinendis,

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