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The answers to the Professor are on inferior points.
In the following chapter are introduced upon the stage ARISTOTLE, Cicero, GROTIUS, and HOOKER, as • Authorities against Mr. LOCKE,' and being ' opposite to the Lockian system of government.' His principal view in this, it seems, is to contradict what he calls an assertion of Mr. Locke, that mankind are driven into society, and to thew, that these great men thought society was natural to men. And this, he is constantly remarking to us, is a difference between the Lockians and him, self of the highest importance. Nay, he every where speaks of this supposed idea of Mr. Locke, as a fundamental of his system, without which it is annihilated; and includes all his disciples, without exception, as maintaining the same position. The Lockiars,' says he, p. 124, .maintain, that mankind, have a capacity for becoming members of a civil society ;- but no natural desire or inclination for entering into fuch a state of life.' And again, p. 378, • The disciples of Mr. Locke,' says he, differ from the reit of mankind, ancient and modern, in iwo effential points. I. They often maintain, in express terms, and the tenor of their argument always doth, that mankind have no natural bias, no innate instinct or propecîty towards civil society, as an end or object.'
Mr. Locke's own expression is, that men are DRIVEN into society.But why driven? And who drives them? Their own wants and fears, he tells us. For, it seems that after having deliberated on the matter, pro and con, men at last resolved to abandon the charms of native liberty, in order to guard against those dangers and inconveniencies, which they found to be unavoidable in their natural and solitary itate. Hence, therefore, it necessarily follows, according to the Lockian idea, that government itself, even in its best eflate, and when best administered, is no other than a necellary evil, which muft be endured, for the sake of escaping from such other evils as are still more intolerable.'
This is the Dean's assertion. We have already noticed how true it appears to be, with regard to Dr. Priestley and Major Cartwright. We will now examine its veracity in respect of Dr. Price. In his Discourse addressed to a Congregation at Hackney, Feb. 21, 1781, p. 9, he delivers himself thus; “We find ourselves,” says the Doctor, “ so made, that we necessarily seek fociety, and cannot exist happily out of it. There is reason to think this must be the case with all intelligent creaturés ; for it is not to be conceived that any of them can want social affections, or be entirely indifferent to all social connections and intercourse. An existence absolutely folitary must, one would think, be dreary and melancholy. But whatever in this respect may be true of intelligent creatures in general, we know, that what I am observing is true of ourselves. The principles of our natures lead us to unite, and to form ourselves into societies. In consequence of this, we gain many pleasures and advantages which we could not otherwise enjoy. Some of our nobleft affections,
reary and se absolutely for all focial moman want sociale
ead us tour is true of ourfel in general, 'we this respect may
which would otherwise lie dormant, are drawn forth into exercise; and the strength of a whole community is employed in the defence and protection of every particular member of it.” Can words be stronger? And might not our Author have known, that so strongly did the Doctor feel this social paflion in his own breast, that he published some years ago an express difcourse, to shew the probability of its remaining with mankind beyond the grave. Thus far, it seems, our Author is very unfortunate; for unfortunate, indeed, it is, to be convicted of palpable misrepresentations. Let us now see, whether it be really TRUE, that Mr. Locke himself, denied this natural propensity to society so strongly asserted by his disciple Dr. Price?
In the 15th Section of his ift Book, he says, “ To those that say, there were never any men in the state of nature, I WILL NOT ONLY OPPOSE THE AUTHORITY of the judicious Hooker * Eccl. Pol. lib. s. :0. where he says, The laws which have been hitherto mentioned, i.e. the laws of nature, do bind men abfolutely, &c. therefore to supply those defects and imperfe&tions which are in us, as living single and jolely by ourselves, WE ARE NATURALLY INDUCED TO SEEK CUMMUNION AND FELLOWSHIP WITH OTHERS: this was the CAUSE of men's uniting themselves at first in politic societies: but l, moreover, afirm, &c." Again, Sect. 77. "God having made man such a creature, that in his own judgment it was not good for him to be alone, put him under strong obligations of necessity, convenience, and INCLINATION to drive t him into fociety i distinguished by Italics in the original], as well as fired him with understanding and language to continue and enjoy it. The firft fociety (again printed in Italics] was between man and wite, which gave beginning, c." And lastly, Sect. 101. after flating the two objections made to the doctrine of an implied Original compact, he proceeds thus, “ To the first there is this to
* See p. 402, where Hocker is quoted as an authori:y againt Locke. delivering these words, “ Two foundations there are which bear up public societies; the one, a natural inclinarion, whereby all men defire sociable life and fellowhip; the other, an order expressly or secrerly agreed upon, touching the manner of their union in livirg togecher." Mr. Locke himelf could not surely have wished for a Itronger support!
+ But this is not the passage alluded to, when our Author, as above, tells us, that Mr. Locke's own expresion is, that men are DRIVEN into society. For that, as quoted p. 9, is from the 127th Section, and runs as follows: “ Thus mankind, notwithstanding all the privileges of the fate of nature, being but in an ill condition while they remain in it, are quickly driven in o society.” Who could not confute either Locke, or Newton, or Euclid, or the four Evangelifts themfelves at this rate?
answer, answer, That it is not at all to be wondered, that history gives us but a very little account of men, that lived together in the state of nature. The inconveniences of that condition, and the LOVE AND WANT OF SOCIETY, no sooner brought any number of them together, but they presently united and incorporated, if they designed to continue together.”
Is not a love of society a "natural bias, instinct, or propensity ?' And does not this want of society, evidently fignify a natural want, alias a natural bias, instinct, or propensity?'- if the Dean likes those words better than Locke's own. Are there the premises from whence, as the Dean says, “it necessarily folJows, according to the Lockian idea, that government itself, even in its best eftate, and when best administered, is no other than a necessary evil?' p. 25. 41. 379. But this false and malignant conclusion was, it should seem, necessary to be drawn at all events; in order to serve that cause in which the reverend Author has thought fit to embark,
We shall now leave our Readers to judge, whether the Dean of Glocester, after all his arrogant boastings, has confuted the Lockians, or himself; and to those who may propole to read his curious performance, we shall only recommend, that they also examine, FOR THEMSELVES, those particular treatises of the Lockians which he refers to; as the above specimens of his candour and fidelity to the truth, may posibly convince them that it is absolutely necessary; especially when they take notice, that the words last quoted from Mr. Locke are to be found in the very same chapter with the first seven quotations made by himself in the opening of the work, which we now dismiss.
Art. II. Conclusion of the Account of the Biftsp of Worcefler's
Sermons. IN our Review for Auguft, we gave an account of the second
volume of these Sermons, and now proceed to the third ; in the first sermon of which, his Lordship discourses from Isa. 1. 11. Behold, all ye that kindle a fire, that compass yourselves about with iparks ; walk in the light of your fire, and in the parks which ye have kindled: this Mall ye have of my band, ye shall lie down in forrow. --The Prophet's purpose in the text, we are told, is to inculcate this great truth, that Revelation is the only sure and confortable guide in matters of riligion. To second this purpose, fo energetically expressed by the Prophet, his Lord hip endeavours to shew, that all the sparks of human knowledge, on this important subject, are but imoke; and all the fire, which hu. man genius and industry can kindle at the altar of human reason, ice islelf; when compared with the light and heat of Divine Revulacion.
The second sermon well deserves the attentive perusal of unbelievers. The Preacher shews, that an inquirer into the truth of the most rational, and the purest of all religions may be prejudiced against it by a double pride, by the PRIDE OF REASON, and the PRIDE OF VIRTUE. The words of the text are -- If the Gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are left. If what Dr. Hurd advances in this sermon be true (and we see no reason to doubt it), the man who rejects the Gospel may tremble for himself, when he considers that his REASON, nay his VIRTUE, may be the instrument of his ruin, and may learn to suspect the power and influence of his grosser passions, when he sees that even his more refined ones may corrupt his judgment, and betray him into infideliiy,.
In the third sermon, 'bis Lordfhip explains and illustrates those words-Be ready always to give an answer to every man that alketh you a reason of the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear; and, in the fourth, he inquires into those circumslances, in the discourses of our Saviour, which give real weight and dignity to the observation in the text--that never man spake like this man.
In the fifth and fixth sermons, the Preacher confiders two very remarkable circumstances in the conduct of our Saviour towards the Jews. He came to instruct them in the principles of a new religion, and to convince them of its divine authority. Yet, to such of them as were least enlightened by his doctrine, he generally addressed himself in parables; and before such as were backward to admit his pretensions, he was sparing of his miracles. Now the contrary of this conduct, it is said, might be expected ; that he should have explained liimself in the clearest manner to the uninformed Jews; and should have multiplied his miracles for the conviction of the unbelieving. His Lordship thews, in a very clear, diftinét, and satisfactory manner, that our Saviour's conduct, in either case, was suitable to his character and mission.
The subject of the seventh sermon is, one single infiance of that indifference which the Apoftics shewed to their own inte. rests, viz. Their total disregard of human applause in preaching the Gospel. The words of the text are, we preach not ourselves, bit Christ Fcfz's the Lord. Men, we are told, may be said to preach themselves, in two respects : when they thew a solicitude to set themselves forth with advantage; first, as to their moral character: and secondly, as to their interleElyal, When men would give an advantageous idea of their moral characler, they usually express this design, eicher, 1. By representing or insinuating their superior worth and virtue : or, 2. By fuppreffing or palliating what may render it fufpeéteil: or, lailiy, By dwelling on such topics, and in such a manner, as may give ocipsion to others to think well af their
moral qualities. His Lord'hip tries the Apostolic writings by each of these marks.
• Consider, says he, those apologists for themselves, who have left us memoirs of their own lives. You will find, in most of these, an ambitious display of those moral virtues, by which they desire to be distinguished. They lose no opportunity of setting forth the purity of their designs, and the integrity of their practice. The rett may do this with less pomp and olientation ; they may preserve a modefty in the language, and a decent reserve in the air and cast of their narration. Still the same purpose is discoverable in all these writers, whether they openly proclaim, or nicely suggest and insinuate their own importance. When men are actuated with a strong defire of appearing in the faireft light to others, it unavoidably breaks out in fome shape or other, and all the indirect ways of address cannot conceal it from the intelligent observer.
6 We have a great example in two, the most extraordinary persons of the Pagan' world, I mean, XENOPHON, and JULIUS CÆSAR. These admired men thought fit to record their own acts and archieve. ments; and have done it with that air of neglect and unpretending fimplicity, which has been the wonder of mankind. Yet, through all this apparent indifference, every one sees the real drift of these elaborate volumes : every one sees, that they are composed in such a way as to excite the highest opinion, not of their ability in the art of war only, but of the justice, generosity, benevolence, in short, the moral qualities of their respective authors. I evidenily appears, that they designed to be their own panegyrills ; though none bu: such men could have executed that deúgn in so inoffensive and successful a manner.
• But now, if we turn to the facred writers, we shall find no traces of their preaching themselves, in this respect. These plain fishermen tell their fory unambitiousls, and without art; or, if we call it art, it is such an one as Greece and Rome had never been able to put in practice. No exaggerations of what may be thought praise-worthy in themselves; no oblique encomiums on their own best qualities or actions: no complacent airs in the recital of what may reflect honour on their own characters : no ftudied reserve and refinement in the turn and language of their history.
• If there be any virtue, which we may suppose them more than commonly anxious to arrogate to themselves, any moral quality in which they would thine out to the observation of others, what more likely than an unshaken fidelity to their Mafter, that Master, whom they made it their glory, their fole glory, as the Text speaks, to preach? Yet they are so far from respecting their own credit in this pariicular, that they relate their own infirmities and miscarriages; they acknowledge how wavering and precarious their faith was ; nay, they tell us, that, in his last difireffes, they all for fook him, and filed.
• This last circumstance reminds us of che next artifice which men employ to set off their moral character, that of Jupprefing or palliating whatever may render it fufpested.
• As accomplished persons, as the great men before mentioned, merc, can we doubt that many exceptionable steps were taken by