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sany. By the Abbé D. SESTINI, Vols. I. II. III. 8vot Florence, 1780. The objects that are attentively passed in review, in these Letters, are the natural history, antiquities, customs, arts, and commerce of the countries from whence the ingenious Traveller writes, and his relations are composed with fimplicity, candour, and accuracy. These three volumes carry the Reader no further than Sicily. The eleven first letters contain an account of the Author's voyage from Florence to Catana, of the inhabitants and curiosities of this l'atter city, and more especially of the celebrated collection of antiquities and narural bittory belorging to the prince Biscaris, who has chosen our Abbé für his library.keeper and antiquarian. The twelfth and thirteenih letters, which conclude this volume, treat of the amber and grain in Sicily.—The second volume contains eleven Letters, in which, among other things, the Author treats of the cultivation of the pistachio-nut, of its commerce, of the most remarkable plants that grow in the environs of Taorinina, Camerino, and Centorbi, of the ash trees and the manna they yield, as also of the olive-trees, and the manner of inaking oil. We find, likewise, in this volume a differtation of Dr. Tozzerti, on two publications of Father Cupani, the titles of which are Orta Catolico, and Pamphyton. The principal contents of the third volume are a relation of two voyages to Mount Etna, accompanied with several observations on that famous volcanoan account of the Kali of Sicily, of its almond-trees, mulberrytrees, saffron, silk-worms, and other natural productions of that island, as also of the antiquities of Syracuse. The Public may expect to be entertained, some time hence, with letters written by this learned Abbé from other parts of the world, as he is actually travelling upon an extensive plan, designing, after having passed through Walachia, and Crim Tartary, to visit several provinces of Asia and Africa.

X. Storia della Letteratura Italiana ; i. e. An History of it as lian Literature. By JEROME TIRABOSCHI, Librarian to the Duke of Modena, and Professor in the University of that Ciry. Vol. VIII. 4to. Modena. 1780. This eighth and last volume of the Abbé TIRABOSCHI's ample work contains the literary history of the seventeenth century, and is not inferior in merit to the preceding volumes, which have been mentioned in the course of our Journal.

Riflessioni imparziali sopra l'umanita degli Spagnuoli, &c. i, e. Impartial Reflexions upon the HUMANITY of the Spaniards in the West Indies, designed to refute foime pretended Philosophers and political Writers, and to clear up several Things in the Histories of the

Abbé Raynal, and Dr. Robertson. By the Abbé Don JUAN Nuix. 12mo. Venice. 1781.-We remember to have sead, several years ago, an elaborate and spirited defence of


the massacre that was - perpetrated in France on St. Bartholomew's day, and which, in :- joint opinion of all lects and parties in succeeding times, has been considered as one of the most execrable scenes that ever disgraced human nature. The defender of this massacre was the Abbé Caveyrac; and the existence of his book thews, that things in appearance impossible, have really happened, and may happen again. This consideration modifies, somewhat, the inexpresible astonishment we should have otherwise felt, in seeing the eighteenth century. produce á vindication of the HUMANE conduct of the Spaniards in the West Indies, by a second Abbé de Caveyrac, under the denomination of Juan Nuix. It is true (and candour obliges us to acknowledge it), that the enterprize of M. Nuix is much Jess indecent than that of M, Caveyrac; for the latter acknowledged the French murder, and jullified it: whereas the former puts a negative on the records of history, and pretends that the cruelty of the Spaniards has been exaggerated even by Dr. Robertson. This, however, is a new matter of surprize; for, if we are not iniftaken, the Dogor has been accused, by others, of rather softening by gentle shading, than expressing with strong colouring the Spanish exploits of conquest and conversion. Be this as it may, M. Nuix, who is a knowing man, and a writec of uncommon merit with respect to stile and energy, maintains, with a brazen intrepidity, the five foliowing' points :-ist, that the cruelties imputed to the Spaniards are false, or have been exaggerated by relations and witness is that de cerve but lilil. cicáit, 2dly, that the violent encroachments of the Spaniards upon the liberty and poellions of the Indians are groundless calumnies ; (bravo!) - züly, that the ails of violence committed by the Spaniards (we thought from the preceding article that they had committed none) were much lels cnfiderable than micho have been expected in their circumstances, and than thole which had been practised by other nations :- 4 bly, that tiet: acts of violence were the crimes of particular rions, :21 were always condemned by the government, and by the nati :: 5thly, that all the sufferings of the Americans were in antly compensated by the signal advantages they enjoy m the dominion of the Spaniards, We do not recollec?, is uc course of our reading, any thing like thele five audacious iui's here given to the faith of history. It is true, they re11:31 againit himself, and it were to be wileed, that he felt them; rus a man muft scarcely be susceptible of any ingenuous feeling who, to justify the ungrateful conduct of Ferdinand, Ki.g a Spain, to Columbus, covers the latter with invecinsea, and fury's that he was rather the oppressor, than the discov: percibirica. The Abbé Nuix has parts and talents, but he plays txa Itrangely,

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XI. Saggio Orittografico, &c. i. e. An Oryctographical Efay, or Observations on the Nautilitic and Ammonitic Earths of Tuscany, rogether with a philofophical Table of small teftaceous Animals and cther Marine Fossils found in that Duchy, to illustrate the Work By Father Don AMBROZE SOLDANI. 4to. 146 Pages, enriched with 25 Plates. Florence. 1780. One of the principal objects which the learned Author of this work has in view, is, to make known the natural productions which exist in several parts of Tuscany, more especially those stones and earths, which contain the remains of a prodigious number of marine bodies, testaceous, crustaceous, and zoophytical. Among the various Strata observable in the province of Sienna, there is a remarks able difference, with relpect to the quantity of marine insects and shell-fish, which they contain. The cornua ammonis (called snake-stones by the common people) are so numerous, that Janus Planeus counted above 6700 in six ounces of mud taken from the borders of the sea of Rimini: this, however, is but little in comparison with the discovery of our Author, who, in in a tufa-earth of the same weight counted 8000, besides a multitude of small testaceous insects, whose numbers could not be reckoned without the assistance of a microscope. After having divided into twelve portions, the remainder of the earth from which he had extracted the larger cornua amimonis, the Abbé SOLDANI found in one of these portions nautilufes, and smaller cornua, amounting together to 1200 ; and the result of his cal. : culation comes to this, that the fix ounces of tufa-earth already mentioned, must have contained above 22400 of these little animals. How surprising soever this calculation may appear, it will not seem incredible to those who consider, what a prodigia ous quantity of these minute beings pass through a paper in which holes have been made with a needle of the smallest kind. One of the most natural and evident consequences, that the Abbé SOLDANI deduces from his observations and experiments, is, that this whole country was formerly covered by the sea.

XII. Nuove Sperienze Idrauliche, &c. i. e, New Hydraulic Experiments, made on Canals and Rivers, in order to ascertain the principal Laws and Phenomena of running Water. By the Abbé LEONARD XIMENES, Mathematician to his R, H. the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Correspondent Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris, &c. In 4to. 324 Pages, Sienna. 1,780. This work is defigned to throw new light on the theory of hydraulics, which has bitherto been principally founded on hypthcles. Experience is our Author's guide. To know the velocities with which fluids move from their surface to their bottom (in which motion there are several variations) is absolutely necessary, in order to take with accuracy, the dimensions of running waters. If, in the whole mass of the Auid, its motion


were uniform and permanent, these dimensions would be ato' tended with no sort of difficulty ; but the different velocities that have been observed in different parts of the current, have, more or less, embarrassed this matter. It is true, laws and curves have been employed by learned men to express, more effectually, the degrees and proportions of these velocities; but as these laws and curves, according to our Author, require the confirmation of experience, that so theory' may agree with practice, he has constructed a machine which is adapted to convey juft ideas of the different velocities in running waters ; this machine he calls ventola Idraulica, on account of its resemblance of the weather-' vanes, that indicate the direction of the wind : as it yields with facility to the action of the Auid, it affists the observer in making a just estimate of the force and degree of impulsions, whether direct or oblique ; and, when plunged at different depths it shews the degrees and variations of velocity in the whole mass of a river or a canal. The description of this machine, and an enumeration of the experiments which the Author made on three different currents, occupy the first part of this work'; the second contains an explication of these experiments ; the third treats of all the questions, relative to the theory of hydraulics, and the . application of this theory to practice, .

SWITZERLAND. XIII. Oeuvres de M. Etienne Falconet, Statuaire, &c, i, e. The Works of STEPHEN FALCONET, Siatuary, 6 Vols. in 8vo. Lausanne 1781. Price 15 Livres (or 14 Shillings), This Author is the ingenious Artist, whom the Empress of Rullia employed to model and cast the equestrian statue of Peter the Great. Though more recommendable as an artist than as an author; he is far from being contemptible in the lata ter quality ; but also far from being a first-rate writer, The collection he here presents to the Public, contains Dissertations on several branches of the fine arts. Some of these pièces were published before, at different times, such as his Reflexions on Sculpture-his Observations on the Horse of the Equestrian Statuç of Marcus Antoninus, and his Translation of Three Books of Pliny's Natural History, relative to the arts, which he partly illúr. trated, and partly criticized in a multitude of elaborate notes. He was criticized in his turn, and that severely. His translation of Pliny, and his notes upon that author, laid him more particularly open to censure ; as the former betrayed a very considerable ignorance of the Latin language, and the latter : discovered, in many places, a wanţ of judgment, a petulands Spirit of singularity and contradiction, and an arrogant tone of superiority and self-fufficiency. The critical rod seemed, however, not to have administered its correction in vain :hę'acknowledged the turpitude of his tranflation, and vamped,

or got it vamped up anew, and gave it again to the Public, which received it with indulgence, and judged it tolerable in its new form. He corrected also his nates, and softened the ass perity of his critical tone. All these publications make a new appearance in the collection now before us, and are farther revised, corrected, and improved. They contain, certainly, a multitude of entertaining and instructive facts, anecdotes, and observations, relative to the fine arts, and therefore deserve a place in the libraries of the virtuosi. Subjoined to this collection, we observe a work of a different nature, which is now published for the first time. Its title is, Letters to Posterity, and it contains the substance of a correspondence that pafled between our Author, and the loquacious philosopher Diderct, concerning the regard which is due to the judgment of poftcrity. Whether the two writers will appear before that tribunal, or not, is a question we do not pretend to determine ;-'uis probable they will, as the one is mounted on the equestrian statue of Peter the Great, which is composed of hard metal, and the other has nestled his name in the enormous encyclopedie, which will naturally roll down, by its immense weight, to future ages,

. Moe


· For OCTOBER, 17

Art. 11. Brief Considerations on the Expediency of a Plan for a

Corps of Light Troops, to be omployed on Decached Service in the
Eait Indies. By James Kirkpatrick, Elg; Lieurenant Colonel in
the East India Company's Service. 8vo. 15. Debrer, &c. 1781.
THIS proposal was first published about 12 years ago, without

1 the Author's name; and was mentioned in the 41st volume of our Review, p. 395. Colonel Kirkpatick informs us, in the Adver. tisement prefixed to the present edition, that it would fill have re. mained in the oblivion to which it has long since been configned, if certain recent events on the Coalt of Coromandel, which in some measure seem to have been predicted in it, bad not made its republication as appofite to the present, as its first appearance was to the past, period.'--Indeed, the ingenious Author (who, we find, understands the use of the pen as well as the sword) seems to have written almost prophetically in the year 1769; as events have since happened, in the Eaitern world, which strongly evince the expediency of his plan, by way of preventing such mischiefs as have been done in the Carnatic, by the depredations of Heider Ally Kawn*: and which, according to

- our

• It appears, that our discerning Author was well aware, even fo long ago as the year 1769, of the true character of Heider Ally


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