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whether mild, equitable, and protective ; or cruel, perfidious, and destuctive; have not only relted on his true basis,' but
is declared by the Scriptures to have been the ordinance of of God *' (p. 423.). • For,' says he, Julius Cæfar, Auguftus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, were all usurpers, yet every one of them was, in eff-et, declared by the Scriptures to be the ordinance of God; as far, I mean, as the duty of allegiance and subjection was concerned.' And, in p. 426, he thus exercises his casuistry ; • Cæsar is the actual and peaceable por. feffor of the throne. This is the point to be supposed, and allowed : but it is also confessed, that his title is founded in bloodshed and usurpation. What therefore is a private person to do in such a case? He hath but three things to chuse: that is, he must either refuse to yield to the conqueror, and obftinarely resolve to accept of no protection and no quarter from hin ;-or he inuit submit in appearance, with an intention nevertheless ro rise up and rebel as soon as an opportunity Mall offer :-or, lastly, he must submit in fincerity, and conscientiously resolve to be faithful and obedient to the power which presides over, and proceets him.'
Having rejected the two first, he tells us, p. 428, “Thirdly, There is but one choice more to make, namely, That every individual, if in the situation above described, ought to be subject in Chrißian fincerity, without guile or fraud, to the higher powers, the powers for the time being; notwitbitanding any defect of title imputed to them “Of this third choice, therefore, I thall say the less, as every part of the foregoing treatise has a reference thereto.-Only let me be permitted to remind my readers at the close of the whole, that notwithstanding any little cavils and objections which may be made against this doctrine,- it is the only scheme that ever was, or ever can be REDUCED TO PRACTICE ;--and it is also the LAW OF THE LAND,'
He has elsewhere, p. 86, with regard to rulers, reminded us, that- if ordained of God, the people ought to obey them un. der peril of damnation.' We shall lay little upon the protection to be expected from sovereigns, whore titles are founded in blood shed and usurpation,' or of that which the Romans experienced from a Caligula or a Nero; or the Moors from one of their modern Emperors (Abdallah, as we think), who, some times by way of punishment, sometimes in wrach, and sometimes in sport, or to thew his dexterity at decollation with a fabre, is reported to have slain, with his own hand, feventeen hundred of his subjects in the course of his reign: suffice it then, that we are to take this protection for granted, and to OBEY:aye, we must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience fake.'- This, we confess, is a little extraordi
• That governments, whose principles are the reverse of each other, and that all the varieries of them, should rest on one and the same bags, is a curious discovery to be sure.
nary; and that mankind ought first passively to suffer a tyrant to wreath his yoke around their necks, and deprive them of the means of relisance, before they attempt it. What! after all this subjection to the powers that be, this ordinance of God in favour of devils, and this penalty of damnation in case of resistance, may we after all resist a tyrant, that is, REBEL against him ?-Yea, verily, the reverend Dean himself tells us we may; for, ' supposing,' says he, p. 420, that there vicegerents should a&t contrary to their commillion : fuppofing that they should no longer conduct themselves, as the ministers of God for good: in such a cale, what is to be done! I answer, it is very apparent from the terms of their commission, That they are no longer entitled to che obedience of the subje&t, as a point of duty and conscience. But nothing far. ther can be inferred from the mere words of Scripture; all the rest being left to men's pacural feelings and discretion, to do the best chey can in such an unhappy lituation.'
Also, p. 138, “But if you only meant to say, that bad laws, if any, ought to be repealed, and good laws enacted, and faithfully and impartially executed ;-and that, when governors ihall abuse their power to the detriment of the people, they ought to be stopped in their career, and even to be called to an account for their misconduct, in proportion to the detriment received.-If this be all you meant to fay, when you talked about original, unalienable rights, social compacts, &c. &c. we are agreed again.' And, in p. 89, he says, “The grand objections again it King James the Second were, that his go. vernment was tyrannical, and his proceedings illegal ;--that he are fumed powers which the Constitution had expressly denied him ; that he had repeatedly broken his folemn coronation-oath, and for, feited his royal word ;-and that, in short, bis actions proved him to be an enemy both to civil liberty, and to the Protestant religion, Now grant these objections to be well founded (which I think no man at this day, even the warmest friend of the Stuart family, will pre. tend to deny), and the inference is plain, that such a Prince deserved to be depored, and that the nation did very right in depofing him.
So far therefore we are all agreed.' Lailly, p. 110, “For even Sir Robert Filmer, and the Jacobites, do not say that such rulers are at all excufable ;-nay, they expressly say the contrary; and are as ready at denouncing Hell and damnation again it such wicked tyrants, as the Lockians themselves : indeed, they protest against any punishment wbare er being inflitcd on tyrants, especially on royal tyrants, during zhe present lite, by the hands of men : for which ill-judged tindernejs, and willaken points of conscience, they are highly io blame : and therefore their tencts of abjölute and unlimited pail.ve obedience and non-refitaoce are deservedly had in detettation : but, neverthele!s, they maka no wrong judgment concerning the nature of, and the punishment duc to, the crimes of tyranny; though they are so weak as to maintain, that this punihment ought to be deterred, till the criminals themselves are removed into another world, when the punishment due to such ficuces can be no terror to those evil doers who survive, and who therefore ought to be deterred by such examples from attempting 2o do the like.'
Now, perhaps, either a Christian, a philosophic, a rational, or an humane Reader may think, it would be full as well, did our country always take care to preserve her freedom unviolated and entire ; so that, by a true and equitable representation in parliament of the whole mass of the Commons, their real interests might be understood, and their real sentiments known there ; that their house of parliament, as intended by the Conftitution, might prove an effeétual check and counterpoise to the Crown; and thereby PREVENT tyranny and oppreffion; sather than, by a stupid acquiescence in usurpations on their elective franchise, to lofe the effence and vital powers of their liberty, which must expose them to the constant and irresistible encroachments of tyranny, and consequently of oppressiong un- :/ til at length there be no alternative left, but absolute llavery or a bloody civil war. The former is conformable to Mr. Locke's system, the latter to that of the Dean of Glocester.
[To be continued.] MFC.tit.
ART. V. The Art of War: a Poem, in Six Books; translated from
the French of the King of Prussia: with a Critique on the Poem,
T an Officer (if we conjecture rightly) of the Milicia, who
It is somewhat remarkable, that in a poem treating of the art of war, and in which all the great commanders of ancient and modern times are occasionally introduced, no heroes of English story are fo much as once mentioned, not even the glorious Marlborough; though the very generals he so frequently defeated have respectable places assigned them in this temple of Fame. It is not to be supposed that this filence, with respect to Marlborough, proceeded from invidious motives; we rather think that his Prullian Majesty confidered him as a general who understood only part of his profession, having never given any proof of his skill in conducting a retreat.
Prefixed to this work is a Critique on the poem, by the Compte Algarotti. The influence of a respectable name was never in any instance more conspicuous than in the present: had this Critique been written by a less celebrated pen, no one would
read it twice. It is a very superficial and trilling performance.
As the Reviewer of this article neither understands the trade of blood, nor can be delighted with its mysteries, the specimen of this spirited and elegant translation which will be laid before our Readers shall be, the warrior in his domestic enjoyments.
• While the bold chief, intent on new alarms,
Thus teoder Hymen knows with gentle power
. Some apology is due not only to the ingenious Translator, but to the Public also, for not noticing this performance in our Journal at a more early period. The fact was, that the first copy we were supplied with happened to be mislaid, and loft:—a circumstance which, in the multiplicity of matter that comes before us, will sometimes unavoidably occur.
ART. VI. The Critic: or, A Tragedy Rehearsed. A Dramatic Piece,
in Three Acts. As it is pertormed at the Theatre-Royal in Drury • Lane. By Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Esq. 8vo. Is. 6 d.
1 track of the Duke of Buckingham's Rehearsal. The mode and objects of ridicule are generally the same; except that the Author of the Critic has too indiscriminately attacked Tragedy in general, and levelled some of his feverest traits against the very best modern tragedy in our language, we mean the tragedy of Douglas ! The theatrical rage, however, for situation, attitude, discoveries, pracefsions, &c. is properly and humorously exposed.
Leaving, however, the Tragedy Rehear fed, which occupies the two laft Acts of this dramatic piece, we revert with pleasure to the first of the three, which abounds with wit, humour, and a masterly display of character. Mr. and Mrs. Dangle, though not very original, are natural and spirited; Sneer is drawn with a finer pencil; the Unintelligible Interpreter is truly pleasant; and the treatise on panegyric, delivered by Puff, is lively, Ihrewd, and satirical, though rather narrative, than dramatic. From his own delineation of his character in the first Act, we should not expect to see him dwindle into the Bayes of the two laft. That part might perhaps have been more properly sustained by Sir Fretful Plagiary-for whose fake, we are inclined to believe that the whole piece was written.
In order to do justice to a picture, so highly finilhed, we must give it at full length:
"Enter Servant. • Serv. Sir Fretful Plagiary, Sir.
• Dangle. Beg him to walk up.-[Exit Servant.] Now, Mrs. Dangle, Sir Fretful Plagiary is an author to your own taste. · · Mrs. Dangle. I confess he is a favourite of mine, because every body else abuses him.
•Sneer. – Very much to the credit of your charity, Madam, if not of your judgment.
• Dangle. Bus, egad, he allows no merit to any author but him. felf, that's the truth on't-though he's my friend,
• Sneer. Never.-He is as envious as an old maid verging on the desperation of lix-and-thirty: and then the infidious humility with which he feduces you to give a free opinion on any of his works, can be exceeded only by the peculant arrogance with wbich he is sure to seject your observations,