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in 1773, transmitted a considerable number of specimens procured from Hudson's Bay; they have not as yet received any returns on the part of his Catholic Majesty. * The next article is an account of young Mozart, a German infant musician, reprinted from the Philosophical Transactions, Vol. LX. To this are added, fimilar instances in Charles and Samuel Wesley, fons of the well-known Rev. Mr. Charles Wesley; some farther anecdotes relating to little Crotch, of whom Dr. Burney gave a very circumftantial account in the Transactions, Vol. LXIX. Part I.; and some particulars of the Earl of Mornington's very early mufical propensity.
On the Deluge in the Time of Noah. This essay is introduced with the following ohjections to the Scripture account of the universality of the deluge :
• There seem to be the strongest objections to the supposition of an universal deluge; some of which, without mentioning others, may be thus shortly stated.
• He must be a more ingenious architect than even Bishop Wil. kins *, who can contrive a single vessel large enough for Noah and his family, the beasts, fowls, reptiles, and insićts, of the whole globe, together with provisions for their suitepance, during the space of a twelve month t ; whilst the lives of each animal, in this confined ftate, mult also have continued for that time, otherwise fome genus or fpecies must have been intirely destroyed, without a new creation.
• If we are to underkand likewise the expreflion literally of ALL, the extirpation of the web-footed fowls would not have followed; nor of the water reptiles and insects.. .
« On the other hand, there must have been a new creation of either the falt or fresh water filh, fuppofing the fluid which covered cbe face of the globe to have been either salt or fresh, as the former could not have lived a twelvemonth in water so much freshened, or the latter in an element become so much salter.
• How could the animals, almost peculiar to the Arctic circle (a sein-deer for example), or those only found in America at present, have been procured for the ark, or insects in their different metamorphoses? How was the proper food also to be supplied for the ani. mals of the whole globe, for a year, when many of them, particularly infects, only feed upon peculiar plants, which therefore must have continued to vegetale in part of the ark destined for a conservatory? The animals again are directed to be male and female; many of which, within the twelvemonth, would have procreared ; and from what stores on board the ark was this numerous offspring to be fup.
• The deluge, if universal, likewife continuing for a twelvemonth, all the annual plants of the globe must have been destroyed, not to mention both shrubs and trees, many of which would have lost all re
** See his Works,
+ No mention is here made of fuel, as well as many other belky but necessary arricies.
getative power, after they had been covered so long by water, either fresh or falt.'
Leaving the removal of these difficulties to those whose peculiar province it is to consider them, we shall just mention such as Mr. B. finds in reconciling the universality of this food with natural appearances on the earth. . .
To the shells of marine animals found on the tops of moun. tains, he opposes the want of ability and of inducement in shellfilh to remove from the bed of the sea to such elevated spots; that many of these specimens in the cabinets of virtuosi, are reported to have been found in places where none are to be discovered ; and that the resemblances of shells, bones, and the impressions of plants, are lusus naturæ, or the work of subterranean infects, either by their claws or antennæ, or perhaps by emitting a liquor that may both excavate and discolour the stone, or other body on which they may happen to work. Mr. B. is at some trouble to find these insects, and admits they must rest on what at most will amount to a probability. We wish we could add, that even his probability rested on philosophical facts, analogy, or reasoning; but to have recourse to wild surmises, to account for immense beds of oysters for instance, lying in natural order *, though now left on dry land, by viciffitudes beyond record or tradition, cannot be admitted as found philosophy: nor can iron anchors, found at great depths within land, be referred, with a serious face, to such workmanship. Mr. B. concludes with a critical commentary on the Scripture relation of the deluge, in order to circumscribe the extent of it: but there is no profit from all this "labour, unless the marine productions, found on dry land, muft necessarily be understood to refer to that deluge. Again, what becomes of Mr. B.'s fubterranean insects, if Noah's flood, received to the utmost extent, is wholly insufficient to account for these marine produce tions! In such case his faith and his philosophy claih to no better purpose than to injure each other.
The History of the Gwedir Family, by Sir John Wynne. This genealogical memoir was first printed in the year 1770 t, though, in a note to the Introduction, the publication is mildated in 1773.
* In the addenda to this essay, at the end of the volume, Mr. B. observes, Shells in rude times may have passed for money, as they do now in some parts of Aga. Why, therefore, may they not have been sometimes buried under ground, as coin was generally secreted, before paper credit took place ? Had the Reviewers helped Mr. B. out with this ingenious suggestion, every reader would bave thoughc. it was done in ridicule. . + See Rev, vol. xliii. p. 398.
A Letter, intended for Dodsley's Museum, on the English and
French Writers. This letter, which is dated in 1746, exhibits a battle between the writers of both countries, after the manner of Swift. The novelty of Swift's battle of the books made the thought succeed in his hands; but it is one of those thoughts that will not bear a repetition." A Dialogue on the ancient Tragedies, written at Oxford, in 1746.
The ingenious critic premises, that the elegant writers of antiquity become our earlieit models, nor can we have better ; but as oor taste is formed from these excellent examples, should not their mistakes be pointed out to the young scholar, as well as their perfections ? Yet every commentator becomes so zealous a partisan for the Latin or Greek author which he is to explain or illustrate, that we never hear of a blemish ; or, if there be a palpable one, it is often defended by such reasons, as the annotator muft himself be sensible are very insufficient.' · The argument is very pertinently summed up in the concluding paragrapb:
- I have already presumed to mention fome uninteresting tragedies of the ancients, and conceive that I may also venture to say, that there are few scenes even that command the involuntary tear from the reader, which circumstance I Thall always consider as 'the true test of the merits of a tragedy ; as the involuntary laugh seems to be that of a comedy, Critics may write ingenious dissertations; but if the reader is not affected till he is taught to be so, I Thall always diftrust the abilities of the author.' Ohthere's Voyage, and the Geography of the Ninth Century illustrated.
This is reprinted from the Anglo-Saxon version of Orofius by King Alfred, published by Mr. B. in 1773* ; illustrated now with a geographical map of the globe at that time." Journal of a Spanish Voyage in 1775, to explore the Western Coast
of America, northward of California. . This journal, which is the concluding article in the volume, was, we are told, put into Mr. B.'s hands for perusal, who conceived it to be so interesting for the improvement of geography, that he desired permission to translate and public it: and it may certainly prove of great use to other navigators, who have oca casion to sail along the same coast.
• Sec Rev. vol. xlviii. p. 378.
ART. IV. A Treatise concerning Civil Government, in Three Party.
Part 1. The Notions of Mr. Locke and his Followers, concerning the Origin, Extent, and End of Civil Government, examined and confused. Part I'l. The true Basis of Civil Government set forth and ascertained ; also Objections answered ; different Forms compared; and Improvements suggested. Part III. England's former Gothic Conftitution censured and exposed ; Cavils refuted ; and Authorities produced : Also the Scripture Doctrine concerning the Obedience due to Governors vindicated and illustrated. By Jofab Tucker, D. D. Dean of Glocester. &vo. 5 s. Boards. Cadello 1781. AND so, the labouring mountain, whofe pregnancy was n announced to us fome years ago *, is at length delivered ! But smile not, courteous Reader, nor make merry on the occafion, for this, be it known unto thee, is no ordinary moufe, no little nibbler of niceties, nor feeder on superfluous crumbs; but a great devourer, and demolisher, of systems and fyftem-makers, He can even chop down a man at a mouthful: and the adamantine walls of civil liberty are no more to him, than the raised erust of a Christmas pie. As to fallacies, contradictions, and impoffibilities, he can digest them as easily as an ostrich does a horse-shoe. Alas, poor Locke!--gone !- gone for ever! Who could have thought, that, after so long a career of glory, and bis Herculean conquests over the hydras of falsehood and tyranny, he should have been swallowed up at last by-a mouse! As to Molyneux, the champion of Hibernia, Priestley, Price, and Cartwright, they ferve only as fauce to their master, Locke, to .fubricate the mouse's throat; and of the poor Professor of Aberdeen he makes mere nuts ; cracking and champing him with all imaginable glee. Beware, therefore, O ye disciples of Locke who yet remain, and all ye republican, rebellious, traiterous fons of liberty, who dare opine that kingly power hath any lia mits, corrupt government a cure, or an oppreffed people their · redress, in the British Constitution; beware of the mighty and
tremendous Mouse of Glocefter! . Proceed we now, as becometh true critics (having done with the mouse), to make a diffection of our Author in form, deliver, · ing all the while an anatomical lecture on the head, the heart, the spleen, the gall, the noble and ignoble parts of the subject under our hands.
The Dean ulhers in his work with a few felect quotations from Locke, Molyneux, Priestley, and Price, on the first principles of government; Men, says he, whose writings (we charicably • hope, not intentionally or maliciously ;-ihough allually) have
.. See the Advertisement published with Dr. T.'s Tracts about five years ago.
ment, and all hipore. But if that opens to come will m
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laid a foundation for such disturbances and diffentions, such mutual jealousies, and animofities, as ages to come will not be able to settle or compose.' But if that great teacher of civil government, and all his most eminent disciples, are in this respect such objects of our reverend Author's charity, we hope he equally extends it to that greater Teacher and his disciples, from whom we derive our religious system ; who, according to the like charitable mode of reasoning, require ftill further allowances ; inasmuch as the animofities, violences, and bloodshed, which have been occafioned (as such like reasoners must express it, and always have expressed it) by CHRISTIANITY, infinitely exceed what Mr. Locke's principles have occasioned, ACCORDING TO The Dean, in America. But whether the Chriftians or their persecutors, Mr. Locke and the Americans, or the Ministry, have been the parties at whose door these animofities, violences, and bloodshed ought to be laid, far be it from us to determine.
From the quotations above-mentioned, our Author, p. 22, colleEts-take notice Reader ---Our Author collects, that it is the doctrine of Locke and all his disciples, I. "That mankind do not spontaneously, and, as it were, imperceptibly slide into a diftinction of orders, and a difference of ranks, by living and conversing together, as neighbours and social beings:- but, on the contrary, that they naturally thew an averfion, and a repugnance, to every kind of subordination, till dire neceflity compels them to enter into a solemn compact, and to join their forces together for the sake of self-preservation,' Then follows, p. 23, a quotation from Dr. Priestley, viz. “ To begin with first principles, we must, for the sake of gaining clear ideas on the subject, do what almost all political Writers have done before us, that is, we must suppose a number of people exifting, who experience the inconvenience of living independent and unconnected; who are exposed, without redrels, to insults and wrongs of every kind, and are too weak to procure to themselves many of the advantages, which they are fenfible might easily be compassed by united strength. These people, if they would engage the protection of the whole body, and join their forces in enterprizes and undertakings calculated for their common good, must voluntarily resign some part of their natural liberty, and submit their conduct to the direction of the community : for without these concesions, an alliance cannot be formed." Upon which our Author proceeds to remark chus: 'Here it is very observable, that the author supposes government to be lo entirely the work of art, that nature had no share at all in forming it ; or rather in predisposing and inclining mankind to form it. The inftincts of nature, it feems, had nothing to do in such a complicated business of chicane and artifice, where every man was for driving the best bargain he could ; and where all in general, both the future governors and governed, were to be on the catch as much as possible. For this Author plainly suppores, that his first race of men had not any innate propenfity to have lived otherwise, than as so many inde. pendent, unconnefied beings, if they could have lived with tolerable Safety in such itate : in short, they did not feel any infinĉts within