« הקודםהמשך »
as they had all been at several times, one after another, though be. fore set down together, for expressing the just number of them.
« Forch of this secret and most cunning conveyance came Henry Garnet the Jesuit, sought for, and another with him, named Hall; marmalade and other sweetmeats were found there lying by them; but their better maintenance had been by a quill or reed, through 2 little hole in the chimney that backed another chimney into the gentlewoman's chamber, and by that pafrage cawdles, broths, and warm drinks, had been conveyed in unto them.
“ Now in regard the place was so close, those customs of oature which must of necesity: be done, and in so long a time of continuance was exceedingly offen five to the men themselves, and did much annoy them that made entrance in upon them, to whom they confessed, thac they had not been able to hold out one whole day longer, buc either they must have fqueeled or perilhed in the place. The whole service endured the space of eleven nights and owelve days, aod no more persons being there found in company of Maylter Abingdon, himself, Garner, Hill, Owen, and Ciambers, were brought up to London, to understand farther of his Highness's pleasure.""
We are now in poffeffion of several very full histories and sufveys of particular counties; and should this induftrious patris otic spirit extend through the remainder (and it may be presumed and hoped that no county is destitute of one gentleman able and willing to forward lo laudable a.purpore) a general collector, posseffed of learning and judgment, might afterward from the united materials, taking Camden in as a principal, compile a new BRITANNIA, on the only plan capable of furnishing a vaJuable work of that kind.
ART. HII. Miscellanies by the Honourable Daines Barrington. 410.
: 18 s. in Sheets. White. 1781. A & the ingenious Writer and Compiler of these miscellaneA ous essays, has not prefixed any general introduction or preface to them, we are furnished with no information but what is to be collected from the respective articles; which we shall Specify in the order in which they occur.
Trasts on the Possibility of reaching the North Pole. These Tracts were first published in the year 1775 *, and as the Author declares, in a Preface to them, they are republished as containing many well-attested facts, not to be found else. where, and tending to promote geographical discoveries. He Atill continues sanguine for these attempts, though he admits that the purposes of commerce can never be answered by the great uncertainty of a constant passage, even if discovered, in seas which are so frequently obstructed by ebe ice packing in vast fields. Mr. B. professes to have received farther encouragement from Cap
* See Rev. vol. liii. p. 125.
tais tain Pickersgill's voyage for this purpose * ; and, that the astronomer royal who communicated Captain Pickersgill's Journal to the Royal Society, hath informed me by letter, that he had often heard this navigator express himself as well assured of a N. W. paslage; adding, that he received accounts of it from the inhabitants on the side of Davis's Siraits, and that it was directly N. W. very different from Baffin's track.'
In his Preface, Mr. B. points out the easiest method of prosecuting future attempts for this long fought discovery, in the following terms :
• I have mentioned in the following Tracts, that the Parliamentary rewards given for approaching within one degree of the North Pole are not likely to produce the effects intended, because the Greenland whale ships are all ensured ; if they were therefore to go beyond the common fishing latitudes, it would be fuch a departure from the voyage ensured, that they would not be able to recover, if accidents happened in such a deviation.
I am informed, however, that there are some vessels employed in time of peace by government, to prevent sinuggling on the North. ern coast of Scotland. These ships might be infiructed, when a promising wind blows from the Southward, to proceed as far North as the ice will permit. The crew of such a ship would be encouraged by expectations of the Parliamentary reward; and though one attempt might fail, another might succeed. The expence to the public would be trifling, whilst the smugglers would not know how soon the thip might return to its station.
* Our Commodore upon the Newfoundland flation might also send a vaffel, at a small expence, to explore all the Northern part of Hudson's Bay, with which we are so im perfectly acquainted at present. .
• Such attempts during peace might take place almost every sum. mer; and I should suppose that this scientific and opulent nacion would never hesitate (whilst there is the leait dawning of hopes) to send proper vessels occasionally to make further trials both of a N. W. passage by Baffin's Bay, and a N. E. beyond Nova Zembla, . • The coast of Corea, the Northern part of Japan, and the Lequieux Illands, Thould also be explored; the cheapeit, and perhaps beft method of doing this would be to employ a vessel in the India Company's service, which might be victualled at Canton.' . Whether the Turkey was known before the Discovery of America.
From comparing the authorities of ancient writers and travelJers, and from considering the names given to the Turkey in different European languages, Mr. B. is of opinion that this bird is not a native American, but an Afiatic.
On the Rein-deer. This is not a natural history of the animal, but an examination of the current opinion, that the rein-deer will not live for any time south of Lapland ; or of that part of North America
• See Rev, vol. lxii. p. 52. .
fory notice and are found iar to the perion justified any will scarchew
where the general standard of cold is the same. But the few instances of single animals here cited to the contrary will scarcely be admitted in opposition to the opinion justified by the fact, of the rein-deer being peculiar to those high latitudes, where only they breed and are found in a natural state, Mr. B. takes curfory notice of some other peculiarities in the formation and manners of this nothern animal.
On the Bat, or Rere-mouse. The principal article of information in this essay, is a confirmation of the bat passing the winter in a state of torpidity, in common with the swallow tribe.
On the sudden Decay of several Trees in St. James's Park.
The decay of these trees is very properly ascribed to the filling up of Rosamond's pond, and the moat round the island; together with the alteration made in the walk called the Mall, which, from a concave walk, is now raised to a convexity. All which alterations have deprived the roots of the trees of their accustomed portions of nourishment, under which loss they have fince pined. This fact, as Mr. B, observes, may prove a warning to those who may intend to dry up ponds near which trees may grow that they would be sorry to lose. On the periodical Appearing and Disappearing of certain Birds,
at different Times of the Year. This essay which was published in the Philosophical Transa actions Vol. LXII. * is here reprinted, we are told, with addicions.
On the Torpidity of the Swallow Tribe, when they disappear. Mr. B. here cites a number of corroborating facts to prove, that swallows retire to unfrequented waters at the approach of winter, into which they fink in a state of torpidity, until the return of summer : that martins and swifts, in like manner, retire to secure harbours in caverns, crevices of rocks, &c. during the same season; from whence winter days uncommonly warm, will often bring these latter forth; a sufficient argument alone to prove that they do not migrate from the country.
On the prevailing Notions with regard to the Cuckow. In this essay, the prevailing opinion, that the cuckow does not hatch and rear its young, is treated as a vulgar error. The wood pigeon is, from its size, said to be the only bird qualified as a fofter-parent for the young cuckow ; but, when it is recul. lected, that this bird lives on seeds, it is only qualified to starve a nurseling that requires to be fed with insects. As ill adapted is the hedge sparrow for raising so gigantic an orphan; though these two, so unlike each other, are, by general tradition, sup
* See Rev. Vol. L. p. 283.
Amenough ton the diftas well acco
afort life ined on the disc in
posed to be left in charge of the eggs of this much abused pae rent.
Another current notion is, that the young cuckow never lives long enough to make its call in the succeeding spring; an opinion founded on the difficulty of keeping them in cages. Their short life in cages Mr. B. well accounts for, by observing, that all animals which have plenty of food before them, eat as long as they can swallow; an indulgence which granivorous animals feem io enjoy with impunity, but carnivorous animals, which do not find their prey so easily, are calculated for long fafts, When, therefore, we cage neftlings that feed on insects, the food we substitute is raw meat; he is therefore persuaded that they die by over-cramming.
In vindication of the character of the cuckow, Mr. Barrings ton relates the following facts :
"I have been favoured by that eminent naturalist Mr. Pennant with the following, from a MS. dissertation of Dr. Derham's:
" The Rev. Mr. Stafford was walking in Blossop-dale *, and faw At a cuckow rise from its nest, which was on the stump of a tree chat 6" had been some time felled, so as to resemble the colour of the 66 bird. In this nest were two young cuckows; one of which he 46 fastened to the ground by means of a peg and line : and very fre. " quently, for many days, beheld the old cuckow feed these her 46 young ones."
• I have been also furnished with two other instances of cuckow's nests, and the proper parents feeding their young, within four miles of London, and likewise on the S. Western coast of Merionethshire...
• I remember myself having been in Herefordshire, not many years ago, when a girl brought a young cuckow to the house where I bapa pened to be; and on my alking what sort of bird it was fed by, the girl answered, by such another, only somewhat larger.
• From these facts it must be allowed, what all cuckow's at least are got the unnatural parents they are commonly supposed to be.'
Nevertheless our ingenious naturalift is persuaded that this bird is more frequently an orphan than any other, from the curiosity that generally prevails with regard to it, occasioning the parents to be continually shot; and on this head we are fura nished with some curious remarks,
Mr. B. observes, that there is something in the cry of a neftling for food, which affects all kinds of birds. He took four young ones from a hen fku-lark, supplying their place with five nightingales and five wrens, the greater part of which were feared by the folter parent. Every breeder of canary birds finds accidental reasons for such kind of transplantations, within the same species indeed, but without restriction as to the number within the capacity of a nest. I have seen, says Mr. B. a young chicken, not above two months old, take as much care
of younger chickens, as the parent would have shewn to them, which they had lost, not only by scratching to procure them food, but by covering them with her wings; and I have little doubt but that she would have done the same by young ducks, I have likewise been witness of nestling thrushes, of a later brood, being fed by a young bird which was hatched earlier, and which, indeed, rather over-crammed the orphans intryfted to her care; if the bird, however, erred in judgment, she was certainly, not deficient in tenderness, which I am persuaded the would have equally extended to a nestling cuckow.' The bare fact, therefore, of a hedge sparrow, or other small bird, being observed to feed a young cuckow, is, he observes, no proof that the cuckow's egg was hatched by such a dam.
On the Linnæan System. We are here furnished with some fevere strictures on this ces, Jebrated Swedish naturalist, whose Lacin is, censured as barbaa rous, and his descriptions as obscure :
There is scarcely any naturalift (says Mr. B.) who hath published fince the Linnæan system began to have a vogue, who hath not condemned many parts of it; so that I am not fingular in fuppofing that it hath its defects.
• But I conceive, that there is not only foundation for many of these objections; but that it hath, in many instances, been prejudicial to the knowledge of that very subject which it is intended chiefly to inculcate.
• Linnæus hath comprised the animal kingdom of the whole globe, except insects (viz. Beasts, Birds, Reptiles, and Fish), in 532 pages octavo: and what can this possibly amount to more than a vocabuJary, grammar, or dictionary, be it as excellent as it may ?
• But it may possibly be said, that the cheapness of so much instruction, as well as its being so portable, are great recom mcadations of this useful publication, which I am very ready to allow : so are Cole's Latin Dictionary and Hedericus's Lexicon deservedly in great requeft; but though these will answer my purpose very well whilft I am at school, I thall want better affistance when I have left it.
• Again, it will be urged, that they who study the Linnæan System are not debarred from perusing the works of other naturalists; but I appeal to experience, whether those who are zealous admirers of the Swedish professor often go beyond the elementary knowledge of their instructor, or contribute any useful additions to any article of na: tural history,
• In other words, so much time is taken up in mastering the Linnæan elements, that we grow old before we can apply to any pariicolar branch of this comprehensive study.'
These objections are supported by citations, for which we must refer to the essay.
Mr. B. next gives an account of an agreement between the King of Spain and our Royal Society, for an exchange of nafural curiosities; in consequence of which though the Society,