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which had pearly cost him his life; he was however pardoned, and permitted to retire to Hinlip, which was settled upon him by his father, in confideration of his marriage with Mary, eldest daughter of Edward Lord Morley, by Elizabeth his wife, daughter and sole heir of Sir William Stanley, Knight, Lord Monteagle. Notwithlanding this escape, Mr. Habington could not help engaging in the gunpow. der plot'; whereio if he was not direally concerned, yet, for enter: raining Garnet, Oldcorn, and others, he was committed to the Tower,.' and condemned to die; but by the intercession of his wife's father, Lord Morley, and being Queen Elizabeth's godson, he was reprieved, and pardoned on condition that he hould retire to Hinlip, and never again ftir out of Worcesterhire. In this retirement, he gave himself up entirely to study the antiquities of the county. He died O&o-, ber 8, 1647, aged 87. His portrait is ketched under the article Hinlip.
• His papers were transcribed by his fon William Habington, who made fome few additions to them, though his studies were chiefly in the poetic line. The history of Edward IV. written and published at the request of Charles I. was chiefly compiled from his father's papers. He died November 30, 1659, leaving his colle&ion's to his son Thomas Habington of Hinlip, who dying without issue, left his eltare to Sir William Compion.
• The MSS. luckily fell into the hands of Dr. Thomas, the ioduftrious antiquáry of Worcester, the publisher of Dugdale's Wara wickshire, the Survey of Worcester cathedral, and many other pieces. "He died July 26, 1738, without issue male, after having cakes much pains in collating the registers of the Bithops, and Dean and Chapier, and making many other valuable additions to Habington's papers. A mezzotinto portrait of him is hereto annexed.
• After Dr. Thomas's death, all the papers were purchased by Dr. Charles Lyttelton, late Bishop of Carliile, and Prefident of the Society of Antiquaries, who made many additions to them from the old Chapter-house Weftminfter, the Tower records, and other public offices. He died 1768, and by will left his collections to the Society of Antiquaries of London ; in whose library they'remained till the year 1774, when they were entrusted to me for the purpose of reviling and publithing. His Lordship's portrait was engraved at the expence of the Society of Antiquaries. .
In this introduction we have the artient history and a general furvey of the county in various interesting points of view, its political and ecclesiastical state, its natural history, tillage, and productions: and the introduction is followed by a very curio ous fac fimile copy of the Domesday survey of the county, in thirteen plates. After all the trouble and expence beftowed on this work, the indefatigable and learned author,, with a modefty not always to be met with, declares- I do not presume to call this account an history, but only parochial collections for an history; and it is hoped, that, in some future day, an able' hand will select from all the provincial histories what is really ufe. ful or curious, and add it, by way of notes, to a new edicion of Camden's Britannia. Much' of what is here written may, to in.: different persons, appear trifing and uninteresting; but to such as
have property or connections in the county, the same things may be amufing, if not useful and instructive : and it must always be remembered, that a county historian is by profeflion a dealer in small ware.'
A writer, who views his subject in so proper a light, leaves an observer nothing to do but' to subscribe to the justice of his remarks. These parochial collections, accordingly, consist of the
usual materials; paraphrastical tranlations of the Domesday re**cords of the respective manors; copies of antient grants, and other deeds; genealogical tables, ármorial bearings, patrons of benefices, lifts of incumbents, monumental inscriprions, with other occasional particulars, and peculiar objects of attention where they occur. The parishes are arranged in alphabetical order, and not according to the hundreds, or course of the rivers s for which the Author alleges the irregular shape of the county, and the disjointed manner in which the parishes lie: and these
circumstances appear to justify the order he has adopted as the · more regular, and easieft for reference ; especially as the work is · supplied with an Index of places and family names. ? ;
Such materials are; for the most part, as the Author truly temarks, merely of local importance; but they are of fuch im
portance that a county history would perhaps gain little honour i or regard in its own province, were it deficient in celebrating * the names, past and present, of all the neighbourhood. Mata
ters of more general consequence, however, attract the attention • of the public, and though a county historian cannot give more " importance to his subject than it affords him, yet much depends
upon the turn of his own mind, and what he considers as the. *principal objects of attention. In the work before us, we find, - under the parish of Claines, some very judicious remarks on the
imperfections of parilh registers, the careless custody, and, above - all, the ignorant mode of making entries; with hints for their re• formation. Dr. N. obferves, when one reflects how often parish
regifters are produced in courts as evidences in matters of the highest consequence, how often they affect the interest and property of indivi, duals, one cannot but lament they should be so carelessly kept, and often entrusted to the cuftody of an ignorant conceited parish clerk, who may neglect to make entries, or give what nicknames he pleases.
It becomes more necessary to be careful about parochial registers and monumental inscriptions, because they are now the only means of fettling family pedigrees, as the inquifitions poft mortem are determined
by act of parliament, and there has been no heraldical visitation fince - the revolution.' *,Under Droitwich, we are furnished with a particular account
of the falt works for which that town has been for so many ? ages noted. Records of them are traced from the year 816;
they are mentioned in Domesday, where shares in them were annexed to several estates in the county; and King Joho granted
to the burgesses of the town whatever he had in the village of Wich, with the salt pits, and all their appurtenances, &c. in fee farm, for the sum of jooh sterling yearly. Under several subsequent grants from the crown, and the Stat. i W. & M. the governors and proprietors of the salt works prevented every one from finking new pits; until Robert Steynor, Esq; a gentleman of above 1000!. a year estate, discovered and funk two pits on his own ground about the year 1690. He was sued by the corporation, and defended himtelf at the expence of above 6000 l. and after various trials established his right; in consequence of which determination many persons funk in their own lands, and found as good brine as in the old pits: the monopoly was destroyed, the trade was greatly extended, and the price of salt reduced from 2 s. a bushel to 4d. : ..
It is a fad discouragement to undertakings for the public good, to learn that this gentleman, like many other projectors, and persons intangled in law, lived to receive a parih allowance in consideration of his former services; and a daughter of his was living a few years since, on the same kind of support!
In 1725, the old proprietors understanding, from some persons concerned in the Cheshire salt works, that the strongest brine there lay lower than the pits at Droitwich, were commonly dug; ordered the talc at the bottom of their pits to be funk through: upon which, the strong brine burst up with such violence as to kill the two labourers then at work. Since this, such a profufion of brine has been obtained, that not a tench part of it has ever been used, but has run to waste. ;
In finking these brine pits, it is generally found to be about 35 feet to the talc ; through the stratum of talc 150 feet; under the talc a river of brine 22 inches deep; and under this river a hard rock of salt. The talc is so hard, that the workmen never fink the pic through it; but bore a hole four inches in diameter, through which the brine rises and fills the pic. A person that has land may sink a pit at the expence of about 401. from whence he might get brine enough to serve the kingdom ; but it is scarcely worth while, as from several of the pits already sunk, any one, for the easy rent of 31. may have as much brine as he pleases. Such is in substance, omitting the analysis of the brine, and process of making the salt, the account given, by Dr. .Nash, of the brine pics at Droiewich. · In the account of the parish of Hagley, we have some hiltorical memoirs of the family of the late Lord Lyttelton; and u. der Hales Owen, part of wbich is in Worcestershire, we find some anecdotes of the poet Mr. Shenstone of the Lealowes. Under that of Holt, the ingenious writer has given some critical remarks on the difference between the old Saxon and the Gothic
archite&ture, afterward introduced by the Normans; illustrated by a place of Saxon architecture.
We have seen at the beginning of this article, from Dr. Nash's introduction, that Mr. Îhomas Habington of Henlip was the first collector of materials for a history of Worcestershire; a labour which we owe to his share in the famous gunpowder plot. As a conclusion to the Article, and for the entertainment of our Readers, we shall, from the description of the parish of Henlip, extract the account of Mr. Habington's house, with the apprehending Garnet the Jesuit, and others, who were very artfully secreted there by the owner.
The mansion house here is supposed to have been built by John Habington, cofferer to Queen Elizabeth ; the date in the parlour is 1572. His son, who was concerned in various plocs, for the releasing Mary Queen of Scots, and setting up a Papilt to succeed ber, contrived many hiding-holes in different parts of the building. The access to some was through the chimney, to others through necessary. houses; others had trap doors which communicated to back staircases : some of these rooms on the outside have the appearance of great chimnies. As the house is uncommonly conitructed both within and without, I have had it engraved, together with the head of the builder. I have likewise given a fight sketch of Mr. Thomas Abingdon and his wise Mary, who was filter to Lord Monteagle, so called during the life time of his father Lord Morley. Tradition in this country says, the was the person who wrote the letter to her brother, which discovered the gunpowder plot. Percy, whose picture is at Hinlip, was very intimate both with Abingdon and Lord Monteagle, and is supposed by Guthrie to have written the letter ; but the stile of it seems to be that of one who had only heard some dark hints of the business, which perhaps was the case of Mrs. Abingdon, and not of one who was a principal mover in the whole, as was Percy, a derperado, who thought himself personally offended, and who was fit for the most horrid designs. Mr. Abingdon, husband to this lady, was condemned to die for concealing Garnet and Oldcorn, as mentioned in the paper which follows; but was pardoned at the intercef. fion of his wife, and Lord Monteagle.
· Among the MSS. in the Harleian Library, marked 28 B. 9. is the following account, which agrees with that given by Mr. Abingdon, in fome MSS. now before me, found in the house at Henlip.
“ A true discovery of the service performed at Henlip, the house of Mr. Thomas Abingdon, for the apprehenaon of Mr. Henry Garnett, alias Wolley, provincial of the Jesuiis, and other dangerous persons, there found in January lat, 160;.”.
“ After the King's royal promise of bountiful reward to such as would apprehend the traitors concerned in the powder conspiracy, and much expectation of subject-like duty, but no return made there. of in so important a matter, a warrant was directed to the Right worthy and worshipful Knight Sir Henry Bromlie; and the proclamation delivered therewith, describing the features and mapes of the men, for the better discovering them. He, not neglecting so weighty a business, horseing himself with a seemly troop of his own attendants,
and calling to his altiffance so many as in discretion was thought meet, having likewise in his company Sir Edward Bromley ; on Monday, Jan. 20, lalt, by break of day, did engine and round beses the house of Mayster Thomas Abbingdon, ai Henlip, near Worcester, Mr. Abbingdon not being then at home, but ridden abroad about some occasions best known to himself; the house being goodlie, and of great receipi, it required the more diligent labour and pains in the searching; it appeared there was no want ; and Mr. Abbingdon himself coming home chat night, the commission and proclamation being shewn unto him, he denied any such men to be in his houre, and voluntarily to die at his own gate, if any such were to be found in his house, or in that Mire ; but this liberal or rather rah Speech could not cause the search So flighely to be giveo over, the cause enforced more respect chan words of that or any such like na, ture ; and proceeding on, according to the trust reposed in him, in the gallery over the gate there were found two cunning and very artificial conveyances in the main brick wall, so ingeniousy framed, and with such art, as it cost much labour ere they could be found. Three other secret places, contrived by no less skill and industry, were found in and about the chimnies, in one whereof two of the trailors were close concealed. These chimney conveyances being so strangely formed, having the entrances into them so curiously covered over with brick, morcared and made fast to planks of wood, and coloured black like the other parts of the chimney, that very dia ligent inquisition might well have passed by, without throwing the least suspicion upon such unsuspicious places, And whereas divers funnels are usually made to chimneys according as they are combined togeiher, and serve for necessary use in several rooms, so here were some that exceeded common expectation, seeming outwardly fic for carrying forth finoke ; but being further examined and seen into, their service was to no such purpose, but only to lend air and light downward into the concealments, where such as were incloied in them at aoy cime should be hidden. Eleven secret corders and con. veyances were found in the said house, all of them having books, malling ftuff, and popith trumpery in them, only two excepted, which appeared to have beeo found on former searches, and therefore bad now the less credit given to them ; bus Mayfter Abingdon would take no knowledge of any of these places, nor that the books, or, mating stuff, were any of his, until at length the deeds of his lands being found in one of them, whose custody doubtless he would not commit to any place of neglect, or where he mould have no intelligence of them, wherero he could then devise no sufficient excuse, three days had been wholly spent, and no man found there all this while; but upon the fourth day in the morning, from behind the wainscot in the galleries came forth two men of their own voluntary accord, as being no longer able there to conceal themselves, for they confessed that they bad but one apple between them, which was all the softe. nance they had received during the time that they were thus hidden, One of them was named Owen, who afterwards mordered himself in the Tower; and the other Chambers ; but they would take no other koowledge of any other mers being in the house. On the eighth day sbc before-mentioned place in the chimney was found, according