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leged, that money being scarce, the making such profits on the enem por ought not to be neglected ; and that this lucrative business should not be driven into other countries by a prohibition here.-Several worthy members of parliament took pains to énquire into the true state of this business, and to find out, whether in reality Great Bri. tain was so much benefited by foreign insurances as was suggefied; and many disinterested merchants impartially declared their opinion thereon to the following eftet:---that the supposed profit of 3 per cent, on a premium of 30 per cent. said, in some of ihe above-mentioned speeches and calculations, to be actually made, is quite uncertain; that in proportion as the number of the British Mips of war, and privateers increase, much more than is calculated to be gained, may be lor; and that when only 18 per cent, premium was paid for insurance here, the insurers, as well as others, actually knew they were great losers by such risques : ---that no merchants, by any ikill in computing of chances, or by any other means, can demonstrate what the profit on any voyages will be ; and that all that can be known is, that those alone have reason to promise themselves advan. tage from insurances, who, in proportion as the premiums rise and fall, and the circumstances are more or less dangerous, underwrite, or do not underwrite, greater or less fums:--that we have more or less reason to expect profit, or lor, from foreign insurance, in proportion as there is a greater or less number of persons who have sufficient experience, and know how to make a proper choice :- that it is evident, if more clear money be paid for loffes upon foreign in. surances, than the gross fums received for premiums, and all charges, amount to, the articles, set forth in the above mentioned calculations, of commillion, brokerage, and deductions, are by no means to be considered as certain and indisputable items of profit ; for though they bring clear sums into the pockets of the factors, or brokers, who negociate such insurances, the losses paid by insurers may greatly exceed the whole foreign disbursement; and consequently the balance will be a national loss: this point, therefore, as mentioned above, is extremely difficult to ascertain ; but there is a plain, and incontestable argument against foreign insurances being made for an enemy, which will always substi, so long as G eat Britain has the superiority of naval power, viz. that the great object of a maritime nation mould be, to take advantage of any rupture with another trading staie, to destroy and diffre's their hipping, and commerce, and to cut off al} resources for naval armaments; but to permit such insurances is manifestly to defeat this end, and is contradictory to common fen'e ; for the government, and private merchants are, on one hand, fitting out vessels at a great expence to make captures, and to annoy, and dif. tress the enemy; whilst another set of merchants make good the losses, and furnith means for the continuance of their commerce :tbar when orders come for insurances from places, where the eager pursuit of premiums is as frong as it is here, it shews a higher premium has been there infited on; and as people on the spot can be better judges of the nature of the concern, the navigation, thips, commanders, &c, than those at a distance, there can be lisce hopes of profit by insurances which they reject:-hat as i: is now customary to accept of eftimations, in which the foreigner insured, in case
of of a loss, finds his account better than if the verrel had not been lost, or taken; nay, it is agreed to pay such a sum insured, whether on board the ship or not ; it is evident that such agreements have a bad tendency, as they give so much room for frauds:- that no person ever had proved to a certainty, whether' by insurance on foreign trade, mose, on the whole, had been gained than loft :-that it was contrary to sound and good policy, to'grant affifiance to undertakings which were contrary to the general intereft, and diametrically opposite to the intention of prohibiting the trade with Françe; the natural consequence of which should have been the prohibition of injuring their hips and goods :- this is to be understood only in times of war, for in those of peace, such insurances should be considered as a business that is to be left to the free will of the merchant.
's. It has been further observed, that although our insurers may be gainers, upon the whole, by the credit side of their premiums exo ceeding the debit side of their fosses; yet the question is, 'out of whose pockets do such premiums arise in time of war?-If they wholly arose from our enemies who infored, then our enemies would pay more for the price of insurance than they loft; which cannot be the case :from whom then does this surplusage of premiums arise, which make our insurers gainers, but from our own British metchants ? and, if so, when an enemy's lip is taken that has been in. sured by our insurers, the loss does not fall either upon the insurers (if they are gainers on the whole) or upon the enemy, but it falls upon our own British merchants, whose premiums must pay it :besides, as our enemies do not feel the loss, are they not enabled the better to fit out more tips of war and privateers to annoy our own merchants ? does not this necessarily tend to raise the price of insusance fill higher and higher upon them? and does not this Aill che better enable our insurers to insure the ships of our enemies, and to be instrumental to the prolongation of the war ! do not these high ina furances clog our whole trade at such times, lessen the public revenue, and add to the evil of war? Finally, it is added, that our principal merchants, being the greatest underwriters, become disinclined to fit out privateers to cruize on, and distress the enemy, rather contenting themselves with the expectation of gaining the premiums from them; and therefore wishing to contribute to the safety and arrival of their property, and the success of their com: merce. :*'6. REMARKS. It is the opinion of some civilians that “ the in: furing the property of enemies is in itself illegal, and a species of treason against our country; therefore it is evidently hull and void :" -no British fubject can have a right to insure the enemy's losses, more than he has to assist him by main force, as both ultimately tend to the fame point, the support of the power intended to be overthrown :all states, at the commencement of hoflilities, commence them in hopes of victory; but underwriters, of the class in question, reverse this order, and insure in hopes of defeat:-hence many of them are the best of spies for our enemies, giving every intelligence by which their ships may be enabled to escape, and by false lights decoying those of their country into the hands of its foes..- In every policy, therefore, the case of war should be expressly excepted, in order to Rev. Sept. 1781.
prevent cavil; but this precaution is not absolately.neceffary, as the law of nations, which must be founded on good fense, absolutely prohibits such a commerce :-every contract, by which a public enemy is upheld, must be illegal; and in the present instance, where the conteft is about commerce, no meihod more effectual for upholding the enemy can be devised. As the intention of insurance is to ren. der navigation and commerce more safely, easily, and conveniently, carried on, it is plain that the reason of war altogether requires that the insuring of the enemy's property be not allowed. When the States General were at war with Spain in 1622, they proclaimed all insurances void, which were made before or after the edi&t, by the inhabitants of the United Necherlands, upon effects belonging to the subjects of the king of Spain, laying a penalty upon those who should do so ; whicb seems very just, because in all declarations of war, .or commifiions of hostilities, every one is commanded to do as much damage to the enemy as he can, so that he is also forbid to consult the convenience of the enemy: the general law of war requires it. It appears a matter of much uncertainty whether the insuring of the fhips and property of enemies be profitable even to the insurers, notwithstanding the opinion of Sir John Barnard was in the affirmative; but it is pretty certain that, if the expence of armaments, victualling, manning, wages, wear and tear, damage, &c. &c. &c. of men of war, privateers, letters of marque, with various other detriments and difadvantages, be taken into the account, not to mention the temptation it is to give intelligence to the enemy, and to the commission of frauds by them, the balance on the whole cannot be well in favour of the nation. -The Dutch, who have seldom overlooked any advantage to themselves in trade, have always thought it necessary to probibit this kind of insurance. Upon the whole, therefore, the ad of the British parliament 21 Geo. 2. made to prohibit insuring the enemy's ships and merchandises, during the continuation of the then war with France, appears to have been highly politic and worthy of much approbation.
07. Les Anglois sont encore dans la maxime, que l'assurance des vaisseaux ennemis doit être permise & favorisée: li on leur objecte, que le vaisseau étant pris, il ne revient à la narion qu'une partie de la chose qu'elle devoit avoir toute entiere ; ils répondent, que cette perte ett couverte pour l'état qui rassemble toutes les assurances, par la valeur de la prise qu' il gagne. Son gain seroit-il plus grand s'il abandonnoit le profit des primes ? Non, sans doute, puisque ce profit eft reglé sur l'etendue des risques. L'assureur, ou la nation, étant toujours la maîtresse d'assurer, ou de na pas assurer, a soio que la proportion entre la prime & les risques foit en fa faveur ; d'où il résulte que la somme des primes réunies excede nécessairement la valeur des vaisseaux qui tombent dans le cas d'être pris.-Diet. du Citoyen.
8. Nothing belonging to a declared enemy of the kingdom shall be insured, under penalty of the insurance being void, and the delin, quent to forfeit the amount of the sum to which he had subscribed, one half to go to the informer, and the other to the cheft of the insurance court established by us.-Ordin. of Stockb.
9. See Capture, Confiscation, Contraband, Flota, France, Freedom of Navigation, Interesi, Law of Nations, Prize, Property, Treaty, War.
The detached articles are well connected by cross references; but as the heads and cases under each, are numbered, it would have been an improvement to have referred to the number under each head where the collateral matter is to be found.
ART. VI. Thoughts on Hunting, in a Series of familiar Letters to a
Friend: *410. 7s.6d. in Boards. Salisbury, printed, for Elmily, , &c. in London. 1781. T HERE appears to be so little affinity or correspondence beT tween hunting and literature, upon a general comparison of the professors of each, that a didactic treatise on the art of hunting, was rather an unexpected acquisition ; and still more so to find the precepts delivered in an easy agreeable style! The work before us, however, does not only come from a keen sportsman, but from a man of letters; a coincidence the less to be wondered at, if we are justified in conje&uring his profession from some casual hints that have escaped his pen *.
The Author very juftly observes, that there is not any one of those branches of knowledge, commonly dignified with the title of arts, which has not its rudiments or principles, through which a competent knowledge, if not perfection, may be obtained : whereas hunting, the fole business of some, and the amusement of the greatest part of the youth of this kingdom, seems left alone to chance. Its pursuit puts us both to greater expence, and greater inconvenience, than any thing besides, and yet we trust our diversion in it to the sole guidance of a huntsman: we follow just as he chuses to lead us; and we suffer the success, or disappointment, of the chase to depend solely on the judgment of a fellow, who is frequently a greater brute than the creaiure on which he rides. I would not be understood to mean by this, that an huntsman should be a scholar, or that every gentleman should hunt bis own hounds: a huntsman need not be a man of letters ; but give me leave to say, that, had he the best understanding, he would frequently find opportunities of exercising it, and intricacies which might pat it to the teft. You will fay, perhaps, there is something too laborious in the occupation of a huntsman for a gentleman to take it upon himself; you may also chink that it is beneach him ; I agree
• “ Before you have been long a fox-hunter, I expect to hear you talk of che ill luck which so frequently atcends it.— I assure you it has provoked me often, and has made a parfon fwear." p. 288. Relaring soon after a fox chace, where, after the hounds had killed iwo, a third was dug out and killed, that might have been reserved for another day's sport; he adds" However, it answered one purpose you would little expect: it put a clergyman present in mind that he had a corpse to bury, which otherwise had been forgotten," p. 293. This was a fortunate recollection ; but, bad the worst happened, he might at least have had the consolation to be reminded over the evening bowl, in full chorus, " A corpse, Moses, can't run away, Toll de roll.” P 2
*Written by Peter Beckford, Sogn of
Hapleton avete dire
with you in both,-yet I hope, he may have leave to understand it. If he follows the diverfion, it is a fign' of his liking it, and if he likes it, surely it is some disgrace to him to be ignorant of it." .
The task of laying down some principles of hunting has thus devolved on the Writer under consideration; and perhaps the businois could not have been left in better hands. He gives his correspondent the following account of his intentions :
I am glad to find you approve of the plan i propose to observe in the course of these letters, in which it shall be my endeavour to omit nothing, that may be necessary for you to know; at least, as far as. my own observation and experience will give me leave. The experience I have had may be of use to you at prefent; others perhaps hereafter may write more judiciously and more fully on the subject : you know it is my interest to wish they would. The few who have written on hunting, refer you to their predeceffors for great part of the information you might expect from them : and who their prede-, cestors were, I have yet to learn, Even Somervile is less copious than I could wish, and has purposely omitted what is not to be found elrewhere; - I mean receipts for the cure of such diseases as hounds are subject to. 'He holds such information cheap, and beneath his lofty muse. Prose has no excuse, and you may depend on every information I can give. The familiar manner in which my thoughts will be conveyed to you in these Letters, will fufliciently evince the intention of the Author.- They are written with no other design than to be of use to sportsmen.- Were my aim to amuse, I would not endeavour to instruct. A song might suit the purpose better than an effay. To improve health by promoting exercise ;-10 excite gentlemen who are fond of hunting to obtain the knowledge neceffary to enjoy it in perfe&lion ;- and to lessen the punishments which are too, ofien inflicted on an animal fo friendly to man, are the chief ends' inrended by the following Letters.
In these Letters the Author treats of the best construction of kennels, giving a neat plan and elevation to illustrate his description, of the choice of hounds, their management in the kennel, rules for breeding hounds, with a vocabulary of names for thems of their education, their diseases and remedies ; of the huntsman and wbippers-in, hare hunting, description of a fox chare, and copious instructions for fox-hunting in all its parts. These principal subjects, with many subordinate articles of information, enlivened with a number of field anecdotes and litde stories, fill twenty-four very entertaining Letters. As a specimen we shall present our Readers with the thirteenth letter containing the description of a fox chace :, . .
. A fox chace is not easy to be described-yet as even a fajot. description of it may serve, to a certain degree, as an answer to the various questions you are pleased to make concerning that diveral fion, I shall prosecute my attempt in such a manner, as I think may suit your purpose belt. As I fear it may road ill, is thall not be long. A gentleman, to whose understanding nature had most evi-. denily bees (pasing of bar.gifis, as often as he took up a book, and