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ideas which are in the mind of man', and that writing or print. iog are the transcript of words.
Speciator, No. 166. ' In this example, if there were no connexion between the two last members from the antithefis they contain, the rising inflexion would be necessary at the end of the penultimate member, for the sake of found.
• In short, a modern Piodaric writer, compared with Pindar, is like a filter among the Camilars, compared with Virgil's Sybil: there is the distortion, grimace, and outward figure, but nothing of that divine impulse which raises the mind above itself', and makes the sounds more than human.
Spellator, No. 160. • The florist, the planter, the gardener, the husbandman, when they are accomplishments to the man of fortune, are great reliefs to a country life', and many ways useful to those who are posessed of them.
Ib. No. 93. • In the first of these examples the sentence might have finished ac itself, and in the last at life ; for the succeeding members do not modify them, but as they are penultimate members they necessarily require che rising inflexion,
In pronouncing sentences in which a series of particulars is enumerated, the falling inflexion is most expressive. Let us try the following passage with the rising inflexion on each particular. : I tell you, though you', though all the world', though an an
gel from heaven', were co afirm the truth of it, I could not be· lieve it.
• How came and insipid is this asseveration, in comparison with the following manner of delivering it! that is, each particular having the falling inflexion :
I tell you, though you', though all the world, though an angel from heaven' were to affirm the truth of it, I could not believe it.'
After a great number of minute rules-to0 minute perhaps to .be observed in practice respecting the variation of inflexion in fingle and compound serieses, Mr. Walker proceeds to treat of the final pause or period, and thews, that it generally requires the falling inflexion and a lower tone of voice, but that this rule is liable to several exceptions, chiefly where the last word is antithetical, and opposed to a word which, from its emphatical meaning, requires the falling emphasis ; where the last member of a sentence is negative in oppoficion to some affirmative ; and where the sentence is interrogative, but the question formed without the interrogative pronouns or adverbs. The following are examples of each of these exceptions in their order :-If content cannot remove the disquietudes of mankind, it will at lealt alleviate them.-Cæsar deferves blame, not fame.- Do you intend to read that book ?
Many good observations and rules occur in this part concern. inz interrogative sentences, exclamations, and parentheses, to which we must contong ourselves with barely referring our
Readers, in order to make room for some of the Author's obfervations on the remaining branches of elocution.
Emphasis, he justly distinguishes into that which arises from the p culiar fenie of one or iwo words in a sentence, and that which arises from the greater importance of the nouns, verbs, and other principal words, than of connectives and particles. The latter takes place on almost every word in a sentence, except the articles, prepositions, and conjunctions. The former is only placed upont fome word or words, the meaning of which is to be pointed out as distinct from, or opposite to, some other thing. When this opposition is expressed in words, it forms an antithesis, the opposite parts of which are always emphatical : thus,
'Tis hard to say if greater want of skill
Appear in writing or in judging ill. Sometimes one branch of the antithelis is not expressed, but understood; as,
. Get wealth and place, if possible with grace;
If not, by any means get wealth and place. . It is this kind of emphasis which most properly merits the appellation, and is chiefly to be attended to in speaking : concerning which this general rule may be laid down, that, wherever there is contradiftinction in the sense of the words, either expressed or understood, there ought to be emphasis in the pronunciation of them. And from hence it may be inferred, that, wherever we place this emphasis, we suggest the idea of contradiftinction. Every sentence in which there is an emphatical word has three degrees, which may be expressed by different characters, as in the following example :
Exercise and temperance ftrengthen even an indiFFERENT constitution.'
Every emphatic word, properly so called, is distinguished by the kind of inflexion it adopts. Whenever the emphatic word points out a particular sense in exclusion of some other sense, this emphatic word adopts the falling inflexion. Ex. " When a Persian soldier was reviling Alexander the Great, his officer reprimanded him by saying, Sir, you were paid to fight against Alexander, and not to rait at him.'
The emphasis with the rising inflexion is to be placed on those words, which, though in contradistinction to something else, do not absolutely exclude its existence;
. Let us try this by an example. Lothario, in the Pair Penitent, expressing his contempt for the opposition of Horario, says,
By the joys
Though all thy' force were arm'd to bar my way.
flexion; which intimates, that however Lothario might be reftrained by the force of oibers, Horatio's force, at least, was too insignificant to control him : and as a farther proof that this is the sense suggeited by the riling inflexion on the word thy, if we do but alter the inflexion upon this word, by giving it the emphasis with the falling in. Hezin, we mall find, thai, inltead of contempt and sneer, a compliment will be paid to Horario; for it would imply as much as if Houbario had kuid, I would not urn aside from my leon pleasure, not only rheugh common porce, but even though thy force, great as it is, were armd so bar iny way: and that this cannot be the sense of ihe passage is eviden:.'
The grand disinction then between the two emphatic in. flexions is this; the falling inflexion affirms sometning in the emphasis, and denies wiat is opposed to it in the antithesis ; while the emphasis with the rising inflexion affirms fomething in the einphafis, wiingut denying what is opposed to it in the antithesis. And from nence may be deduced the following general rule, concerning sentences compoied of a positive and negative part : If the positive and negative import, that something is affirmed of one of the things which is denied of the other, the positive must have the falling, and the negative the rifing in Mexion. Ex. And men', not leajts', Thall be his game. - On this head the Author enters into a detail of observation, through which our limits will not allow us to follow him ; we can only remark in general, that his principles appear to us to be jutt and his rules uselul. We must, however, except the preference which he gives to harmony above the most expressive utterance in the following paragraph:
• Obscurity is the greatoit poluble defect in reading; and no hasmony whatever will make amends for it: but if the fense of a passage is sufficiently clear, it seems no infringement on the rights of the underlarding to give this fufficienily clear sense ao harmonious utterance. In this case, it is, perhaps, necessary to distinguish between clear sense, and frong sense ; the first, is that which puts the author's meaning beyond the pullibility of miitake, ile laiter, as it vere, adds some:hing to it, and places the sense in such a point of view as to give it, though not a different, yet a greater force than what the words immediately fuggeft; but if this addicional force be. comes harsh, quaint, or affected, the ear claims her rights in favour of harmony; and good talle will always admit her claim, when the rights of the understanding are suficiently secured. Thus in that noble fensiment of Cato;
A day, an hour of virtuous liberty,
Is worth a whnle eternity in bondage. To pronounce this paffage with the greareit force, we ought to lay the emphasis with the falling inflexion on eternity; as this would suge get a paraphrase perfe&ly illuilrative of the sente, which is, that a dav, or an hour of virtuous liberry is 7707 only worth more than the longeft Jinite duration in bondage, but even a u bole eternity. This pronunciasion, however, would necessarily give the rising inflexion to bondage,
which would conclude the passage so in harmoniously, that the ear finds itself obliged 10 neglect this so forcible expresion, and content itself with placing the rising inflexion on eternity, for the sake of the harmony of the cadence : and as the plain import of the word eternity is sufficiently Itrong and emphatical, sense is no great loser by the sacribce.'
We cannot agree with our Author in the opinion, that reading is a comproinise between the rights of senie and sound. We apprehend-as he has indeed allowed--that if the sense of a sentence be strongly conveyed, it will seldom be in harmoniously pronounced'-and if this should occasionally happen, we judge that, in that case, there ought to be no compromise ; but the found shall be freely sacrificed to the sense. For this reason, we are of opinion that little advantageous use can be made either of the principles, or precepts, which the Author has laid down concerning harmonic inflexion in reading prose. Poetry, however, it is acknowledged, cannot be read properly, without an equable and harmonious flow of sound, distinct from the true pronunciation of prose compositions, Hence the different indexions of the voice upon particular words are not so perceptible in verse as in prose; and sometimes the voice intirely finks the inflexions, and slides into a monotone, Wherever the in Rexions are preserved, and the sense would, in proie, necessarily require the falling, or the rising in flexion, the fame must be adopted in verse : but where either may be used in profe, the rising inflexion should be adopted in veise as most favourable to melody. The particular rules which Mr. W. deduces from there general remarks are, for the most part, just and useful; but he lays too much stress, we think, upon the paule in or near the middle of every line, called the cæsura; which, noswithstanding what Lord Kaims and this Author have advanced, appears to us too fanciful and uncertain to deserve attention in reading English verse.
Concerning the modulation of the voice, gesture, and the tones of the pallions, the Author lays down many good rules; but in this part of his work we do not observe any thing fufficienily original to require our particular attention. A judi. cious selection of passages from the Poets, expresing the several emotions and passions of the human mind, closes this useful work.
We cannot take our leave of these Elements, without recommending them to the attention of the Public, as at once containing many new and curious observations, and providing a series of practical rules, which, under the direction of a judi. cious preceptor, may be employed with great advantage in geaching the art of Reading.
Art. IV. Cardipbonia, or the Utrerance of the Heart, in the
Course of a real Correspondence. By the Author of Omicron's
1 nuity; but it is to beclouded by mysticism, so distorted by nonsense, that it feldom appears to any advantage. There is a vivacity in the following remark on the spiritual expositors of the Old Testament, which convinces us, that the Author's understanding would instruct him to despise absurdity of any kind, if he had courage enough to put himself under its direction. " I suppose I should have thought the Bible complete, though it had not informed me of the death of Rebekah's nurse, or where she was buried. But some tell me that Deborah is the law, and by the oak I am to understand the cross of Christ : and I remember to have heard of a preacher who discovered a type of Christ crucified, in Absalom hanging by the hair on another oak. I am quite a mole when compared with these cagle-eyed divines, and must often content myself with plodding upon the lower ground of accomodation and allusion, except where the New Testament writers assure me what the mind of the Holy Ghost was. I can find the gospel with more confidence in the history of Sarab and Hagar, than in that of Leah and Rachel; though without Paul's help I should have considered them both as family squabbles, recorded chiefly to illuitrate this general truth, that vanity and vexation of spirit are incident to the best men, in the most favoured fituacions.' Bur it is seldom that we meet with such pertinent observations as there in the volumes before us. The Author is too fond of placing the chief part of religion in certain ineffable and incommunicable impulses and feelings of the heart;-talks with too much furance of his own experiences of the power of divine grace; and appears, through the whole series of his correspondence, to be as infallibly certain of his election to everlasting life, and of the truth of the leading doctrines of Calvinism, as an apoftle would be, even in the plenitude of inSpirarion. We are disgusted with vanity in every form; but when it assumes the dress of religion, we are more than difgusted :-we are really shocked. It is odious:-- it is unnatural. It is a monster of equivocal generation !--nor will reprobated complaints of indwelling fin, declensions, backslidings, lukewarmness, and all the tiresome, common place jargon which generally figures in the confeffion of a methodift, make any amends for that insufferable self-conceit which arrogates to him self, and to his own party, the exclusive privileges of the covenant of grace, and converts the gospel of our common Saviour,
• The Rev. John Newton, curate of Olney, Bucks, Author of an Auobentic Narrative, &c, addressed to Haweis; 4 Review of Ecclefiaftical Hiftory, &c