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polible, when the fatal day arrived, which was the celebrated epocha of che downfal of the lyttem.

M. d'Argenson, who had long been jealous that a foreigner should supplant him in ihe confidence of the Regent, not only favoured the syslem no longer, but was also endeavouring to open the eyes of the Prince respecting it. It was with much difficulty that he prevailed, and he was obliged to call in the 2 Giftance of one orher iniimale confidants of his R. H. the Abbé Dabois, Minister of Foreign Afairs, and M. le Blanc, Secretary at War *, to concur with him separately in this patriotic work. Sometimes the Rigene seemed inclined to expel the author of a revolution so extraordir.ary and so fatal. One day he even told the Keeper of the Seals, who was speaking to him in a stronger manner than usaal, that he mighe secure Law's person; but when the chief magistrate required an order in writing for this purpose, he could not cbtain it. He was therefore obliged to have recourse to artifice, and to make the new Comptrollergeneral himself, the accomplice of his own destruction, and of that of his system. In a committee holden between the Regent, himself, the Abbé Dubois, M. le Blanc, and the Minister of the Finances, he observed, that a violent crisis must necessarily have a short termination ; that the present cribs, which was now arrived at its acme, must consequently decline ; that its object being now fulfilled--which was to make all the specie, and even all the materials of gold and silver in the kingdom, return by extraordinary means into the hands of government-it was now necessary to prevent the public from collecting the precious harvest ; that the most certain method of effe&ing this, would be to begin, by reducing the mass of paper; the consequence of this would be, tha: the people, either not diminishing the confidence they had in it, would keep it in hopes that the reduction would be only temporary, and from the fear that they sbould at once lose a great part of their capital; or thac the paper failing into discredit, they would crowd in to get rid of it. In the first instance, the goveroment would have it in their power to settle any operations they pleased ; and in the second, they might avail themselves even of the confusion and disorder which would relult from this breaking up, to establish some troublesome, but necessary formalities, by which, in appearing to concur with the wilhes of the bearers of the paper, one mighe delay the effect of chem; and thus time might be gained to proceed to some alteracions, expedient for liberating the Itare.

• All this was more specious than folid; but it was especially a detestable piece of Machiavelism. It gives us the idea of a set of thieves at the corner of a wood, consulting about the belt method of levying contributions on the passengers. It mull, however, be acknowledged, that there are cases in which the imperious claims of necellity become the only law of the latesinan, and France was now in this face of subversion ; the helm of finance was flipping out of the hand of their adminiftration, and even out of those of the Regent. in this embarsaliment, Law thought himself fortunate, to be furnished with the means of getting out of the labyrinch into which he had thrown him

• The Council had been suppressed in 1718, and the Secretaries of State re-established at the head of the departmenss. Rev. Sept. 1781,


self, and he was the foremnost in destroying his own work, by con. senting to a decree, which reduced the Bank bills, and the liares of the Company, to one half of their value.

• It is impoflible to describe the confternation with which the city of Paris was ftricken at this news. It foon was converted into rage; seditious libels were pofted up, and were sent in hand-bills even into the houses . The Duke of Bourbon, the Prince of Conti, and Mar. Thal Villeroi, who had not been summoned to the committee in which the decree had been issued, protested against it, and pretended that it was furreptitious, since is had not been submitred to the examination of the Council of Regency, The Parliament, which had no: hitherto interfered in the affairs of the Bank, and had alway: been in oppofition to it, by one of those contradictions too frequent in their conduct, now exerted themselves to support it. The First President, whom they sent to the Royal Palace, was very well received. The Regent, in his present embarrassment, was not displeased at this ftep. He did not conceal his fatisfaction from the Head of their Company, and answered him, “Sir, I am very glad that this circumstance gives " me an opportunity of being reconciled to the Parliament, whose " advice I will follow in every thing.”

• Six days after the publication of the decree of reduction, that decree was revoked by another, which restored the paper to its value, but did not restore the confidence of the public, more especially as payment was at the very same time stopped at the Bank. This was done upon the pretence of examining the knaveries. Commiffaries were sent to seal up the chests, and make up the accounts. Some of the Clerks, and especially those whose business it was to make up the signatures, were dismissed for a fortnight, with the prohibition of quilling Paris. So that this second decree did more harm than the first, by throwing again into the channel of commerce things that had been discredited ; and with which fraudulent debiors paid and ruined their lawful creditors.

• Among these sharpers tricks, that of the President de Novion deserves an exception, as being very laughable at least, if not more ho. ncit than the rest. He had sold to Law one of his estates, and, notwithllanding the prohibitions, ftipulated the payment of it in gold, to which the Scorchman readily consented. The sum was from eight to nine hundred thousand livres t. The magistrate's eldest son availed himself of the right of redemption, and repaid the purchaser in biils.

- To put a stop to this confusion, after having exhausted every resource of finance that was thought capable of reitoring the illusion, it was at last found necessary to put an end to the matter, by stopping

* One of the hand-bills was conceived, according to the Memoirs of the Regency, in the following terms : “ Sir, and Madam, this is to “ give you notice, that a St. Bartholomew's day will be enacted again “ on Saturday or Sunday, if affairs do not alter. You are defined " not to stir out, you nor your servants. God preserve you from the " Aames. Give notice to your neighbours. Dated Saturday 3; “ May, 1720."

+ Between thirty and forty thousand pounds.

the the course of the Bank-bills, and bringing back money into trade. Thus was Law's fyllem diffolved, the result of which was the doubling of the national debt, iuftead of diminishing it, as he had given reason to expect. Independent of the debes contracted under the reigo of Lewis XIV, which ftill subfifted, there remained to pay off to the amount of eighteen hundred millions * of this paper, of which two thousand fix hundred millions + had been distributed among the public.

• The author of this detestable system foon experienced the kind of · treatment that persons of his itamp usually do: he was hooted by the populace, who wanted to pull him to pieces; his coach was broken; and he himsell escaped only by the activity of his horses, and the boldness of his coachman. He immediately resigned, into the hands of the Regent, bis appointment of Comptroller-general. He was not less the director of all the operations of the same year 1720. He had not yet lost the confidence of his R. H. who had always a secret inclination for the system, which Law Aattered him might be restored again; and the Prince did not give it up till Law had in vain exhausted all the resources of his imagination. He was dismissed filently, and every one knows that he died of poverty at Venice.'

Some farther extracts from this entertaining work, chiefly respecting the principal subject of the History, will find a place in a subsequent Article. .

• Seventy-five millions sterling. fterling.

Above one hundred million

ART. III. Walker's Elements of Elocution, concluded. D EFERRING our Readers to this Author's explanation of

the general theory of inflections given in our last Review, we Thall now proceed to lay before them some specimens of the ule which he makes of his theory, in several of the practical tules which he deduces from it; first premising, that in the examples here given, the rising inflexion is denoted by the acute accent; thus ' ); the falling inflexion, by the grave accent (°).

Every direct period fo constructed, as to have its two principal constructive parts connected by correspondent conjunctions, requires the long pause with the rising inflexion at the end of the first princi. pal conttractive member.

EXAMPLE s. • As we cannot discern the Madow moving along the dial place', so the advances we make in knowledge, are only perceived by the distance gone over.

As we perceive the fadow to have moved, but did not perceive it moving'; 10 our advances in learning, confiling of infensible steps, are only perceivable by the distance.

• As we perceive the Madow to have moved along the dial, but did not perceive it moving; and it appears that the grass has grown, though nobody ever saw it grow': so the advances we make

in knowledge, as they consist of such minute steps, are only perceivable by the distance.

• Each of these three sentences consists of two principal correspond. ent parts ; the first commencing with as and the last with so; as the first member of the first sentence is simple, it is marked with a comma only at dial-plate; as the second is compounded, it is marked with a semicolon at moving; and as the lalt is decompounded, it is marked with a colon, at grow: this punctuation is according to the general rules of pausing, and agreeable to good sense ; for it is certainly proper that the time of the paure Mould increase with the increase and complexity of the members to which it is annexed; as more cime is required io comprehend a large and complicated member than a short and simple one; but whatever may be the time taken up in pausing at the different points, the inflexion annexed to them must always be the same; that is, the comma, semicolon, and colon, muft iavariably have the rising inflexion.'

i Every direct period con Gifting of two principal constructive parts, and having only the first part commence with a conjunction, requires the rising inflexion and long pause at the end of this part.

Examp. As in my speculations I have endeavoured to extinguih pallion and prejudice', I am still desirous of doing some good in this particular.

Spectator. • Here the sentence divides itself into two correspondent parts at prejudice; and as the word so is understood before the words I am, they must be preceded by the long pause and rising infexion.'

Direct periods which commence with participles of the present • and past tense, consist of two parts; between which must be inserted the long pause and rising inflexion.

Examp. Having already shown how the fancy is affected by the works of nature, and afterwards considered in general both the works of nature and of art, how they mutually affist and complete each other, in forming such scenes and prospects as are most apt to. delight the mind of the beholder' ; I Mall in this paper throw together some reflexions on that particular art, which has a more im. mediate tendency than any other, to produce those primary pleasures of the imagination, which have bicherto been the subject of this discourse.

Spectator, No.415. • The sense is suspended in this sentence till the word beholder, and here is to be placed ine long pause and riớng infexion ; in this place also it is evident, the word now might be inserted in perfect con. formity to the lense,'

• A loose fentence has been shown to confift of a period either di rect or inveried, and an additional member which does not modiiy it; or, in oiber words, a loose sentence is a member containing perfect sense by itself, followed by some other member or members, which do not restrain or qualify its fignification. According to this dehnition, a loole sentence must have that member which forms perfeet rense detached from those that follow, by a long pause and the falling inflexion..

• As in speaking, the car seizes every occasion of varying the tone of voice, which the sense will permit; so in reading, we ought as much as posible to imitate the variety of speaking, by taking every


opportunity of altering the voice in correspondence with the sense ; the most general fault of printing, is to mark those members of loose sentence, which form perfect sense, with a comma, instead of a se. micolon, or colon; and a similar, as well as the most common fault of readers, is to suspend the voice at the end of these members, and so to run the sense of one member into anocher ; by this means, the sense is obscured, and a monorony is produced, in lead of that dir. tindness and variety, which arises from pronouncing these members with such an inflexion of voice as marks a certain portion of perfect seole, nor immediately connected with what follows; for as a member of this kind does not depend for its sense en the following member, it ought to be pronounced in such a manner, as to show its independ. ence on the succeeding member, and its dependence on the period, as forming but a part of it.

In order to convey preci!ely the import of these members, it is necessary to pronounce them with the falling in flexion, without suf. tering the voice to fall gradually as at a period; by which means the pause becomes different from the mere comma, which suspends the voice, and marks immediate dependence on what follows; and from che period, which marks not only an independence on wbat follows, but an exclusion of whatever may follow, and therefore drops the voice as at a conclusion. As this in fiexion is produced by a certain portion of perfect sense, which, in some degree, separates the member it falls on, from those that follow, it may not improperly be called the disjunctive inflexion. An example will alliit us in comprehending this important inflexion in reading:

Examp. All fuperiority and pre-eminence that one man can have over another, may be reduced to the notion of quality'; which, con. sidered ar large, is either that of fortune, body, or mind': the first is that which confifts in birth, title, or riches'; and is the most foreign to our natures, and what we can she least call our own, of any of the three kinds of quali:y.

Spectator, No, 219. • In the first part of this sentence the falling inflexion takes place on the word quality; for this member we find contains perfect sense, and the succeeding members are not necessarily connected with it; the same inflexion takes place in the next member on the word riches; which, with respect to the sense of the member it terminates, and its connexion with the following members, is exactly under the same predicament as the former, though the one is marked with a com. ma, and the other with a semicolon, which is the common punctua. tion in all the editions of the Spectator: a very little reflexion, how. ever, will thew us the neceility of adoping the same pause and inflexion on both the above-mentioned words, as this inflexion not only marks more precisely the completeness of sense in the members they terminate, but gives a variety to the period, by making the first, and the succeeding members, end in a different tone of voice.

Every member of a fentence iminediately preceding the last, requires the riling inflexion.

Examp. Aristotle tells us, that the world is a copy or transcript of those ideas which are in the mind of the First Being'"; and that those ideas which are in the mind of man are a transcript of the world': so this we may add, that words are the transcript of those O 3


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