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fpect they differ materially from those that rose by conqueft, and were fed by precarious tribute. Their internal resources and their political connexion, promise therefore a durability that discountenances the prediction of the decline of Europe by the rise of any western or other empire. The more empires arise by the strength of cultivating internal advantages, the more security they will mutually afford to, and receive from, each other ; pofsibly also the law of nations may, in time, receive such eftablishment and improvement as to diminish warlike contests, render political intercourse more equitable and liberal, and confequently give more permanenee to public communities. This, however, may be deemed a great stretch in speculation, and being, moreover, rather beside the immediate, subject in consideration, we shall leave it for others to overturn or build upon.
The three continental wars we sustained in this century, are not allowed to have produced the effects attributed to them by Dr. Price. Mr. Howlett refers to what he said before, of the manufactures requisite for the support of armies and navies. He adds, could we suppose the case of a war, carried on with perfect security to our manufactures, commerce, and agriculture; instead of diminilhing our inhabitants, it wouid, probably, on the whole, tend to encrease them. The destruction of lives in these contests, he thinks, is neither peculiar to this nation, nor to this century ; our enemies suffering at least equally with, if not more than we, in faughter: and the civil war in the last century, together with the still more bloody wars occasioned by the contests between the houses of York and Lancaster, all which were among ourselves, destroy the supposition that depopulation can be owing to wars peculiar to this century.
The diminution of inhabitants from migrations to our foreign settlements, Mr. H does not believe to be proportionate to the numbers who actually leave us : those who remain behind having thus probably more ample means of subsistence, and finding more encouragement to marriage by their absence. To a variery of arguments under this head, he adds the opinion of Dr. Franklin, an authority he believes Dr. Price not disposed to controvert, who supposes there may be now above a million of English fouls in North America ; and yet, perhaps, not one the fewer in Britain, but rather many more.
Few persons who have attended to the subject in question, are ignorant of the arguments produced for and against the inclosing of commons and waste grounds, and the uniting small farms together to form larger. Mr. H. confiders each of these subjects with great appearance of judgment and knowledge, from which he infers, that the engrossing of farms, fo generally and so loudly complained of, while attended with those improvements in agriculture which it almost always occafions, is so far from K 3
being, being, upon the whole, a cause of the depopulation of our country, it is either productive of a contrary effect, or a prelumplive evidence that this contrary effcet is really taking place in the nation at large. With regard to Acts for the inciosure of commons, he observes, ' Provided they are fairly obtained, and the several allotments of ground equitably and judiciously apportioned, I have never yet met with a solid objection to them, Wiih these precautions, therefore, and under these refrictions, I hope and trust they will go on, till there is scarcely an uninclosed, or waste and barren spos, from one extremity of the island to the other ; but all are converted into fruitful fields or pastures, and the whole resembles one large, rich, and variegated garden.' thus successfully opposing Dr. Price through every stage of his gloomy labour, Mr. H. enters upon the agreeable task of prov. ing an increased and increasing population upon the more authentic testimony of parochial registers from a variety of places at diftinct periods. A great number of tables are collected with this view, all which uniformly establish the pleasing fact; particularly within the last ewenty years, a period which Dr. Price had marked as the most rapid stage of our depopulation! Indeed, nothing but too implicit a regard to the authorisy of a contrary opinion, first advanced on the specious foundation of calculation, and followed by a poetical auxiliary, deploring an ideal deserted village, could obscure the appearances of a flourishing population from the common observation of every traveller throughout the kingdom.
The high price of provisions, with the increase of public debes and taxes, are admitted to be causes of depopulation or mot, according to their proportion to other things. They may discourage husbandry and manufactures, and thereby diminilh our numbers, if they rise remarkably higher here than among neighbouring nations : but while they are known to rise rapidly in other countries, which are plunged in debts in full proporçion to their resources, ours may, perhaps, continue to rise without producing the apprehended mischievous consequences. Our Author asserts on his own knowledge, that in France and Flanders, which he visited in 1770, and in 1776, the prices of provisions, and the charges of travelling, in that short space of time had increased one fifth: also, that by the accounts of the Victualling-office, the leading and more substantial articles of food, were, on an average of ten years, in the latter end of the reign of Queen Anne, and beginning of that of George I. as dear as they have ever been fince.
Though Mr. H. disclaims the pernicious doctrine, that private vices are public benefits, he does not look upon the luxury of superior accommodations and elegancies in the way of living, which in turn supply multitudes of industrious artificers with food and clothing, as pernicious to the country. If it has not the inerit of charity, it produces at least some of its beneficial cffects, conveyed through the channel of incessant industry.' '
Having considered what Dr. Price charges as the causes of our dep.pulation, Mr. H. proceeds to the Doctor's evidences of the fact; which are these three, The decreased number of houses in the returns of surveyors
of the window lights. The decrease of burials in the London bills of mortality. The decrease in the hereditary and temporary excise..
There evidence our Author shews fatisfactorily, as Mr. Wales had done before, to be too vague, from a variety of causes, to support the argument for which thsy were produced, After
Though it was neither convenient nor necessary to enter mi. nutely inío the variety of particulars considered, and tables formed, in this laborious undertaking; yet, to the above brief sketch, we lball give at length the Author's summary conclusion of his work:
"The result of the whole enquiry does, I apprehend, afford the fairelt grounds for concluding tha: upon every mode of inveitigation, and according to the molt noderate estimate, the inhabitants of this kingdom must have been increased one third fince the Revolution, about one sixth during the lait twenty years, and that their present amount cannot be less than berween eight and nine millions.
A variety of collaieral circumítances incline me to believe, that all these computations are below the truth. Dr. Price himself acknow. ledges, tha: 10,000 houles in and about London have been built within the last twenty years; to these I may add near 40,coo that have risen up in only about two thirds of the archdeaconry of Chefter fince the year 1720. With regard to the vicinity of the town of Manchester, I can, on the authority of a clergyman of diftinguithed ingenuity, and uncommon accuracy of remark in that quarter, venture to assert, that the people there are multiplied twenty fold within these last thirty years. Wonderful as this may seem, I can easily credit it, after being informed, that in several parishes of that neighbourhood three or four new chapels of ease to the mother church have been erected wicbin little more than that compass of time. In perfect agreement with this are the prodigious numbers which were a few years ago confirmed in that part of the kingdom. At the general confirmation for the diocese of Cherier in 1778, the number of young persons confirmed amounted to above 37,000, and in the last for that of York to upwards of 75,000. And it is to be remembered, that almost all these were be. tween the ages of fourteen and eighteen ; which description I have feldom found to comprehend above a twentieth, or even a cuentyfifth of the whole inhabitants in any place. If to these you add the Papifts and Diflenters, which abound there more than in any other quarter, you will find in these two dioceles alone, nearly two thirds as many people as our celebrated calculator could discover in ihe whole kingdom. After vieving this unparalleled growth of populaK 4.
tion in these counties and a very confiderable one in all the rest, we need not wonder that in the course of the last six or seven years, we have recruited our army, and supplied our navy with more than two hundred and fifty thousand effective men. Had we been the poor depopulated nation that we have been taught to believe ourselves, these astonishing drains would have left us no hands to till the earth, to make our clothes, and prepare our food. We must have been our own labourers, millers and bakers, taylors and thoemakers, or have been naked and starved. But in fact, this amazing multitude is scarcely missed from amongst us. The plough still goes briskly forward, our fields stand thick with corn, our workshops and manufactures are as yet but little thinned, and all ranks and orders are as well clothed and íed as ever.
• All these circumstances taken together form a strong presumprive testimony in favour of a greatly increased population, and send to carroborate the positive proofs of it, which have been adduced in the course of this ellay, and on which the merits of the quellion must principally and ultimately rest. These proofs are (as the reader will recolle&) the deficiencies in the London bills of mortality; the deficiencies in the returns of the surveyors of the house and window tax; the numbers serving in the militia, compared with the whole number of inhabitants in the respective places and districts by which they are furnished, and the several cables of baptisms and burials in the two requifite periods, extracled from the registers of eight or nine hundred parishes. If there evidences, and the argumen's founded on them are admired, they must effectually overthrow Dr. Price's fyra tem, and establish a very different, and, to every sincere lover of his country, a much more comfortable doctrine. And it is not, I hope, assuming too much, or transgressing the bounds of candour to fuggeit, that as the ingenious author has undoubtedly suffered the weakness of his Spirits, or the strengih of his prejudices to mislead his judgment, in estimating one most important branch of our national force, they may have given the same gloomy tinge to his representation of our other resources also; and that he may have been almost as much mistaken in the fate of our finances as in the state of our population. At least, this consideration furnishes the itrongest reason against admitting any of the principles of what may be called his poiiical arithmetic, without a thorough examination; or adopring any of his discouraging conclusions, without great caution and considerable deductions.
· That this kingdom is at present in very critical circumstances; that our enemies are powerful and numerous; that our taxes are heavy, and our public debts and incumbrances great, it is impossible to deny. But whoever will allow himself to review with coolness, deliberation, and impartiality the whole of our ficuation both absolute and relative, will, I conceive, find reason to think that the picture which has been drawo of us, as an enseebled, impoverithed, and use terly ruined and devoted people, is overcharged and exaggerated beyond all bounds of credibility and truth. We have in tormer times shewn ourselves greatly superior to France and Spain united. Since those times it appears, that the population of England has advanced more than twice as fast as theirs. Scotland and Ireland, judging from the latest and be it writers on the subject, have probably multiplied with almost the same rapidity. This addition of internal irength will, I trust, be more than a balance for the increased number of our external enemies. We have already made such efforts against them as have astonished all Europe; and there is little reason to doubt, but that, with the blessing of Providence upon our councils and our arms, with firmness in our governors, with intrepidity in our commanders by sea and land, and unanimity among ourselves, we shall be able to refift effectually the formidable confederacy that has been perfidiously formed against us; and that we shall neither want men, money, spirit, nor perseverance to continue the war into which we have been most unhappily and unwillingly drawn, till we can clole it by that most desirable of all events, a safe and honourable peace.'
We must observe, that though Mr. H. has used the utmost freedom with Dr. Price's arguments, he has treated him personally with that respectful civility to which his acknowledged learning and abilities, and amiable private character, juftly entitle him.
FOREIGN LITERATURE. *
ART. 1. H ISTOIRE de l'Academie Royale des Sciences, &c. i.e. The 1. History and Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris for the Year 1774. 4to. 1778.
GENERAL PHYSICS. Memoir I. Concerning the first Trial of the great Burning-glass, placed in the Garden of the Infanta at the Louvre, in the Beginning of October 1774. By Messrs. TRUDAINE, MACQUER, LAVOISIER, and Brisson. This lens is composed of two glasses, of four feet diameter, between which there are 140 (French) pints of spirit of wine; it is fix inches and a half chick in the middle; and the focus, which is 15 lines in diameter, is at the distance of 10 feet and 2 inches from the lens. The first trials of this famous instrument, which melted, in an instant, the clippings of bar-iron, promise great effects, when its powers, and the best manner of employing it, shall be more fully known. Hitherto its effects surpass those of the burning glass of Tchirpnausen, and the chemists hope to receive new light from the experiments that may be made with it.
Memoir II. Concerning the Variation of the Loadsone, at the Royal Observatory, &c. By M. Monier. It appears from the observations made by this Academician, in the years 1773 and 1774, that the declination of the magnetic needle towards
• The Foreign Articles in this month's Review were intended and written for our last Appendix (just published), but could not be in. fested for want of room.