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2 S. gether to battle, and the men of Israel were gone away, i C. were gathered together to battle, * * 2 S. 10. He arose, and (mote the Philistines until his hand was i C. * * * 2 S. weary, and his hand clave unto the sword : and the Lord 1 C. * * * 2 S. wrought a great victory that day; and the people returned i C. * 2 S. after him only to spoil. 11. And after him was Shammah, i C. * * * 2 S. the son of Agee, the Hararite: and the Phil fines were 1 C. * * * * * * *
2 S. gathered together into a troop, where was a piece of C. *
* * * where was a parcel of ground
2 S. ground full of lentiles: and the people Aed from the Phi. i C. full of barley; and the people fled from before the Phi2 S. listines. 12. But he stood in the midit of the ground, and 1 C. liftincs. 14. And they let themselves in the midst of that 2 S. defended it, and new the Philistines : and the Lord 1 C. parcel, and delivered it, and flew the Philistines; and the
2 S. wrought a great victory.
The examination of these two parallel chapters did not, however, constitute the whole of our learned Editor's first Dissertation on the Hebrew text. For though such great corruptions were proved from the printed text itself, and from the ancient versions ; yet it had not at that time been lurpected, that there were now extant any Hebrew manuscripts which would at all aliit in correcting the faulty passages of the Old Testament, Nevertheless, even this was discovered to be true. For Dr. Kennico:t, on examining some of the Hebrew manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, found that they contained, in these chapters, several of the very readings which he had recommended as the genuine ones, in the part of his book that had been printed off before he had looked into those manuscripts. Our Author having thus fortunately di'covered that the Hebrew mapuscripts contained many and considerable variations, he added
an account of these manuscripts, with various proofs of their importance, by way of a second part to that first Differtation.
A discovery ro important to sacred literature being thus begun in 1753, and extended to seventy Hebrew and Samaritan manuscripts in Oxford, it was soon much improved by consulting a number of others, at Cambridge, and in London. Nor was the enguiry confined to these places, or even to our own kingdom : for a Catalogue of all the other Hebrew and Samaritan manuscripts, then known to exist in the world, was published by our ingenious Discoverer, in 1760, in a second Dissertation on the Hebrew Text. In this last work, he endeavoured to establish a general convi&ion, as to the certainty of the printed Hebrew copies being much corrupted, and the great advantages to be derived from manuscriptsa-by furnishing many various readings of consequence, which are the true ones- and by confirming the ancient versions in a multitude of instances of little moment in themselves, and therefore not likely to have originated from design. It was also proved, that the Samaritan Pentateuch was of great importance; that its manuscripts would correct a variety of typographical errors, which disgraced the two printed editions, and that the Samaritan copies were frequently confirmed even by the Hebrew manuscripts.
In consequence of these interesting discoveries, our Author was solicited by the late Archbishop Secker, and many other learned persons, and by several societies of literary men, particularly the University of Oxford, to undertake a collation of all the Hebrew and Samaritan manuscripts in our own country. With the prospect of so vast and arduous a work Dr. Kennicott was at first almost discouraged ; thinking that the labour of his whole life might perhaps be too little for its accomplishment, However, he at last consented to undertake it, in the year 1760. The General Dissertation then proceeds to state briefy the progress made, and the chief occurrences during the collation. Ten years was the time which the Doctor declared would be necessary to be employed in collating the Hebrew and Samaritan manuscripts; and, with a punctuality of which the instances are very uncommon, he kept his word with the Public.
As we intend to give only a short view of the General Dir. sertation, we must content ourselves with just touching upon the chief circumstances mentioned in the history of this ten years collation. The early patronage of his Majesty is celebrated with due gratitude; as well as the favour shewn to the design at Rome, particularly by the Cardinals Paffionei, Albani, and Spinelli. The foreign places next mentioned as having given affistance to this undertaking are Florence and Turin; with Dr. Bayer at Toledo, and Professor L'Advocat at Paris. Inquiries after manuscrip's were also made, hy our Author, very
culared perrons.y the latere interens
earlya early, at Constantinople, Warsaw, Venice, Bologna, Mantua; Pavia, Genoa, Lisbon, Geneva, Utrecht, Erfurt, Berlin, Stocké holm, and Hamburgh. At the last city are many Hebrew manuscripts; and a collation of the best of them was undertaken by the celebrated Reimarus; whose warm applause of this work is here, with great propriety, introduced, because, since his death, it hath been reported that he was an enemy to the under
10.02. be farther prDr. Kennicoui hed" favour of Cambridge and
In 1762, being the third year of the collation, and in which a stop to the farther prosecution of it was threatened by a dangerous illness, from which Dr. Kennicott happily recovered, his important design met with distinguished favour, both at home and abroad : at home, from the Universities of Cambridge and Dublin, and from the Curators of the British Museum : and abroad, from Sir J. Porter at Constantinople ; from a public approbation under the seal of Geneva, as he had before received from Cardinal Passionei, at Rome; and from Milan, Pavia, Zuric, Berne, Vienna, Cologne, and Berlin-at which last place, the very copy of the Hebrew Bible used by Luther was now collated. The Hebrew manuscripts at Copenhagen, collected in Africa by order of the late King of Denmark, were offered for the use of this work, and accepted; whilft inquiries were also making in America and Asia, particularly at Aleppo.
In 1765, our sagacious Editor discovered that the collation of the five Erfurt manuscripts, which had been published, and appeared so unfavourable to any farther collations, had been given very imperfectly to the world; because the most material variations in them had been left out by the publisher. But a discovery of much superior consequence was, that the printed editions of the Hebrew Bible, which had been supposed to agree (and on which agreement had been founded the notion of the integrity of that Text), differed greatly from one another; particularly, that the oldest editions agreed most with the oldest and best manuscripts, and the modern editions with the latest and worft manuscripts. One proof is, that the variations in the first edition (in 1488), from Van Hooght (in 1705), amount to twelve thousand.
The year 1767 brought great advantages to the work before us, from Dr. Kennicott's own examination of the Paris manufcripts, both Samaritan and Hebrew; and from Dr. Gill's collation of all the passages quoted in the Talmud. An Hebrew manuscript, once belonging to a synagogue at Jerusalem, was now purchased by his Britannic Majesty. And in hopes of other treasures from the east, our Author sent to Canton, and had nearly succeeded in procuring a manuscript from the Jews at Cai-fong-fu, in the province of Honan. But, though he failed in China, he succeeded in America; having procured a
complete Hebrew manuscript from a Jew at New York. During the tenth and last year of this collation, the eight Danish manuscripts, at our indefatigable Editor's request, were sent to Oxford, for his own examination of them; as were fix from Toledo, by Dr. Bayer. Collations of other manuscripts were furnished, at the same time, from Silefia, Cologne, Straf. burgh, Koenigsburg, Upsal, Leyden, and Ireland.
Materials for this noble undertaking being thus collected from all quarters, the variations were to be brought together, and digested under their several books, chapters, and verses. And the method in which this very difficult and most perplexing department of the work was done, is so clearly described, as to make a curious part of the General Dissertation. During this operation, Dr. Kennicott formed a plan for a more complete scrutiny of the best manuscripts through Europe, by sending some well qualified person to re-examine the manuscripts already collated, and to examine the rest in passages of greater moment, and where success seemed at all probable. Mr. (now Dr.) Bruns, a learned German, was selected for this embaffy ; and he was honoured with letters from the Secretaries of State here to all our Ambassadors abroad, as well as from the rulers of the two synagogues in London. The places in which he thus examined manuscripts, during a tour of three years, were Paris, Louvain, Cologne, Mentz, Worms, Manheim, Nuremburg, Augsburg, Stutgard, Carlsruhe, Strasburg, Balle, Zuric, Berne, Geneva, Turin, Calale, Vercelli, Milan, Genoa, Lego horn, Sienna, Rome, Florence, Bologna, Cefena, Modena, Reggio, Parma, Mantua, Padua, Venice, Udine, Goricia, Gradisca, Trieste, Vienna, Dresden, Leipfic, Erfurt, Jena, Deslau, Berlin, Hamburg, Helmstadt, Caffel, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Leyden, and the Hague.
The variations contained in nearly seven hundred bundles of papers, being at lait digefted, including the collections made by Dr. Bruns; and the whole, when put together, being corrected by the original collations, and then fairly transcribed into thirty folio volumes, the work was put to the press in O&ober 1773; and both volumes, with the General Dissertation, were finished in July 1780. The Hebrew Text, which is made the standard for this edition, is that of Van Hooght, in 1705; and the Samaritan Text is from Walton's Polyglott. The various readings are arranged at the bottom of every page; where the manuscripts are referred to by their numbers, as settled in a catalogue, according to their relpective numbers and ages. With regard to the latt article, which is of no small importance, Dr. Kennicott has obliged the world, and gratified the wishes of his patrons, by giving his opinion, as to the ages of each of these manuscripts: and his opinion is the more valuable, and the more to be relied
upong upon, as he has found, upon repeated trials, that his conjec. tures, as to the age of Hebrew manuscripts, have been near the truth.
All the copies used for this edition are fix hundred and ninetyfour, of which about fix hundred and thirty are manuscripts; and the catalogue of the whole makes more than forty pages. The manuscript, here thought to be the oldest and belt, belongs to the Bodleian, and is supposed to be eight hundred years old. It contains about fourteen thousand variations; and of these above two thousand are contained in the Pentateuch part, though it be now imperfect. But in the Pentateuch of this manuscript, the Greek version is confirmed by an hundred and nine various readings; the Syriac, by ninety-eight; the Arabic, by eightytwo; the Vulgat, by eighty-eight; and the Chaldee Paraphrase, by forty-two: it allo agrees with the Samaritan Text, against the printed Hebrew, in seven hundred instances. It is remarked in a note, that this is the only manuscript which has preserved a word of great importance for understanding 2 Sam. xxiii. 347. ; which word is confirmed by the Greek version, and recovers to us a prophecy of the Mefiah. Many other remarks, made on other manuscripts in this Catal-gue, muft, though curious and interefting, be here paffed over. But we cannot forbear expressing the pleasure we have received from the Table, in which all the manuscripts are brought together in one view, with their ages expressed in a very curious manner. The Catalogue is concluded in the following words, too important to be omitted : • Catalogo nunc finito, nefas foret non gloriari de tot et tantis codicibus, editionis hujus gratiâ, fic collatis. Quis enim alius, inter omnes omnino codices, varias lectiones fibi affumpfit ex manuscriptis fexcentis ? Quis, ex manuscriptis trecentis? Nec magis admirabitur lector numerum eorum quam antiquitatem ; quum certior factus fuerit-Manuscriptos, in primis 3 columnis pofitos, quasi annorum 600 ad 800 ætatem habentes, non esse (me judice) pauciores quàm 51-et manuscriptos, in columnà quartâ, annoruin 480 ad 580, esie 174–ideoque operi huic infervire manuscriptos, annorum supra 480, ducentos viginti quinque. Nec difplicebit lectori, fi fubmoneam, quòd ab eo debentur gratiæ tribus præcipue civitatibus : Oxonio, in quo conservantur codices Heb. manuscripti 98; Parisiis, in quibus sunt go; et Romæ, in quâ 101.
Our learned Author next proceeds to account for some peculiarities in the manner of his printing this edition, the first of which is printing the poetical parts in jujort lines like poetry; which must certainly render it much more intelligible. Nor is this at all inconsistent with the declared resolution of printing the 'T'ext agreeably to that of Van Hooght. The fame niay be laid as to a little space left here and there, to hint the probable omission of a