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of human nature display themselves. To eradicate them is difficult, and perhaps impoflible. But they may be restrained and weakened, lo as to be rendered less dargerous to future felicity.
• There are many most destructive vices of boys, against which no vigilance can sufficiently guard. All that a matter can do, is, to check any tendency to them when he happens to detect it, to correct all conversation and behaviour which lead to the commission of them, and to take care that the pupil is observed in retirement as closely as circumstances will allow. Some vices are so indelicate, as scarcely to admit of being mentioned. But where there is reason to suspect any boy of being habitually guilty of such, delicacy must not prevent a superintendant from speaking to him in private on the subject, and representing the consequences in colours as frightful as the imagination can conceive. This is a painful talk, and requires great address in the execution. I am convinced, much misery has arisen in the world from neglecting to perform it. Difficult as it must be to a man of delicacy, yet it is certainly desireable, that while he gives moral diffuasives against vice in general, he should specify fome vices, and paint in lively colours the particular ill consequences which arise from them. If virtue in itself does not appear defireable, or vice detestable, yet the idea, that vice will occasion pain, distempers, imbecility, and premature old age, must have weight. Irregular and intemperate pafsions, indulged at a boyish age, will blast all the blofioms of the vernal season of life, and cut off all hope of future eminence. The mind will sympathize with the body, and both will be reduced to a wretched Hate of weakness by too early and excessive indulgences. Disease will infallibly follow vice, and blast every blortom of youth *. I dwell with carnetness on this subject, because the success of all our cares in education depends upon it. Add to this, that innocence is of greater value than learning. .
• The irascible passions of boys are often very violent. When they display their effects in acts of premeditated malice and revenge, they 1hould certainly meet with correction. A judicious master will give general admonitions on the neceflity of reitraining the passions, and in particular cases will apply proper punishment. He will do right to represent malice and revenge as by no means the effects of a generous and noble spirit, but of a bad and an effeminate heart." It wili indeed be much better to bring any improper behaviour into disgrace, than to animadvert upon it with severity, Time, and experience of their
• • * Paulatim per id nitidum, flos ille juventæ
bag bad influence on personal happiness and reputacion, will be the most effectual remedies for the disorders of the angry passions. Many of them gradually lose their force as reason arrives at maturity, and time effets a reformation, which art could never produce. Much less evil happens to young persons from the irascible, than from the con. cupiscible affections. Still, however, great care should be taken to restrain them, and religious arguments should always and principally be applied; for the indulgence of the irascible passions particularly militates against the spirit of Christianity. * • Boys are apt to be obstinate and follen. Nothing cures these dirtempers so effe&tually as ridicule. They should be laughed out of these disagreeable dispositions by their school-fellows ; and indeed, this is one of the great advantages of public education, that boys shame each other out of many absurd and odious ways, which the private pupil may retain through life.
• Boys are usually ungrateful to their instructors, ready to speak ill of them, 'revengeful after proper correction, and prone to be unthankful for the kindest treatment. Parents must remove this fault, by disregarding their malice, and by thewing gratitude to the master.
• The business of correcting the rallions and bad habits of children, belongs in a particular manner to parents ; but as children are often kept at school, and at a distance from parents, during the puerile age, it ought undoubtedly to be comprehended in the plan of scholastic education. But parents have their sons at home some parts of the year. At those time, I am sorry to observe, that they often foment by encouraging bad paflions. Many consider anger and revenge ás marks of a manly Spirit, and, by seeining pleased with their most violenc effecis, by laughing at them, or by not discountenancing them, give them additional force. The parents ought to be sufficiently considerate to second the master's endeavours both by precept and example, when they have their children at home. Though they may be diverted with a boy's petulance and pasion, during the short time he is with them, they should not thew themselves pleased; but should confider, that these beginnings will in a few years grow to such a height, as one day to destroy their children's happineis and their own."
• If any really think, and I believe they do, that violent passions are signs of parts and genius, I will beg leave to assure them that I have known the ableft boys of the mildest affections, and the greatest dunces the most addicted to every bad pallion, in their most violent degrees. However this may be, the paflions are certainly the causes of the greatest miseries of human nature; and not to discourage them in boys, under all circumstances whatever, is extreme crueliy.'
I ON THE UNIVERSITIES : "It is easy to perceive, that the English universities are in less repute than they were formerly. The rich and great, who, at one time, would on no account have omitted to send their sons thither, now frequently place them under some private tuior to finish them, as it is called, and then immediately send ihem on their travels. There feems, among all orders, to prevail a discontent on the relaxation of
discipline, and the useless and frivolous exercises required for the ata tainment of academical honours.
• I have myself resided long in one of the universities (and the filters are much alike), and I have seen in it many evils. But I restrained my indignation by asking myself the question, where I could have been placed in this sublunary world, without seeing many evils ? I saw immorality, habitual drunkenness, idleness, iga norance, and vanity, openly and boastingly obtruding themselves on public view. I saw them triumphing without controul over the ti. midity of modest merit. Many things appeared openly, that deserved warm disapprobation ; but I ltill knew there were amiable and wor. thy characters, and excellent practices and inftitutions, which were not fo generally noticed, because they did not force themselves on the attention, but were concealed in the fhade of literary retire, ment. Like the modeft flowret, they were over-run by the ranknefs of the weeds.
• I could easily account for the evils I beheld. It was not to be wondered at, that fo great a number of young men just emancipated from school, and from a parent's authority, should break out into irregularities, when encouraged by mutual example, Their pasions were frong, their reason immature, their experience defective. Pride, vanity, and the love of pleasure, urged them to any conduct that could either confer distinction, or afford gratification. Many had money at command. These most devoutly followed fashion, that dæ. mon which allures with irrefittible charms to all that is ruinous and ridiculous, and were closely pursued by other young men of spirit, 2s they called theinfelves, who were obliged to contract a heavy debt to support their extravagance, I believe, under the same cir. cumstances, young men, in any place, would exhibit the same ap. pearances; and if there is too little restraint, and I think there is too little, the fault is not in the statutes and regulations either of the university, or of the colleges, but in the age which will not bear reitraint. Yet there are oficers whose hands are invelled with every necessary power; and there is little doubt, but that the very glaring abuses which have risen up, while it has lain dormant, will at last ftis mulate them to exert its full force.
• When the discipline shall be retored, and the obsolete exercises abolished, no places in the world will be better adapted to a Audious life, than our noble universities. Much ruft has been contracted in them by time, many evils deeply rooted, which cannot be eradicated but by the legislative arm; yet with all their imperfections, I will maintain, that no place is able to furnish more advantages to the real sudent. In them are founded some of the finest libraries on earth ; not only public libraries for the general use of members of the university, but libraries in each college, scarcely less convenient than if they were in the Rudeni's own apartment. In the univer. fity at large, profesorships established with ample ftipends; in col. leges, cators and lecturers. The buildings convenient, elegant, spacious, airy. The apartments of Atudents for the most part handfome, and commodious, Glent, retired, and in every respect ficeed for a life of Atudy. Sweet gardens and groves, delighiful walks, and rural retreats. Add to all this, that the high antiquity of the
place, place, and the many great and learned persons who have issued from it, give it a moft venerable air, and send to animare the ftudent with a generous emulation.
'. But as this reform may be diftant, and as, in the fincerity of my heart, I consider the fending a fon thither at present, without . particular precautions, as a most dangerous measure; a measure which may probably make shipwreck of his learning, his morals, his health, his character, and his fortune, if he has one; I think it a duty incombent on me to point out, as well as I am able, the most likely means to save all these from de traction, and to obtain the nacoral advantages of these distinguished seminaries.
• In the firft place, boys should not be sent to the university so young as they often are. It is really cruel to let a boy of fifteen bc precipitated into drunkenness and debauchery. By a too early ea. trance, his health will be injured, his peace of mind broken, his learning loft, and his morals depraved. Examples and opportunities for vice abound, and the inexperience, and want of resolution, chara&eristic of boys, will render it difficult to avoid contagion. There are instances of those who have gone through with safety at this early age ; but they are few in comparison with those who have (oftained such injories as they have long and severely felt. Every one, on putting on the academical dress, commences a man in his own opinion, and will often endeavour to fupport the character by the practice of manly vices. I advise therefore, that no boy thall be sent to the univerfity till he is nineteen years old. An addi. tional reason is, that, in four years, he may cake a barchelor's de. gree ; and four years bring him to the age at which he may take orders, or enter with propriery into other professions. But when a boy enters at fifteen, he takes his degree at nineteen, and then waits till three-and-twenty without employment. This aukward interval is not often spent in the university, but in the country, and in the employments of a sportsman and a man of pleasure. Four years of idleners must make great havoc in his learned attainments. Let it be confidered, how much more advantageously the four years from bifreen to nineteen would be spent in a well-directed school. Such a foundation would be laid in classical learning, as would scarcely ever give way, even though it should suffer a temporary reglect.
• I am aware that all boys cannot wait at school till nineteen, be. caufe vacancies in scholarthips, exbibitions, and fellowships, often summon them unexpectedly before that time. But I must exhort parents cor to let their fons incur danger of moral and mental corruption, for the sake of adding a few pounds a year to their allowance. Where any considerable advantage is to be obtained, I will not expect, in these times, that it will be foregone; but every precaution must be used to obviate the ill consequences of embarking a boy without a proper pilot, on a wide and a stormy ocean.
* Whenever the circumstances of the parent will admit, a private tutor of character must be engaged. A compensation must be made him fufficient to induce him to inípect his pupil not only in the hours of fudy, but also of amusement; and I would give particular direccions, that the pupil fhould never take a walk or a ride, but in the
company of the private tutor, or of those whom he may approve, A faithful tutor, who will thus condescend to watch the moral conduet of his pupil, will be far more defireable, than a man of genius and learning, who will only attend to literary improvement.
• I shall not lay down any rules for the conduct of academical ftudy, but shall content myself with advising the parent to place his fon under some ingenious and worthy tutor, and then to submit the conduct of his education at the university entirely to his direction. The college tutors are often, it is to be presumed, men of judge. ment as well as learning and morals, and are well qualified to direct, the fudent in every part of his conduct. It is at the same time to be lamented, that from the number of pupils usually allotted to one, he is incapable of paying all that attention to each, which a tender parent puit desire. For that reason, I wish a private tuior to be joined with the college or official cutor, whenever it can conveniently be ef. fected. I own, for my own part, I should be afraid to trust a son without one. The private tutor, it must be remembered, mould have the whole management of the pupil's finances. Scarcely any. but those who have redded in the university, or are parents of pupils, can form an adequate idea of the many evils of every kind and degree, which would be avoided by giving a prudent private tutor sull powers to dired the expences of his disciple,
• Under such reftrictions, and with a few public alterations, I repeat, that no place is better calculated for Audious youth, than these venerable seats of the mules, to which they have for ages reforted. To prove that they are capable of forming the greatest characters in every department, I appeal to the annals of my country. And I cannot help thinking, that their declared enemies, those who with to dettroy or totally alter their constitucion, are of that descriprion of men who envy the advantages which they have never Dared, or who, from an unfortunate mode of thinking, endeavour to overturn all the ancient eltablishments, civil and ecclefiaftical *.
•* In academiâ confiuxus eft ingeniorum variorum, etiam diverfifsimorum; reperiuntur ibi homines pravi etiam ac fiagitioli, per quos animi fimpliciores' facilè corrumpuntur. Et ibi eriam major aliquanto vivendi libertas, quam in præsentia et fub oculis parentum. Dantur occasiones discurrendi, potandi, ludendi alea et tefferis...... Adde quòd reperiantur, qui his modis quæftum faciunt, ftultæque juveniviis promp.itudinem facilitatemque, habeant vectigalem. An ergo meos filios cot periculis ultro exponam? Scilicet utique catte, moderatè, fobriè, honeltè vivitur, academiâ folâ exceptâ. Vel li hoc male fingicur, quid non et alibi prospiciinus fecuritari noftrorum ? Aut di poífumus alibi, cur licebit minus in academia ? Sunt profectò ibi quoque leges, sunt magiftratus, sunt viri honestatis virtutisque amantes et interdum plus, quam nonnulli volunt, rigidi ac severi. Non igitur academia in caufâ li qui in eâ malè vivant, non ordo professorius, non cætera a regibus oprimè confituta et quanta possunt obfervari solica diligentia.... Quare manet verum quod in nuebam superius educa. dioris locum maximè idoneum academium effe. JOHANNES SCHEFFERUS, de Informat. literar.
! I will