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such as never was endured before, and Jerusalem and contempt, that they would all be persecuted will be trodden down by the Gentiles." Here and some destroyed, that he himself would sufthe first prophecy, that of the fall of Jerusalem, fer an ignominious and cruel death, that Jerusaseems to end. The second prophecy which you lem would be trodden under foot, and that the have mentioned, and which describes the end of whole Jewish nation would undergo calamities the world, follows. Matthew connects the two such as had never been endured before, of course by the word “ immediately ”; but, as the events the general character of his discourse became predicted in the second prophecy have not yet melancholy. But it does not seem to have been occurred, it is clear that Matthew, impressed so at the beginning. The disciples believed that with the then prevalent notion that the end of the kingdom of heaven was at hand. What it the world was at hand, confounded the two was to be was not clearly indicated, but there prophecies, and that Mark and Luke copied him. can be little doubt that they expected the fulfillThe second event, the destruction of the world, ment of the prophecy of Daniel. seems to be that of which Jesus says, “Of that " I saw in the night visions, and behold one hour and day knoweth no man, no, not the angels like the Son of Man came with the clouds of which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the heaven, and came to the Ancient of days. And Father only.” But he does foretell the time of there was given to him dominion and glory and the first event, the destruction of Jerusalem, and a kingdom that all people, nations, and languages fixes it within the lives of the existing generation, should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting as he had previously fixed the arrival of the dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom of heaven before the deaths of some of kingdom is that which shall not be destroyed. those who then stood around him.* Luke seems And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatto have perceived the inconsistency of these state- ness of the kingdom under the whole heaven ments, and omits the affirmation that no one, shall be given to the people of the saints of the not the angels, not the Son, but only the Father Most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting knew the time when the prediction would be ful- kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey filled. John, as you remark, omits the whole him.” (Daniel, chapter vii.) conversation.
The pagan golden age was a painful recolRenan. Few things seem more remarkable lection. They believed in the gradual deteriorathan the scantiness of the memoranda of the tion of mankind : teaching of Jesus. His disciples, indeed, did not belong to a writing class, they were illiterate ar
“Ætas parentum pejor aris tulit
Nos nequiores, mox daturos tisans and fishermen. Nor was it a writing age.
Progeniem vitiosiorem." Much, too, is to be attributed to the prevailing expectation that the end of the world, or rather The Jewish golden age was future, and it of this “aion," of this phase of the world's ex- was believed to be now at hand. istence, was at hand and would be immediately Galilee even now, after the ravages of censucceeded by the kingdom of heaven. It seemed turies of war and of Mussulman waste and tyranunnecessary to record lessons which would soon ny, is one of the most delightful countries in the cease to be applicable. I think it probable that world, full of verdure, water, and shade. Nazathe first record was that which Matthew made reth itself is a charming little town, by far the of the discourses of Jesus—the “logia,” as they most agreeable in Palestine. Its low, square, deare called. Then probably Mark added a narra- tached houses have no beauty within or without, tive of some of the events of his ministry. Still but they are embosomed in vines, fig-trees, and later, probably after the destruction of Jerusalem, oranges, and stand in gardens intersected by Luke published his collections, and the possessors streams from the hills around. The fountain, of the different Gospels filled up their copies by which was the center of the society of the anextracts taken from the others; and thus the cient town, is ruined, as everything under Turkfirst three Gospels became chapter after chapter ish rule gets ruined, but its ruins are still the identical. Much later John wrote, and, without resort of Nazarene women, whose beauty, a gift adding anything to the moral lessons recorded from the Virgin Mary, still makes them renowned by his predecessors, gave them a sanction by de- in the East. The ridge, freshened by the seaclaring the divinity and preëxistence of Jesus. breeze, on the slope of which the town stands,
The general impression is, that the teaching commands a glorious prospect, extending from of Jesus was melancholy. Toward the latter Carmel and the sea to the west to beyond the part of his ministry, after he had warned his valley of Jordan to the east. It was in this dedisciples that they would be objects of hatred licious country that Jesus passed his youth and
his adolescence, and he strayed little out of it Matt. xvi. 28.
during the wanderings which occupied his ministry. The villages of Magdala, Capernaum, Beth- The peculiarities of his teaching were cheersaida, and Chorazin, were all in the small spaceful. Every previous religion had been ascetic. of a few square leagues between Nazareth and Even the disciples of John the Baptist had fastthe lake. The trees, excepting the fruit-trees ed. Every previous religion interposed between which overshadow the gardens, have disap- God and man a priesthood. Every previous repeared; but the waters of the lake are as clear ligion was encumbered with ceremonies, long and as blue as ever; its shores, free from mud, prayers, and observances. are covered with turf and flowers down to the Senior. Not only every previous religion, but water's edge, and are broken into little bays and every subsequent one. There are no religionis to capes, covered with thickets of arbutus, rose, and which these qualities more belong than those of cactus. He does not appear to have traveled in the Roman and of the Greek Church. Samaria more than once or twice, on his way to Renan. Well, the religion taught by Jesus is Jerusalem, and he seldom visited Jerusalem ex- utterly free from them. The scene of the first cept to attend the annual feasts. The arid, na- miracle attributed to him is a marriage-feast. ked plains of Judea probably offended his exqui- No scruples as to the character of the master or site taste for the beauties of nature, as much as of the guests prevented his acceptance of invitathe narrowness and hypocrisy of the Pharisees tions. He came to call not the just but sinners and Scribes disgusted his moral sense. He to repentance. In the East a house which reseems always to have returned with new delight ceives a stranger becomes for the time public. to the verdure of Galilee and to the simplicity The inhabitants of the village, and above all the of the Galileans.
children, flock round it. Jesus would not allow Senior. And yet it was in Galilee that he said them to be repulsed. The women showed their that a prophet had no honor in his own country. reverence and their love by offering to him pre
Renan. That must have been an ebullition of cious oils and perfumes. The disciples sometemporary disappointment. It was said, too, in times murmured at the waste or the interruption, the very beginning of his ministry, when his own but his affectionate heart sympathized with all brethren disbelieved in him, and those who had testimonies of affection. He disapproved of all known him as a child, the son of humble parents, worldly cares. “Sufficient,” he said, “ for the day were slow to admit his Messianic pretensions. is the evil thereof." He reproved Martha for the At a later period he was more reverenced in elaborateness of her hospitality. The intercourse Galilee than in Jerusalem. Though his disciples among the disciples was sometimes a little diswere of the humblest, or the least respected turbed by questions as to their comparative rank classes—fishermen, artisans, tax-gatherers, and in the future kingdom ; but these were quickly sinners—they were not unrefined. The coarse- ended by the interposition of their Master, and ness of the European boor or workingman is in general they seem to have lived together in not to be found in the East. No man is more perfect harmony. Their love and reverence of gentlemanlike than a Bedouin. Human nature their Master were abundant, and so was his affecrequires little in such a country; the idea of com- tion for them; though John had his peculiar love, fort belongs to indoor life and cold climates. It and Peter was the one on whose vigor and devowas very rarely indeed that Jesus or his disciples tion he most relied. The doctrine itself was were ill received. They had a common purse of called "the good news.” The approach of the which Judas Iscariot was the bearer, but he does kingdom was the subject of constant expectation. not seem to have made much use of it. When It was one of the petitions of the only prayer the twelve, and afterward the seventy, were sent which Jesus taught. I can conceive nothing out, they were desired to take with them no more joyous than these early pilgrimages in Galimoney, but they suffered no inconvenience for lee, in a beautiful country, and a climate such as the want of it.
untraveled northerners can not conceive; of a Senior. Jesus complained that the Son of Man master speaking, as his enemies admitted, as no had not where to lay his head.
man ever spoke before, and of disciples young Renan. I am not sure that that can be called and enthusiastic, free from all worldly cares, and a complaint. He had then a settled residence at publishing everywhere the “good news that the Capernaum. It was probably merely a state- kingdom of heaven is at hand.” That kingdom, ment that being on a journey he had for the time according to the belief of the disciples, was to no fixed habitation.
take place on this earth. It had a far greater inThere is no allusion in the Gospels to indi- fluence on their imagination than the promises gence among his disciples. Some of them, such of happiness in a future world and in a future as Zaccheus and Joseph of Arimathea, were state of existence could have had. rich, though he treated wealth as an obstacle to Many of the expressions of Jesus seem to piety.
point to a terrestrial millennium.
“I appoint to you," he said to his disciples on the improvement produced by Christianity. And the eve of his passion, " a kingdom as my Father when we compare the state of the pagan world, hath appointed unto me, that you may eat and with its slavery, its cruelty, its licentiousness, its drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on injustice, its fraud, and its hopeless, unimproving thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” corruption, with that of the countries in which
Now, enlightened by the events, we know Christianity in its purer form exists, we may well that the kingdom of God foretold by Jesus was call the latter the kingdom of God.
SI B E R I A.*
"HERE are at this moment millions of Poles Now, there is very little consolation in thinking
being tortured to death in the quicksilver- that we both are equally bad; but how are you mines of Siberia solely because they are Roman to realize our difficulties if you are not reminded Catholics."
of your own? Such is one of the startling assertions with When you accuse us, for instance, of our which all attempts to create an entente cordiale "atrocious convict system,” how are we to avoid between Russia and England are so often rudely reminding you that you exiled your convicts to repulsed. It is more dignified, of course, to let the antipodes as late as 1853, and that your constories of that kind pass unnoticed. One scarce- vict establishments at Norfolk Island and Macly admits that anybody earnestly craving for truth quarrie Harbor were not supposed to be exactly can accept every absurdity. But it is no easy what philanthropists could wish for? Indeed, task for English people to find out what is the Russians have been often told stories of horror real state of things in Russia, our language being of the chain-gang and the lash at the antipodes not an easy one to learn,t and we publish so sel- which rival even the worst your libelers have indom any refutation in our self-defense in any vented about our quicksilver-mines. foreign tongue. I think my countrymen are England made a point of disbelieving the wrong in never caring for what is said of them reality of our good feelings because of our shortabroad, the moment they perceive that ill-faith comings. Are we to apply the same system in has anything to do with this or with that calumny. judging you? When we honestly sought your There is too much pride in our systematic con- alliance in supporting the Eastern Christians, you tempt for injustice. I see no humiliation in try- not only refused your help but strengthened as ing to explain the very little I know.
much as you could the Turkish resistance. Your I wish I could be eloquent and persuasive. Government brought upon us a war which cost But I can only be true and outspoken. Nor is us not only millions of money, but many, many there any great merit in reporting what has al- lives, whose loss will always be present to our ready become a commonplace. That, surely, re- memory, in spite of the lapse of time, and in quires little civic or moral courage! But there spite of all the advantages which a successful is a reason which often prevents Russians from war could gain. Your Government has done us protesting, with which I heartily sympathize. As a great deal of harm; and that it did not go a rule, the more you have to defend yourself the further was simply because it felt convinced that more you come to the ungenerous “Tu quoque !" no sacrifice, no danger could stop us the moment
we thought it our duty to resist its concealed or * A chapter from " Russia and England, from 1876 open attacks. And in order to calm some gento 1880 ; a Protest and an Appeal." By a Russian au- erous, straightforward Englishmen, your officials thor. London: Longmans, Green & Co.
tried to estrange them from us by inventing + On this point Prince Bismarck is an authority. In "Russian atrocities ” in southern Bulgaria and Busch's remarkable book “ Bismarck und seine Leute," elsewhere; and the ridiculous story about the the German Chancellor expresses himself as follows: “I can not conceive why Greek should be learned at all. If millions of Poles exiled on account of their reit is contended that the study of Greek is excellent men- ligion to Siberia is one of the snares set for Engtal discipline, to learn Russian would be still more so, and lish credulity. at the same time practically useful. Twenty-eight de- The fact is this: Since this century comclensions and the innumerable niceties by which the de- menced there have been taking the most exagficiencies of conjugations are made up for are something to exercise the memory. And then, how are the words gerated numbers) about five hundred thousand changed! Frequently nothing but a single letter of the persons exiled to Siberia, or less than ten thouoriginal root remains."
sand a year, but the majority of these were not Poles but Russians; nor were the Poles exiled on would prefer being still more foolish to introaccount of their religion, unless ordered to be ducing the slavery of English convict prisons rebels by their religion, as has sometimes been into Siberia. To accuse and find fault is always the case; but even then they were exiled for an easy thing. To accuse with indisputable good their rebellion, not for their religion. Imaginary ground is more difficult, but to understand engeography is, I dare say, well studied in England, tirely those we judge is almost beyond our power. but the real one is decidedly not. Allow me, So, as you see, it is only natural to distrust our therefore, to remind you of what Siberia really judgment if its object is to torture those who is. Siberia is the northern half of the continent depend upon it. But is it such a cruel thing, so of Asia, exceeding in size the whole of Europe, revolting to English humanity, when a man has and, as such, not easily described in a single for- committed even a crime to give him a new start mula. In the extreme north it is almost unin- in life in a new and more fertile country? habitable, and it is not thither that we send our Mr. Barry, in his “Russia in 1870," declares criminals, for obvious reasons. It is too far off, that in many districts the climate of Siberia has and, if we sent them into these dreary expanses the mildness of that of Italy, lying, as it does, in of snow and ice, we should have to feed them the same latitude as Venice. The soil is a rich, at a ruinous expense. As you see, I do not want deep black loam, capable of yielding prodigious to idealize the measures taken by our Govern- harvests. Fruit grows wild in any quantity. ment. But, sending our criminals to Siberia, as Game is in abundance, and food is exceedingly we do, in order to get rid of them cheaply, it cheap. “I can think of no country in the world," would defeat our object to send them into the con- he concludes by asserting," which offers the fines of the Arctic Circle. When you say Siberia, same advantages to a young man with a small you imagine only the desolate north. Siberia, to capital as Siberia. Whenever I travel in Siberia exiles, with few exceptions, in reality means the I always think-Why is it that our countrymen fertile south-so fertile, indeed, that when set at are sent away to the antipodes in search of a liberty the exiles very often prefer to remain on colony? Here they would be nearer home; they its rich and cultivated soil. A university is go- can get better land, cheaper than in many of our ing to be established at Tomsk, which will ena- colonies ! They could live more cheaply, get ble their children to profit by all the results of cheaper labor, and enjoy many advantages of culture and civilization. Only the worst crimi- civilization which they would want in the colonals, murderers, and desperate enemies of the nies.” state are sent to the mines and there employed That is not Russian-that is English tesin hard labor. But they form a small minority. timony. Another Englishman who employed In nine cases out of ten, exile to Siberia means many workmen in Russia recently remarked : enforced emigration to a fertile and scantily peo- “Many of our hands come from Siberia, but pled country. Transportation with us does not they never remain very long. After two or three necessarily imply penal servitude. In many cases years they begin to pine for home, and when we simply convey the convicts across the Ural they leave they give no reason except—' It is range, and then turn them loose to help them- very good, but not like Siberia !'” selves. Once in Siberia they are free to go where Many Englishmen seem to think that Siberia they please, as long as they do not return to is a large torture-chamber—a gigantic quickEuropean Russia.
silver-mine—where we send innocent persons to As the Governor-General of Western Siberia be slowly murdered. It is, on the contrary, a reports only the other day, the English convict huge emigration field, whither we send criminals system differed from the Russian chiefly in se- with the double object of getting rid of them verity. The English convict was compelled to and of supplying a sparsely peopled province work on penalty of the lash or gallows; the Rus- with colonists. It may not be a good way of sian convict-I quote General Koznakoff's exact dealing with criminals, according to your view, words, as I have good reasons for trusting his but at least the charge of too great leniency is word—is pitchforked into Siberia, and permitted quite the reverse of what we are usually blamed to do whatever he likes short of actual crime. for. To some the sentence ordering them to go Many weighty voices are heard against “the too to Siberia inflicts no disgrace. In their case it is great liberty accorded to convicts." But foolish simply equivalent to a compulsory passage to kind-heartedness, however absurd such an asser- one of your colonies. tion may appear to you, is one of our national The number sent to Siberia, according to the features. We often bear in mind what our great latest official report, averages since 1860 about Empress, Catharine II., used to say, “ Better twenty thousand per annum-not a very large pardon ten criminals than punish one innocent.” proportion out of a population of eighty-four milWe feel these words, and act accordingly, and I lions. In England and Wales, with little more
than one quarter of the population, you have Coast,” by Captain Wiggins, the adventurous twelve thousand criminal convictions every year. explorer of the Arctic regions, whose enterprise The evils of which General Koznakoff complains in opening up a trade route by sea to Siberia has are precisely those which would never arise if the attracted much attention in Russia. As the tesfacts corresponded to the English notion. So timony of an independent witness, I make the little limitation is placed upon the liberty of our following extract:* “Captain Wiggins has had convicts that numbers escape. In Tobolsk, in many opportunities during his visits of thoroughly January, 1876, out of 51,122 exiles only 34,293 studying the system of exile from other parts of could be found. In Tomsk nearly five thousand the Russian Empire, which is such a prominent were missing out of thirty thousand. The great subject in connection with Siberia, and, like othmischief of our system of pitchforking convicts ers who have personally investigated it, he has into Siberia, and telling them to do what they arrived at conclusions very different from those please, is that very few of them take to honest popularly entertained. The captain declares that labor. The country is so rich that they can live not one third of these time-service exiles elect to without hard work, and they become idle, good- make the return journey to their former homes ; for-nothing vagabonds. It is an easy way of they find that life is easier and pleasanter in the getting rid of convicts, but it is not good for land to which they have been forcibly sent, and Siberia. M. Koznakoff, the Governor-General, they end by becoming free settlers in the country declares that millions are spent in governing them of their adoption. Desperate criminals only are without there being the slightest return for the sent to labor in the quicksilver-mines, and for expenditure in the shape of private or public these there is a specially severe discipline proworks. Since 1870 about four thousand persons vided, and ‘horrors, without doubt, exist."" a year have been exiled for “offenses against The explorer goes on to say, for many years the administration,” some of whom, of course, past the desire of the Russian Government has are political offenders. But no mistake could be been to forward, by all means in their power, the greater than to suppose that all these political settlement of this portion of their territory, and, offenders were sent to the quicksilver-mines. they have learned that it is good policy to take For the most part they are left free to do as they the utmost possible care of the lives of the exiles, please in certain districts, subject to police sur- and to place them in the best possible positions veillance. As to the quicksilver-mines, they are for self-maintenance at the earliest opportunity. solely reserved for murderers and political crimi- With the exception of the robbers and cutthroats nals of the worst kind-people many of whom in specially condemned to the mines, the exiles are England you would have hanged off-hand. But, spread about in the towns and agricultural disas we have abolished capital punishment, we tricts soon after their arrival, and, as a rule, they must do something with our murderers, etc., so are left to shift for themselves. The supervision we send them to the mines.
over them is slight, but tolerably effectual. The Of course, there may be great abuses in our exiles, when quitting for any length of time the establishments—I wish I could deny that—just district to which they are assigned, must report as there were in New South Wales and Van Die- their project to the head man, and they are then, men's Land before you discontinued transporta- at liberty to go where they please, up or down tion. I admit injustice and mistakes on the part the great river systems of the country, but they of our authorities-authorities are not infallible. must not attempt to pass westward toward EuBut you would be wise in not accepting implicitly ropean Russia. A great number of the Russian every libel told against us by Polish rebels. A few exiles and immigrants employ themselves in the months ago a friend sent me a report of the most mines, and Captain Wiggins's experience of the dreadful cruelties which a Fenian prisoner said people convinces him that they are “a happy, he had suffered in your convict-prisons. Believe rollicking, joyous community-well clad, well me, our Poles, when instigated by their father fed, and well cared for." During the summer confessors, are not behind your Fenians in the months they are able to earn sufficient money to compilation of a catalogue of horrors. If merely provide for the wants of their respective houseRussophobes attacked us I would not make even holds; in the long winter, and the commencethe shortest reply. But the minds of some of ment of the cold season, when they visit the town our friends are evidently put out of ease with to make their purchases, is generally a time of these horrible legends, and I do not like to high festivity among them. Captain Wiggins strengthen our enemies' hands by refraining declares that some exiles are now settled in the from stating the truth.
north by the Russian Government, which, in this If it is complained that “I idealize even Sibe
* From an article published on November 21, 1878, ria," I may quote from an article embodying the by the "Newcastle Chronicle," the organ, I am told, of results of “Recent Exploration of the Siberian one of the most prejudiced of English Russophobes.