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volved as if he consciously avoided that directness inspired it and the steps which led to it were curi. and simplicity of statement which a writer should ously destitute of either magnanimity or dignity. aim at who is so hostile to “rhetoretic effects." The No community of blood or kindred, no memories of following passage is a fair example of his average the past or aspirations for the future shared in comstyle, selected because it is at once short and com- mon, no generous resolve to bury old wrongs in a plete in itself:
new career of mutual helpfulness, no reciprocal sen
timents of friendship or kindness, brought the two The army had made all arrangements for departure, whether to fight elsewhere or to return home. The heavy
peoples together : the Act of Union was simply a siege-artillery had been embarked. It is not distinctly hard and reluctant bargain between two trading naknown whether the commander [Marlborough) arranged tions, each trying to get the better of the other, and all this as a deep strategem, or, on the other hand, struck each grudging the other every shilling of possible by an appearance of favorable conditions, he at once profit that might be made out of the transaction. abandoned a fixed intention to depart. Whichever al- Scotland demanded as the price of union as ternative we adopt, we see a man who must have pos- the lucrative trade monopolies enjoyed by the then sessed, for giving effect to it, two great qualities—the
rapidly expanding English commerce : England one a supreme capacity for manipulating the movement of troops, the other a clearness of judgment and percep
grumblingly paid the price under the conviction that tion impervious to confusedness or unsteadiness of nerve.
it was cheaper to grant a share in the trade than to
risk losing it all in the dubious and costly alternative Forbidding as the style is, however, this is not of war. A really significant event in the history of the worst defect that can be alleged against the the world was probably never brought about by palwork. The simplest record of the events of Queen trier motives or marked by meaner incidents; and, Anne's reign, provided it were tolerably complete, though he deals with it at great length, Dr. Burton could hardly fail to possess both interest and value, is constrained to admit that “the interest is not of a and these qualities can not be altogether denied to kind to hold its intensity through after-generations." Dr. Burton's history ; but, while the arbitrary ar. Another topic, which is treated at a length altorangements dictated by chronology must be carefully gether disproportionate to its relative importance, is avoided by the historian who aims at being some. “The Sacheverell Commotions." Two long chapthing more than a mere annalist, yet it is no less ters are devoted to these, and the trial of Sacheverell important that the proper sequence of events should is rehearsed with a minuteness of detail that would be preserved than that their relation to each other hardly be justified if the work were five times as should be pointed out. And it is in this regard that extensive as it really is. This disproportion is the Dr. Burton's work is most open to criticism. His more noticeable, because the influence which the grouping of subjects is intelligible enough, and on Sacheverell "persecution" had in discrediting the the whole helpful; but, in his treatment of them, Whigs and changing the Queen's policy and advisers the different groups are so completely detached from is by no means rendered clear by Dr. Burton. each other that it is impossible for the reader either B ut the most conspicuous defect of the work in to gather from them a general impression of the this regard is the closing chapter on “ Intellectual reign as a whole, or to learn what occurrences in the Progress.” Next to Marlborough's victories, the several groups were contemporaneous with each thing that gives its most distinguishing feature to the other. This is due partly to the scanty use of dates reign of Queen Anne is the literature then produced ; and to the curious inexactness of those which are and the very first question which an historian, proposused; but, it is due much more decidedly to the ing to deal with that reign, should ask himself should method of treatment adopted by the author, which be, whether he is competent to deal with that literarenders his chapters separate and complete essays ture. The task is certainly one that might discourrather than closely interlinked parts of one organic age the most adventurous, and little surprise would whole. All sense of the progression or sequence of be caused by a failure to do it complete justice; but events is completely lost, and, when one of the in- Dr. Burton's method of getting over the difficulty is frequent dates is encountered, the reader will be surely the very worst that could possibly have been quite as likely to be perplexed as assisted by it. A adopted. In point of fact, he does not get over the slight experiment has convinced us that, for one who difficulty at all, or even make an attempt to do so ; desires really to study the period, it would be quite he simply evades it. He begins his chapter by sayworth while to go over the book once, inserting co- ing that “it would be a discourtesy to suppose that pious marginal dates, and then reperuse it with spe. any reader requires to be informed about” Pope, cial attention to the significance of these dates. Addison, Arbuthnot, Steele, and the more important
Even when we confine our examination to the works of Defoe ; and, accordingly, of the fifty-three separate topics to which special prominence is given, pages devoted to literature, eleven are devoted to the result is scarcely more satisfactory. Far too “Tom Brown" (not Sir Thomas Browne, but a formuch space is used in detailing the causes and cir- gotten scribbler of that name), ten to Defoe's “ Recumstances of the Union between England and view" (the least important of all his publications, Scotland. This was undoubtedly an event of the and only interesting to Dr. Burton because of its first importance not only in the history of England rarity), seventeen to showing that Swift was a vain, but in the history of Europe ; but, while its results fussy, ambitious, pushing, and heartless màn, and an were of the utmost consequence, the motives which indecent writer, five to the “ Law of Libels," one to the newspaper press, three to copyright, and two to tions he may already have established with them. the study of classical literature. Neither Addison The parallel, indeed, is closer than may at first sight nor Steele is mentioned, Pope is dismissed in a page appear; for, as to the play-goer the character of and a half, Gay in half a page (while Brome, whom “Hamlet" is the main attraction of the play, so, to Gay is thought to have imitated, gets three times as many students of the reign of Queen Anne, its literamuch), Arbuthnot and Parnell in half a page each. ture is incomparably more interesting than any other
The objections to such a method are so numerous feature of the time. and obvious that it would be a “discourtesy to the Less important than this, but still requiring notice reader" to attempt to mention them all ; but it may at our hands, is the inexactness in the matter of dates. be worth while to point out the fact that a consistent The mistakes here are so numerous that they can be application of the author's rule would have curtailed explained more easily on the supposition of carelesshis narrative in a similar degree throughout. A larger ness than of lack of knowledge ; but this can not apnumber of readers, doubtless, know that Marlborough ply to such a slip as calling Madame de Maintenon a was the hero of Blenheim, Ramillies, and Malplaquet, “concubine" of Louis XIV. Somehow, the adroit than are familiar with the characters, works, and and wily Widow Scarron takes a feebler hold upon literary qualities of the group of authors named; our sympathies than do the frail sisters who really therefore the author has betrayed “discourtesy to the deserved the epithet ; but few facts relating to the reader" in narrating those battles in full, instead of private life of the Grand Monarch are now better confining himself to digging out from the rubbish. established than that Madame de Maintenon was his heap of forgotten history an account of the minor honestly-married wife, and no serious historian should skirmishes and marches that marked the campaigns. permit himself either to remain ignorant of this or to Every reader of history knows the significance and ignore it. results of the Treaty of Utrecht ; hence, in accord. When engaged in fault-finding, it is incumbent ance with his rule, Dr. Burton should have excused upon the critic to state his reasons and marshal his himself from treating that, and refreshed our recollec- evidence ; but, in the pleasanter task of according tions with a minute account of the abortive Confer- praise, it is permitted to him to be brief: so we may ence of Gertruydenberg, which preceded it, and say in a concluding paragraph that, in spite of the which the world has totally forgotten. The truth is, grave defects which we have pointed out, Dr. Bur. however, that, if such a doctrine were accepted as ton's history is not without interest for the reader and valid, the historian would be excluded from every value for the student. The preference of the author field or subject that had been treated before him in for what is curious and obscure has enabled him to such a way that a well-informed reader might fairly bring to light many facts and suggestive details that be supposed to be acquainted with it ; and no long had been overlooked or rejected by previous workers time would elapse before this entire department of in this field ; and, however arid the text may be at letters would be fenced off and prohibited to all fu- times, the notes, in which many of these details are ture intruders.
embodied, are nearly always entertaining. MoreIt can not be denied, of course, that there are over, it can not be denied that Dr. Burton has really both reason and plausibility in the doctrine of Pro- contributed something to the understanding of the fessor Seeley and his school, that history proper has characters of Queen Anne, of Marlborough, and of nothing to do with literature, the arts, industry, sci- the mighty Duchess, Sarah. During the period cov. ence, social progress, and the like ; and a writer ered by this history, Marlborough was enacting the could hardly be blamed who, having accepted this most brilliant scenes of his long and checkered career; doctrine, should write a history of the reign of Queen and, in the splendid figure of the conquering general Anne without attempting to deal with its literature. and all-powerful diplomatist, one hardly recognizes But this, it will have been seen, is not the position the treacherous hypocrite of Macaulay's earlier narra. of Dr. Burton. He acknowledges the obligation to tive. The general effect of Dr. Burton's work is to deal with literature as one of the most significant make us think more favorably than heretofore of all phenomena of the period of which he treats ; and, those who were conspicuous upon the great stage of since he recognizes the obligation, his manner of ful- politics and war; and it seems strange that, with his filling it becomes, of course, a legitimate subject of amiable disposition to take a lenient view of most criticism. This being so, the inadequacy of his faults and frailties, he should deal so harshly with method of treatment can hardly be emphasized too Swift, the self-torturing cynic whose sufferings so far strongly. An audience collected for the purpose of outweighed his mistakes of judgment and infirmities seeing “Hamlet," who, on the rising of the curtain, of temper. should be calmly informed by the manager that, To many readers, perhaps, in first taking up the owing to their presumed familiarity with the leading new volume of the “ International Scientific Series,” character, it would be omitted in order to secure it will seem surprising that a scientist so eminent as prominence for the minor and less familiar roles, Professor Huxley should devote an entire book to a would hardly have better reason to complain than creature so common, and so low in the scale of life, would the reader of a history of the age of Anne, as the crayfish ; but such readers will speedily diswho, on coming to the chapter on “ Intellectual cover that not only is the volume “An Introduction Progress," should find Pope, Addison, Steele, Swift, to the Study of Zoology,” as the author says, bet Defoe, and Arbuthnot, calmly confided to the rela- that it will serve for the general reader as a most admirable and instructive outline of the whole of certain important points of detail that are only rebiological science.* “Whoever," says Professor ferred to in the text; and under the head of “ Bibli. Huxley, “ will follow its pages, crayfish in hand, and ography" are given “some references to the literawill try to verify for himself the statements which it ture of the subject which may be useful to those contains, will find himself brought face to face with who wish to follow it out more fully." all the great zoological questions which excite so This description or summary will convey a tolerlively an interest at the present day; he will under- ably definite idea, perhaps, of the scope and general stand the method by which alone we can hope to contents of the work ; and a few passages which we attain satisfactory answers of these questions; and, may be able to detach from the close-knit exposition finally, he will appreciate the justice of Diderot's will serve to indicate its special features of interest. remark, ‘Il faut être profond dans l'art ou dans la We mean, of course, those features which are spescience pour en bien posséder les éléments.'” of cial to this particular book, and not due simply to course, within the dimensions of such a treatise, the author's lucid and luminous style. Everything many of the larger problems can be only touched that Professor Huxley writes has the charm of forupon, and the way to approach them pointed out; cible argument and an incomparable clearness and but a right beginning is of the utmost importance vigor of expression ; but the present work is illu. in such matters, and Professor Huxley not only puts minated more often than common with those quick the student in complete possession of “the ele- flashes of sly and caustic humor that are characterisments," but shows him how “the careful study of tic of him-as where he says : “ Crayfishes, in fact, one of the commonest and most insignificant of ani- are guilty of cannibalism in its worst form ; ... mals leads us, step by step, from every-day knowl- and, not content with mutilating and killing their edge to the widest generalizations of ... biological spouses, after the fashion of animals of higher moral science in general."
pretensions, they descend to the lowest depths of The method of exposition followed by Professor utilitarian turpitude, and finish by eating them.” Huxley in the present case is the same as that adopt. Perhaps as useful to the beginner in science as ed with such happy results in his previous work on any other passage in the book is that in which Pro“Physiography" : beginning with the simple and fessor Huxley explains the reason and use of that particular he proceeds to the more complex and technical nomenclature which is so difficult to masgeneral-dealing first with the most commonplace ter, and which, to many, seems so superfluous : facts of observation, then with the special law which governs the facts, then with the wider facts from Many people imagine that scientific terminology is a which the special law was deduced, ascending grad
needless burden imposed upon the novice, and ask us
why we can not be content with plain English. In reually to those heights whence the fixed boundaries
ply, I would suggest to such an objector to open a conof human knowledge are clearly visible. In the
versation about his business with a carpenter, or an enopening chapter, the reader is confronted with what
gineer, or, still better, with a sailor, and try how far plain is called the common knowledge of the crayfish - English will go. The interview will not have lasted long that knowledge which is acquired by ordinary ob- before he will find himself lost in a maze of unintelligiservers who may happen to see them in the streams ble technicalities. Every calling has its technical termiwhich they frequent; and this leads up to “ that ac- nology ; and every artisan uses terms of art, which sound curate, but necessarily incomplete and unmethodized like gibberish to those who know nothing of art, but are knowledge, which is understood by natural histo-, exceedingly convenient to those who practice it. In fact, ry.” In the two following chapters the physiology
every art is full of conceptions which are special to it
Sy self ; and, as the use of language is to convey our conof the crayfish is discussed under two general heads:
wo general caus: ceptions to one another, language must supply signs for 1. “ The Mechanism by which the Parts of the Liv- those conceptions. There are two ways of doing this : ing Engine are supplied with the Materials neces- either existing signs may be combined in loose and cumsary for their Maintenance and Growth"; 2.“ The brous periphrases ; or new signs, having a well-underMechanism by which the Living Organism adjusts stood and definite signification, may be invented. The itself to Surrounding Conditions and reproduces practice of sensible people shows the advantage of the Itself." The fourth chapter treats of “ The Mor
latter course ; and here, as elsewhere, science has simply
followed and improved upon common sense. phology of the Common Crayfish: the Structure and
Moreover, while English, French, German, and Italthe Development of the Individual"; and the fifth
ian artisans are under no particular necessity to discuss of the “Comparative Morphology of the Crayfish: the processes and results of their business with one anthe Structure and Development of the Crayfish com- other, science is cosmopolitan, and the difficulties of the pared with those of other Living Beings." Then study of zoölogy would be prodigiously increased, if zocomes, in the sixth chapter, a discussion of the geo- ologists of different nationalities used different technical graphical distribution of the crayfish, followed by a terms for the same thing. They need a universal lansummary of what is known and may legitimately be guage; and it has been found convenient that the lanconjectured concerning the ætiology (or origin) of
guage shall be Latin in form, and Latin or Greek in
origin. What in English is Crayfish, is Ecrevisse in the crayfishes. A few notes at the end treat of
French ; Flusskrebs in German ; Cammaro or Gambaro * The Crayfish. An Introduction to the Study of in Italian ; but the zoologist of each nationality knows Zoology. By T. H. Huxley, F. R. S. With Eighty-two that, in the scientific works of all the rest, he shall find Illustrations. Vol. xxviii. International Scientific Se- what he wants to read under the head of Astacus fluviaries. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 12mo, pp. 371. tilis.
But, granting the expediency of a technical name for crayfishes which are found in the fresh waters of the the crayfish, why should that name be double ? The southern hemisphere, and which differ from the Eng. reply is still, practical convenience. If there are ten lish crayfish still more widely than do the American children of one family, we do not call them all Smith,
· kinds; and then adds : because such a procedure would not help us to distinguish one from the other ; nor do we call them simply The southern crayfishes, like those of the northern John, James, Peter, William, and so on, for that would hemisphere, are divisible into many species; and these not help us to identify them as one family. So we give species are susceptible of being grouped into six genera them all two names, one indicating their close relation, ... on the same principle as that which has led to the and the other their separate individuality-as John Smith, grouping of the northern forms into two genera. But James Smith, Peter Smith, William Smith, etc. The
the same convenience which has led to the association of same thing is done in zoology; only, in accordance with
groups of similar species into genera has given rise to the genius of the Latin language, we put the Christian the combination of allied genera into higher groups, name, so to speak, after the surname.
which are termed families. It is obvious that the defini
tion of a family, as a statement of the characters in which In the same line and equally useful is the expla
a certain number of genera agree, is another morphologination given in a later chapter of the proper mean- cal abstraction, which stands in the same relation to geing of those much-debated and seldom-understood neric as generic do to specific abstractions. Moreover, terms, “species,” “genus," and "family." After an the definition of the family is a statement of the plan of extremely minute description of the common Eng- all the genera comprised in that family. lish crayfish, the author says:
It will be seen by the attentive reader that this The importance of this long enumeration of minute involves much more than a mere definition of certain details will appear by and by. It is simply a statement scientific terms. If accepted as correct, it really set. of the more obvious external characters in which all the tles one of the crucial questions at issue between the English crayfishes which have come under my notice
advocates of evolution and the upholders of the docagree. No one of these individual crayfishes was ex
trine of special creations. And it may be added that, actly like the other; and, to give an account of any single
at many points, the book trenches upon this debat. crayfish as it existed in nature, its special peculiarities must be added to the list of characters given above;
able land of science, some of whose problems are which, considered with the facts of structure discussed encountered at almost every stage in the study of in previous chapters, constitutes a definition, or diagno- zoology. Any close examination of the comparative sis, of the Englisn kind, or species, of crayfish. It fol- anatomy of the crayfish reveals the fact that one lows that the species, regarded as the sum of the mor- “plan of organization” is common to a multitude of phological characters in question and nothing else, does animals of extremely diverse outward forms and hab. not exist in nature ; but that it is an abstraction, obtained its. Remarking upon this, Professor Huxley says : by separating the structural characters in which the actual existences--the individual crayfishes-agree from those Nothing would be easier, were the occasion fitting, in which they differ, and neglecting the latter. A dia- than to extend this method of comparison to the whole gram, embodying the totality of the structural characters of the several thousand species of crab-like, crayfish-like, thus determined by observation to be common to all our or prawn-like animals, which, from the fact that they all crayfishes, might be constructed ; and it would be a pic. have their eyes set upon movable stalks, are termed the ture of nothing which ever existed in nature; though it Podophthalmia, or stalk-eyed Crustacea; and by arguwould serve as a very complete plan of the structure of ments of similar force to prove that they are all modifiall the crayfishes which are to be found in this country. cations of the same common plan. Not only so, but the The morphological definition of a species is, in fact, no- sand-hoppers of the seashore, the wood-lice of the land, thing but a description of the plan of structure which and the water-feas or the monoculi of the ponds, nay, characterizes all the individuals of that species.
even such remote forms as the barnacles which adhere to
floating wood, and the acorn-shells which crowd every This is followed by a description of the Califor- inch of rock on many of our coasts, reveal the same funnian and other species of crayfish, in so far as they damental organization. Further than this, the spiders differ from the English species; and then comes the and the scorpions, the millipeds and the centipeds, and following passage :
the multitudinous legions of the insect world, show us,
amid infinite diversity of detail, nothing which is new in All the individual crayfish referred to thus far have principle to any one who has mastered the morphology been sorted out, first into the groups termed species; of the crayfish. Given a body divided into somites, each and then these species have been further sorted into two with a pair of appendages; and given the power to divisions, termed genera. Each genus is an abstraction, modify those somites and their appendages in strict acformed by summing up the common characters of the cordance with the principles by which the common plan species which it includes, just as each species is an ab- of the Podophthalmia is modified in the actually existing straction, composed of the common characters of the in- members of the order; and the whole of the Arthropoda, dividuals which belong to it; and the one has no more which probably make up two thirds of the animal world, existence in nature than the other. The definition of might readily be educed from one primitive form. the genus is simply a statement of the plan of structure which is common to all the species included under that Nor does the apparent unity of animated nature genus; just as the definition of the species is a statement cease when the entire animal kingdom has been in. of the common plan of structure which runs throughout cluded : the individuals which compose the species.
The most cursory examination of any of the higher Pursuing his exposition, the author mentions plants shows that the vegetable, like the animal body, is
made up of various kinds of tissues, such as pith, woody view of the possible relations between men and wofiber, spiral vessels, ducts, and so on. But even the men- to enable Mr. James to write the closing most modified forms of vegetable tissue depart so little chapters of his story with such serene unconsciousfrom the type of the simple cell (which Professor Huxleyness of there being anything unusual or unnatural elsewhere defines as a particle of simple living matter, or
o about them. To the experienced Parisian, perhaps, protoplasm, in the midst of which is a rounded body termed a nucleus), that the reduction of them all to a
the situation is scarcely complicated enough to pique common type is suggested still more strongly than in the the attention; but, to the unsophisticated and somecase of the animal fabric. And thus the nucleated cell what prudish Saxon imagination there is something appears to be the morphological unit of the plant no less repellent and distasteful in the attitude of the sev. than of the animal. Moreover, recent inquiry has shown eral parties toward one another just before the event that, in the course of the multiplication of vegetable cells which makes every one happy ever after. by division, the nuclear spindles may appear and run Another comment which “ Confidence" seems to through all their remarkable changes by stages preciselys
cisely suggest is, that Mr. James is losing his hold more similar to those which occur in animals,
and more upon the solid realities and permanent inThe question of the universal presence of nuclei in cells may be left open in the case of plants, as in that of anis terests of life. “Roderick Hudson” presented a mals; but, speaking generally, it may justly be affirmed group of clearly defined and persectly intelligible that the nucleated cell is the morphological foundation of characters in a situation which, if unusual, was at both divisions of the living world ; and the great general- least easily conceived and ardently sympathized ization of Schleiden and Schwann, that there is a funda- with. In “The American," the characters deviated mental agreement in structure and development between more widely from the ordinary types, and the situaplants and animals, has, in substance, been merely con- tion was almost grotesquely artificial: while in “ The firmed and illustrated by the labors of the half century
Europeans" the incongruousness and lack of ad. which has elapsed since its promulgation,
justment between the leading characters and their We have exhausted our space without finding room surroundings constituted the main interest of the for all (or even nearly all) of the striking passages story. In “ Confidence" the characters are intelli. which we had marked ; but those we have quoted gible enough and inspire a sympathetic interest ; but will suffice to show how important, and how varied they are curiously disconnected from all those inciin interest, are the subjects which the book dis. dents, attachments, and surroundings which serve to cusses. It only remains to add that the volume is give background and reality to a character. They copiously and admirably illustrated-quite a number seem to be moving in a sort of vacuum ; and no opof the eighty-two engravings being, as Professor portunity is afforded for that association of ideas, so Huxley says in his preface, “excellent specimens of to call it, by which we identify and localize a perthe xylographic art.”
son, whether in real life or in fiction.
The truth is, that Mr. James has confined himself of late to the study and portraiture of dilettanti
leading more or less consciously the vacant, detached It is not only in the incisiveness and subtilty of
lives of dilettanti. To such, of course, it is not his criticism that Mr. Henry James, Jr., shows the
given to scale the heights or to penetrate the depths effects of his French studies and Parisian experi
of life, or even to march sanely along those broad ences. These effects are hardly more traceable in
levels which are interesting because of the countless his essays on the French poets and novelists than in
numbers of human creatures who must tread them. his more distinctly creative and original work, and
For this reason, the artist who deals with them must it must be admitted that they are more conspicuous
avoid all definite and pronounced colors, all conthan ever in his latest, and in some respects best, novel, “ Confidence."* We are not going to impair
trasts of light and shade, all depth of tone or energy
of expression. And this is the reason why Mr. the reader's enjoyment of this piquant and graceful story by revealing its plot or dénouement ; but we
James's love—and he is always dealing more or less
directly with love and love-making - is a pallid, shall make no unfair disclosures if we say that the situation at the close is decidedly “French” in char
bloodless, conversational sort of an emotion, which
never really agitates or dominates the man or woman acter and manner. There is nothing specifically
into whose consciousness it is supposed to insinuate objectionable about it, certainly nothing “immoral,”
itself. No doubt much refinement of art may be as the phrase goes; yet the unassisted Teutonic im.
displayed in portraying such persons and their miagination would hardly have conceived quite such a complication or exactly such a method of disentan.
lieu ; but, after a prolonged diet of them, one feels as glement. It is said that in the most elevated stra
if he would gladly exchange them all for one single tum of French society, a certain surprise, not unmin.
broadly human Jeems Yellowplush or Matilda Ann. gled with amusement, is felt at finding that a man is
In thinking of this, a passage from one of Charles
Dickens's recently published "Letters" rises unbid. in love with his own wife instead of with somebody else's. This sentiment by no means finds expression
den in the memory: “ The more we see of life and in “ Confidence"; and yet it required a certain easy
its brevity," he says, "and the world and its vari. fumiliarity with this sentiment with the French
eties, the more we know that no exercise of our
abilities in any art, but the addressing of it to the * Confidence. A Novel. By Henry James, Jr. Bos- great ocean of humanity in which we are drops, and ton: Houghton, Osgood & Co. 12mo, pp. 347.
not to by-ponds (very stagnant) here and there, ever