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repetition, is the note of a manner which rises in such a sketch as that of Bishop Patteson naturally to vehemence, and the strong rush of it is comparatively easy for him to maintain a words sometimes pass off into shrillness. He high level of applausive criticism. It is his own can realize for the time little or nothing but the Anglican ideal of virtue that is everywhere reidea which moves him, and it expands and glows flected back upon him. Bishop Patteson is the till, like an illuminated cloud, it fills the whole hero at once of Oxford culture, of Catholic orheaven of his thought and casts on his page an thodoxy, and of self-sacrificing missionary enintense shadow "dark with excessive bright.” thusiasm. It seems to Mr. Gladstone and many But his manner of thought, if rhetorical and ve- others of his school a never-failing marvel that hement, is always elevated. It never sinks to such heroism should have been in our time, and frivolity, seldom to commonplace; it ranges at a that such a man should have gone forth from high level. “Whatsoever in religion is holy and his native country, where he might have spent sublime, in virtue amiable or grave; whatsoever his days in scholarly and parochial peace, to the hath passion or admiration in all the changes of wilds of Melanesia to labor among savages, and that which is called fortune from without or the ultimately to fall a victim to their mistaken venwily subtilties and reflexes of men's thoughts geance. The picture of self-sacrifice is beautifrom within "*_such things are the main haunt ful and heroic, but it is hardly more so because of our author's literary spirit, and his pen aspires Patteson was born a gentleman and reared at to describe them with “a solid and treatable Oxford, and left behind him an affectionate and smoothness.” Even Milton had no higher con- admiring home-circle. Such a career must alception of the business of literature than he has, ways involve sacrifice of this kind more or less. and his example so far, no less than in the thor- Mr. Gladstone's admiration, if slightly excessive oughness and energy of his work, is of special here, is entirely natural. The very prejudices of value. For that we are “moving downward " in Patteson, as in the matter of Colenso (one never this respect, if not in others, can hardly be doubt- hears somehow of the sacrifices of this outcast ed. Lightness of touch, if it be also skillful and bishop, and yet they must often surely have been delicate, is a distinct merit. It saves trouble. It very real and bitter) and the “Essays and Reattracts casual readers who might otherwise not views," are congenial to the writer. They meet read at all. It soon passes, indeed, into a trick, at once a response in the same soil of culture and becomes the feeble if pointed weapon of ey- from which they have sprung. In such a case ery newspaper critic. But when to lightness of there is no strain put upon the critic's sympathies. touch is added lightness of subject and frequent But in the article on Macaulay and in others the emptiness of all higher thought, the descent be- same genuine love of true greatness comes forth comes marked indeed ; and literature, from being no less warmly and genially, notwithstanding the lofty pursuit imaged by the great Puritan, many differences of taste and opinion. becomes a mere pastime in no degree higher It would be difficult to find anywhere a more than many others.
exhaustive analysis of Macaulay's personal, inMr. Gladstone never descends to the flippant tellectual, and literary character than in the essay facility to which the mere passions and gossip of in the second of these volumes. The marvelous the hour are an adequate theme. He not only range of Macaulay's powers, “his famous memdeals in all his essays with worthy subjects, but ory, his rare power of illustration, his command he always deals with them in a worthy manner, of language, united to a real and strong individso far at least as his tastes and sympathies are uality," are all exhibited with copious and feliciconcerned. If by no means always true or just tous analysis. His combination of intellectual in his judgments, it is yet always what is noble splendor with ethical simplicity, and the charm in character, and pure and lofty in sentiment, and of true and unsophisticated taste, is particularly dignified in feeling that engages his admiration. emphasized. “Behind the mask of splendor,” His pen fastens naturally on the higher attributes says our essayist,“ lay a singular simplicity; beof mind and action in any figure that he draws; hind a literary severity which sometimes apand this too, as in the sketches of Lord Macau- proached to vengeance an extreme tenderness; lay, the Prince Consort, and Dr. Norman Mac- behind a rigid repudiation of the sentimental a leod, where it is plain he has only an imperfect sensibility at all times quick, and in the latest sympathy with the type of character as it comes times almost threatening to sap, though never from his pen. On this very account these por- sapping, his manhood. He who as a speaker traits are the more interesting, and test more di- and writer seemed, above all others, to reprerectly the genuineness of his high capacity of ap- sent the age and the world, had the real center preciation.
of his being in the simplest domestic tastes and
joys." "Was he envious ?” he asks, and the * Milton's " Account of his Own Studies." passage deserves quotation at once as an appre
ciation of Macaulay and an illustration of Glad- provement and of delight which so many have stone:
found and will ever find in it!”
The “ Anglican position ” of our essayist is Was he envious ? Never. Was he servile ? No.
marked off by still more distinct lines from the Was he insolent? No. Was he prodigal? No. Was he avaricious ? No. Was he selfish? No.
subject of the essay which follows that on MaWas he idle? The question is ridiculous. Was he
caulay-the Rev. Dr. Norman Macleod. This is false? No; but true as steel and transparent as specially acknowledg
tas specially acknowledged, while much in Dr. Maccrystal. Was he vain? We hold that he was not. leod's character, it is allowed, excites an entire At every point in the ugly list, he stands the trial; and cordial sympathy. “Even when differences and though in his history he judges mildly some sins and position intervene, there is still material from of appetite or passion, there is no sign in his life or which we ought to draw some valuable lessons." his remembered character that he was compounding This note of narrowness is unhappily characterfor what he was inclined to.
istic. It is allied to all that is least worthy and There is no attempt to depreciate the level of
least true in these volumes. It is a blemish in Macaulay's greatness because the critic feels it
itself; it is specially a blemish in the literary necessary to point out with an unsparing hand,
sphere in which we are now estimating Mr. his deficiencies. It is a poor criticism-of which
Gladstone. As if such differences were vital on the Whig historian, after his first popularity, had
any broad view either of literature or humanity : more than enough—which tries to take down the
and character was to be judged by the special general power of a man because he is far from
Christian communion to which a man belonged. perfect, or even shows many imperfections.
No one can yield to such sectarianism without There is nothing of this. The characterization
distinct loss. It is impossible to shut out the is bold and manly, and generous without stint,
light even with so good a substitute as an Anglibut at the same time discriminating and upon
can eye-glass without suffering in many respects the whole correct. Macaulay's mind is described"
d from distortion or imperfection of vision. as strong and rich and varied rather than deep:
We are bound to say, however, that after the
opening apologies for taking up such a subject He belonged to that class of minds whose views at all, our reviewer does full justice to Dr. Macof single objects are singularly and almost preter- leod, and some may think more than justice. naturally luminous. But Nature sows her bounty We can only find room for the following comwide; and those who possess this precious and fas- parison : cinating gift as to things in themselves, are very commonly deficient in discerning and measuring He (Dr. Macleod) stands out, we think, as having their relations to one another. For them all things supplied, after Dr. Chalmers, one of the most disare either absolutely transparent, or else unapproach- tinguished names in the history of Presbyterianism. able from dense and utter darkness. Hence amid In some respects much after Chalmers ; in others a blaze of glory, there is a want of perspective, of probably before him. He had not, so far as we see, balance, and of breadth.
the philosophic faculty of Chalmers, nor his inten
sity, nor his gorgeous gift of eloquence, nor his This may be, although it is profundity and
commanding passion, nor his absolute simplicity, nor insight rather than breadth in which Macaulay's
his profound, and, to others, sometimes his embargenius is lacking. But after all exceptions, his rassing, humility. Chalmers, whose memory, at a genius remains a great fact; after all inaccura- period more than forty years back, is still fresh in cies, his history is among the prodigies of litera the mind of the writer of these pages, was indeed a ature. His writings are as “lights that have man greatly lifted out of the region of mere flesh and shone through the whole universe of letters ; they blood. He may be compared with those figures who, have made their title to a place in the solid fir- in Church history or legend, are represented as risen mament of fame." There is no aspect of his into the air under the influence of religious emotion. character as a man or a writer which is dwelt Macleod, on the other hand, had more shrewdness, upon invidiously. All is amply and warmly more knowledge of the world, and far greater elas. sketched. The only point in which the essayist ticity and variety of mind. Chalmers was rather a at once marks his own leanings and points a pre
man of one idea, at least of one idea at a time ; judicial inference is where he often fails. He
Macleod receptive on all hands and in all ways.
Chalmers had a certain clumsiness, as of physical, so shows his customary tendency to judge a man's
of mental gift ; Macleod was brisk, ready, mobile. religion by the extent of his dogmatic creed ;
Both were men devoted to God; eminently able, and a doubt is suggested whether the great Whig earnest, energetic : with great gifts of oratory and historian “had completely wrought the Christian large organizing power. A church that had them dogma, with all its lessons and all its consola- not may well envy thein to a church that had them. tions, into the texture of his mind, and whether he had opened for himself the springs of im We have spoken of the ideality, no less than the elevation of sentiment, which frequently marks have come down to us from the imaginative Mr. Gladstone's “Gleanings.” He is not merely storehouse of mediæval Europe. The connecattracted by what is noble and great in sentiment, tion between these “ twin systems,” and again and all the fairer traits of our higher nature, but their “consanguinity to the primitive Homeric there is an elevated and poetic glow at times in types," are very happily expounded by him. Insuch criticisms as those on Leopardi and Tenny- genuity never fails him in tracing analogies and son which carry their author beyond the mere contrasts ; but there is here far more than ingecritical sphere, and show that he is capable of nuity. There is a genuine, living, and richly being touched to finer issues. As a student of thoughtful insight in the parallel which he draws Homer and Dante, he is familiar with the loftiest between the typical forms of the Carlovingian and richest poetic ideals ; and these ideals have romance on the one hand, and the romance of evidently sunk deep into his mind. They have the Round Table on the other. The latterbred in him a kindred enthusiasm, and, what is if far less vivid and brilliant, far ruder as a work of more, an enthusiasm which is capable of being
ing skill and art, has more of the innocence, the emo
skill fired alike by the heroism of Hellenic and the tion, the transparency, the inconsistency, of child. humilities of Christian virtue. He is entirely free hood. Its political action is less specifically Chrisfrom the classical furore which has been rampant tian than that of the rival scheme ; its individual in many quarters of late, and whose craze is a re- portraits more so. It is more directly and seriously turn to mere pagan ideals. Unlike Leopardi and aimed at the perfection of man. It is more free the pessimist school, which may be said to date from gloss and varnish ; it tells its own tale with from him, he has fed his genius “ on the Mount more entire simplicity. The ascetic element is more of Sion" not less than “on the Mount of the strongly, and at the same time more quaintly, deParthenon," " by the brook of Cedron " no less veloped. It has a higher conception of the nature than “ by the waters of Ilissus." While recog
of woman ; and, like the Homeric poems, it appears nizing the prophetic element in Homer, and en
to eschew exhibiting her perfections in alliance with raptured by his exquisite creations—and no one warlike force and exploits. So also love, while
largely infused into the story, is more subordinate has described them with a more vivid and bright
to the exhibition of other qualities. Again, the ly-tinctured pencil-he yet bows before the higher
romance of the Round Table bears witness to a prophetic genius of Isaiah, and sees in the mar
more distinct and keener sense of sin, and, on the velous ideals of Christian poets, from Dante to
whole, a deeper, broader, and more manly view of Tennyson, a more perfect bloom of the human human character, life, and duty. It is in effect more mind and character. Achilles and Ulysses, Pe- like what the Carlovingian cycle might have been nelope and Helen, Hector and Diomed, are all had Dante molded it. “immortal products." But
No higher subject, according to our author, the Gospel has given to the life of civilized man a
could have been selected for poetical treatmentreal resurrection, and its second birth was followed
and in Mr. Tennyson's hands it has assumed, if by its second youth. Awakened to aspirations at once fresh and ancient, the mind of man took hold
not the proportions, yet the essential dignity of a of the venerable ideals bequeathed to us by the great epic. The title of “Idylls" is condemned as Greeks as a precious part of its inheritance, and inadequate to the “breadth, vigor, and majesty" gave them again to the light, appropriated but also of the theme, “as well as to the execution renewed. The old materials came forth, but not the volume.” But nothing can be finer than the alone ; for the types which human genius had for. criticism which follows of the four “ Books," as merly conceived were now submitted to the trans- the critic prefers to call them. It is at once elabfiguring action of a law from on high. Nature her. orate, delicate, and profound. No criticism has self prompted the effort to bring the old patterns ever placed Mr. Tennyson higher-none could of worldly excellence and greatness-or rather, the well do so — but high-pitched as is the strain copies of these patterns, still legible, though de throughout, it rises naturally from the close analypraved, and still rich with living suggestion — into sis to which the poems are subjected, and the harmony with that higher Pattern once seen by the felicitous presentation of their tender or heroic eyes, and handled by the hands of men, and faith. fully delineated in the Gospels for the profit of all
types of character. The spirit of a true poet, generations.
which Mr. Tennyson has shown from the first,
and all the characteristics of his genius are seen In this great example Mr. Gladstone recog- here in ripened formsnizes “the true source of that new and noble the delicate insight into beauty, the refined percepcycle" of character which has been preserved to tion of harmony, the faculty of suggestion, the eye, us in the two great systems of romance—the one both in the physical and moral world, for emotion, associated with our own Arthur in England and light, and color, the sympathetic and close observathe other with Charlemagne in France—which tion of nature, the dominance of the constructive faculty, and that rare gift, the thorough mastery and period of the most profound religious disturbance, loving use of his native tongue. . . . The music when so many have not only lost their early dogand the just and pure modulation of his verse carry matic creed, but lost all faith whatever in a spirus back not only to the fine ear of Shelley, but to itual order and a life beyond the present, the Milton and to Shakespeare ; and his powers of fancy writer of these essays holds fast not only to reli. and expression have produced passages which, if they gion but apparently to every iot and tittle of are excelled by that one transcendent and ethereal
Anglican orthodoxy. His mind remains imbedpoet of our nation whom we have last named, yet
ded in the great forms of dogma on which it was hardly could have been produced by any other min
originally based, untouched not merely by the strel.
destructive but by the historical spirit of his age. “ Finally, the chastity and moral elevation” Christianity is with him, as with all his school, of the “ Idylls,” their “essential and profound the Christianity of the creeds of the fourth or though not didactic Christianity, are such as per- later centuries. It is bound up with the Nicene, haps can not be matched throughout the circle or even the Athanasian dogma, and with a sysof English literature in conjunction with an equal tem of government, discipline, and worship depower.'
scending (as he supposes) from the Apostolic age Here, as always, our author's religious senti- to the present time. Nothing can be more emments come out strongly, and it is necessary, be- phatic than his repeated assertion that Christianfore completing our notice, to advert more par- ity is only fully vital when thus conceived as a ticularly to this marked feature of his writing. whole, both dogmatically and ecclesiastically, as We can not otherwise do full justice to its char- "a tradition firmly anchored in the Bible, and acter or the genius that inspires it. Of all writers interpreted and sustained by the unvarying voices of our day none is more distinguished for the of believers from the first beginning of known constant assertion of religious principles of the records."* Religion is little to him unless “inmost definite kind. It is not merely that his cased in the well-knit skeleton of a dogmatic and pages are everywhere imbued with religious feel- ecclesiastical system.” “ Christianity," he speing, or that he always puts forth a Christian cially saysstandard of judgment. He writes not merely as a Christian, but as an Anglo-Catholic ; and it is
is the religion of the person of Christ ; and the creeds
only tell us from whence he came, and how he came startling to the lay reader to find himself so fre
and went, by what agent we are to be incorporated quently in contact with the most definite types of
with him, and what is the manner of his appointed theological and ecclesiastical opinion. Mr. Glad
agency and the seal of its accomplishment... The stone challenges the declaration of Mr. Trevelyan
laration of Mr. i revelyan doctrinal part of the Revelation has a full and cothat his uncle had a strong and decided taste for equal share with the moral part. The Christian systheological speculation. He can see no evidence tem neither enforces nor permits any severance of in Macaulay's writings that he knew much of the two. theology. This can not certainly be said of his critic. The most abstruse definitions of Chris. Again : tian doctrine, the distinctions of Augustinianism Ministerial succession is, we apprehend, the only and Pelagianism, of Calvinism and Arminianism, rational foundation of Church power. For unless of the sixteenth and seventeenth century theol- Church power came by a definite intelligible charge ogy, of the Anglican and Presbyterian codes, of capable of delivery from man to man, how did it the Evangelical and the Oxford schools, are all come? . . . And if the mission of the twelve, so at his fingers' ends. It may be doubted whether solemnly conveyed by our Lord, and so authentically the Church has not lost in him a great scholastic, sealed by him with the promise of perpetuity, is to whatever the state may have gained or lost by
be struck out of the scheme of his gospel, his holy
sacraments will not long survive (except as mere him. His mind, indeed, is rich beyond any mere
shows) that ministry to whose hands they were compower of scholastic dialectics. It has a native
mitted ; and the loss of the true doctrine concerning freshness and vigor unspoiled by the schools.
them will naturally in its turn be followed by a genYet they have everywhere left their impress upon
" eral corruption and destruction of true Christian behim, and their dogmatism crops out in the most lief concerning the divine grace of which they were unexpected manner in the midst of biographic appointed to be the
ast of. biographic appointed to be the especial channels and deposianalysis, and even the delightful fluencies of poetic tories. description.
In this respect more than any other Mr. Glad- The meaning of these grave assertions is unstone's mind seems to have made little or no ad- mistakable; and it is certainly one of the most vance, or, if the word advance be deemed inap
" Nineteenth Century," October, 1879, “Olympian plicable from his own point of view, seems to System versus Solar Theory," the last production of Mr. have undergone little or no change. During a Gladstone's pen in the periodical press.
astonishing facts of our time that a mind so rest- er Scotch or English, or any other nationality. less and subtile, so energetic and penetrating, and, But it will hardly be denied that there is a type moreover, so capable of moving with effect in the of Anglican culture peculiarly insensible to a purely human atmosphere of literature, should fair-minded appreciation of characteristics difhave retained a dogmatic standpoint so little able fering from its own. And although Mr. Gladto withstand critical analysis. To hold the dog- stone rises far above any Philistinism of this mas of the fourth century as if they were deliv- kind, there is yet a certain harshness in many of ered from heaven “ a divine gift," and the minis- his intellectual and religious judgments which try of the Church of England as if it were the savors of austerity. The crust of old prejudice perpetuity of the apostolic office, is a marvelous clings sometimes to his freshest utterances. And exercise of faith in a time like ours; but it is also prejudice of any kind, however venerable, is ala curious indication of that lack of genuine his ways a limiting power in the sphere of literature. toric culture which, with all his other great en- It may pervade a college court; it may give emdowments, is not found in Mr. Gladstone. The phasis and sharpness to a theological argument; modern historical spirit is, indeed, a growth long but literature claims “an ampler ether, a diviner subsequent to his Oxford career, and has never air.” And Mr. Gladstone, as a man of letters, apparently touched him, a fact which many of would have been a richer and certainly a more his Homeric speculations conspicuously illustrate. commanding and original genius if he had risen With large power of research, and of accumulat- more above its confining influence. ing in graphic masses historical details, he has In close connection with this narrowness of no higher insight into historic method, or the real thought is his tendency to paradox. He sees genesis and growth of great ideas and institu- affinities which do not exist, and he is blind to tions. This is a definite deficiency betrayed in resemblances which more open-minded students many of these essays, and without regard to which plainly recognize. He twits Macaulay with conwe can not estimate aright his intellectual nor founding the theology of the Seventeenth Article perhaps his political character. More than any- with the general Calvinism of the sixteenth centhing else, it is the source of his one-sided reli- tury—the “ portentous code" framed at Lambeth gious speculativeness—perhaps also of his one- before its close. But Macaulay, although far less sided and sometimes headlong biases in public versed in technical theology, is here nearer the life. More than anything else, it explains his mark than his critic. The Seventeenth Article devotion to what he esteems principles rather is Calvinistic beyond all doubt. It is more happithan institutions.
ly expressed, indeed, than the plain-spoken and There never was a more absurd accusation ugly propositions of the Lambeth Articles; but made against Mr. Gladstone than that of indiffer- its meaning is so far distinctly the same. And ence to principle. Through all these productions Macaulay was too much of an historical student of a long life he is a writer of singularly stead- --untinctured by any dogmatic prejudices—not fast principle. From first to last he knows in to know that the theology of the Church of Engwhat he believes, and is assured that it is true land in the sixteenth century, like that of all the and right. He may abandon a principle once Churches of the Reformation, was what is comfirmly held, as in the case of the Irish Church, monly called Calvinistic. The same great lines elaborately explained by him in his chapter of of thought, transmitted from Augustine, adopted autobiography in the last volume, but in all his by Luther, received it may be in more rigid form writings, as, no doubt, in all his actions, he works by Calvin, were accepted as of divine authority forward from a strong and firm ground of con- in the Reformed Church of England no less than viction. He is never lacking in dogma, whether in the Protestant Churches on the Continent, and it be right or wrong. What he lacks is width in the Church of Scotland. It is the fashion, we and geniality of historic comprehension, love for know, to deny this, and to represent “Calvinism” the manifold and diverse in human life and hu- as an exceptional product of Geneva and Scotman institutions-heartiness and tenderness of land. It is needless and very unhistorical to appreciation (as, for example, in his judgment of quarrel about a name. Geneva of course was Unitarianism)* for that with which he does not intimately connected with Scotland, and the agree—the grounds of which he does not find name of the Genevan divine was intimately in his own intellectual or moral nature. In many stamped upon its theology. But Macaulay very things Scotch, he is in this respect thoroughly well knew that it is not the name but the thing English, and of a narrow school. The incapaci- which is important, and that a system of thought ty of judging fairly what we do not like is un- embracing the same great principles as to the happily a characteristic of human nature, wheth- divine sovereignty and the operation of divine
grace, is the same whether it be called Augus* Vol. ii., p. 18.
tinian or Calvinian, or a portentous Lambeth