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proper place. That they were not aversé to spirit, saccharine matter, and acids are thoroughliquor may be gathered from the example of one ly amalgamated, might prove a salutary substiout of many, Squire Western, who, in nine cases tute. In “Our Mutual Friend” the wind passing out of ten of his appearance, makes his entrance over the roof of the R. Wilfer family rushes off or his exit drunk. The reader may, indeed, well charged with a delicious whiff of rum; and in expect to meet with some guzzling in a work the same novel Mr. Wegg, one evening paying a which the writer likened to a public ordinary, visit to Mr. Venus's museum, finds its proprietor speaking of its contents as a bill of fare. The carousing on cobbler's punch, the composition of difficulty of finding traits of nature he compares which so much depended upon individual gifts, to that of meeting with a Bayonne ham or Bolo- and there being a feeling thrown into it, though gna sausage in the shops of the metropolis; and, the groundwork of the drink was gin in a Dutch while warning his reader that his entertainment bottle. Mr. Wegg is indignant at the idea of the depends less on the meat cooked than the au- possibility of his refusal to partake of this comthor's cookery, offers to conduct him, after the pound. Lemon is mentioned as one of its ingreapproved fashion of cooks, from plain dishes of dients. While David Copperfield lived princithe country to the quintessence of sauces and pally on Dora and coffee, his friend, Mr. Micawspices, the affectations of the town. Squire ber, preferred punch, which, like time and tide, Western would probably not so often have ren- waits for no man. So on the occasion of David's dered his articulation indistinct had he not been memorable dinner-party, the melancholy of the so politely desirous to drink the health of his Crushed One was awhile diverted by his being friends on all occasions.
led to the lemons. A thing out of mind was then The ill effects of this custom once caused a that ribald turncock, who had cut off his supply sanguine correspondent of the “World,” who of water, amid the fragrance of lemon-peel and was unwilling to waste on the security of health sugar, and burning rum. the succor of disease, to suggest that, in future, After Bob Sawyer's dinner-party a reeking healths should be eaten, instead of, or at least as jorum of rum-punch is brewed in the largest well as, drunk. There is, indeed, no reason to mortar in his shop, and the various materials expect that our unselfish wishes for the salutary amalgamated with a pestle in a very apothecarywelfare of our friends would be less likely to be like manner. Mr. Pickwick himself, though a accomplished by our eating to them than by our discreet man, is so fond of milk-punch that he drinking. No potent mystic spell to which we drinks out of Bob Sawyer's case-bottle, taking it may trust for the fruition of our vows exists in through the coach-window three times before Madeira more than in mutton, in beer more than allowing Ben Allen a drop of it. And after the in beef, in punch more than in pork. Less dan- famous sporting party, in which Mr. Winkle for gerous by far would it be for our own heads, and ever distinguished himself, many more than three equally efficacious in fulfilling our desires for the glasses of cold punch out of a stone bottle brought health of others, if we ate the Queen and the Mr.* Pickwick into the wheelbarrow, and from royal family in a saddle of mutton, toasted the the wheelbarrow into the pound. It is someBishop and clergy in turtle, and testified our what curious that the “ Household Edition" of hopes of the future felicity of the bridesmaids at Dickens's works has for its first two illustrations a wedding-breakfast by a mouthful of chicken à of the Pickwick Club, the scene last mentioned, la Marengo, or a game-pie.
in which the hero is awaking from intoxication in Some few dinners are mentioned by Dickens; the wheelbarrow, and that in which, still under but many more drinks, generally with the par- the influence of perhaps too much punch, he is ticulars appended of their composition. There discovered by the ladies of Mr. Wardle's family. is, for example, the can of flip, for which Solo- Among the less famous writers of the last mon Daisy laid down his sixpence, in “ Barnaby twenty years, Mortimer Collins is certainly the Rudge." There are the Oxford nightcaps, quite most conscientious in giving, on every possible celebrated for their strength and goodness, with- occasion, a list of the articles which the characout which, according to Mrs. Nickleby, the young ters in his novels consume. In “Miranda, a men at college never went to bed. And there is Midsummer” (it is the author's own limitation) that sherry-cobbler, described in all its details, “Madness,” that saturnine man of letters, affectwith which Mark Tapley made a new man in ing the gourmand enjoué, introduces a very mysevery particular worth mentioning of Martin terious person, who is called the Troglodyte of Chuzzlewit. But for punch in all its varieties the Island of Hawks, providing victuals for his Dickens had evidently a predilection. He prob- guests, which are indeed worthy of precise and ably thought with a celebrated physician that in singular description. Stewed kid with oranges; cases where wine and malt liquor are found too certain wonderful purple fish which can only be oppressive, the beverage of punch, in which the caught, if thé Troglodyte was not mistaken, or intentionally imposing on his company, in lakes bivouacs, with their hard fare of “pickled corkformed out of the craters of extinct volcanoes; tree and pyroligneous aqua-fortis." The repast goats'-milk cheese, bananas in cream, and a consisted of a turbot as big as the Waterloo brewage, still more wonderful than the purple shield, a sirloin which seemed cut from the sides fish, without a name, made of grapes, oranges, of a rhinoceros, a sauce-boat that contained an lemons, citrons, bananas, and cinnamon—these oyster-bed, a turkey which would have formed dainties are far indeed from every-day fare. But the main army of a French dinner, flanked by a the Troglodyte not always confused his visitors picket of ham, a detached squadron of chickens with such an unaccustomed carte. A few pages ambushed in greens, and potatoes piled like shot beyond the last banquet, the dweller in the cave in an ordnance-yard. The standard-bearers of treats a lawyer to oysters with Chablis, clear tur- this host were massive decanters of port and tle with old Madeira, a haunch of Exmoor mutton sherry, and a large square half-gallon vessel of with Heidseck, and a grouse with Lafite. Other whisky. bills of fare, more or less complicated or unusual, This Brobdingnagian banquet may be comare scattered through this novel, out of which pared with two Lilliputian entertainments, of Mr. Collins was probably no more able to keep which an account has been preserved by Sir them, than Mr. Dick to exclude from his memo- Walter Scott. The first, a very temperate feast, rials the ever-unwelcome intervention of King occurs in “Redgauntlet.” Among the visitors Charles. But the particular work, in which bev- who on one eventful morning came to Joe Crackerages appear like the stars which stud the milky enthorp's public-house, on the banks of the Solway, is the “ Princess Clarice." It is not easy to way, the reader may remember the Quaker, calculate how often that young lady, though de- Joshua Geddes. He orders, we are told, a pint scribed as a rational being, occupies herself with of ale, bread, butter, and some Dutch cheese. drinking, lazily or otherwise, as the case may be, Not content with such meager fare was that unsomething effervescent, what time her father is fortunate victim of Themis, Peter Peebles, who feasting on Montrachet, that “good river-side on the same occasion, after asking in vain for a wine," and sardines. The quantity of drink they “plack pie," or a “souter's clod,” whatever those both consume would confound a Dane ; the va- delicacies may be, obtains by various solicitations riety astonish a wine-merchant. Mention is made a mutton pasty, a quart of barleybroo, somein the first half of the first volume alone of gin thing over a dram of brandy, and of sherry a cocktails and old rye, of pick-me-ups and Mara- gill. schino, a glass of which is given to Clarice by her Scott's second dinner, in which all good judicious father, to prepare her mind for the news things are but creatures of the imagination, ofof a burglary in his house; of Ræderer, and fers a sad contrast to such abundance as astonclaret-cup with borage and wooderooffe, of ale ished Sancho at Camacho's wedding feast, and and port. Nor must it be supposed that the eat- which pleasantly distinguishes the Epulæ lauing does not proceed pari passu with the drink- tiores of Bradwardine. In the “ Bride of Laming in this novel. Four courses of the dinner at mermoor," that faithful but somewhat tedious Great Middleton, eaten by the surgeon and Sir old butler, Caleb Balderstone, the ingenious servClare, are described at length by the novelist, ing-man who contrives to make the satisfaction who would have described the rest in the same of his own silly vanity pass for a dutiful regard manner, were it not for his fear of the mighty to his master's honor-a vanity which he never bill of fare horrifying the critics, who, according hesitates to support by any number of lies--offers to Mr. Mortimer Collins, are dyspeptic to a man. on a day the Lord of Ravenswood and his hunYet in spite of all the gaudy glitter and crowd of gry guest the following fare: Bannocks, the meats at Great Middleton, as an exquisite piece hinder end of a mutton-ham, three times served of Limoges porcelain compared to the con- already, and the heel of a ewe-milk “kebbuck," tents of a crockery-shop in the New Cut in all which, being translated, means flat cakes, the Lambeth, is Tennyson's picture of the picnic pickings of what was once a leg of mutton, and in "Audley Court," with its dusky loaf that the rind of a cheese. As for wine, “there never smelt of home, its pasty of quail and pigeon, was lack of wine at Wolf's Crag,” says honest lark and leveret, and its prime flask of ancestral Caleb—“only two days since as much was drunk cider, compared to the Salian feast of the sur- as would have floated a pinnace"; and as for geon and Sir Clare.
ale, the awful thunder last week had a little A gigantic dinner, almost worthy of the turned it, so at last the revelers are forced to mouth of Gargantua, is the dinner that Charles drink water ; but such water as Balderstone Lever has not disdained to introduce into undertakes to affirm can not be met with any“Charles O'Malley”-a dinner which the hero where in the wide world except in the Tower of that tale often remembered in his mountain well.
These dinners of fiction may be finally compared with a dinner of fact-a neat and inexpensive dinner, given by a Scotch lady of equal economy and taste, who was under the dire necessity of asking a friend to dine at the beginning of this century. The authentic bill of fare is copied from a number of the “Monthly Review.” It consisted of seven plats, and included fish, joint, game, and sweets, not to mention sauce and vegetables :
At top, 2 herrings........................
........ 03 Parsley for garnish...
MR. GLADSTONE AS A MAN OF LETTERS.
UR title expresses the exact purport of our less than a genuine literary inspiration. The two
paper. We wish to view Mr. Gladstone may have often gone hand in hand, but the gesimply as a man of letters-a character which nius of the one is radically different from the gehe may be said formally to have assumed by the nius of the other. The one contemplates objects republication in seven handy volumes of his con- with which the other has nothing to do, and moves tributions to periodical literature.* Whatever in an atmosphere of faith and service which may may be thought of the intrinsic value of these attract and influence the other, but which can volumes, no one can doubt that such a collection never inspire it. The literary spirit springs from not only belongs to contemporary literature, but its own fountain-head, in a different side of huthat it forms a remarkable and significant addi- man nature altogether than that which the Church tion to it. It has been always, at least, a part of addresses. Mr. Gladstone's ambition to take a place among The predominance of the religious and ecclethe literary men of his time, and to guide the siastical element, therefore, in Mr. Gladstone's thoughts of his countrymen to worthy intellec- Essays, constitutes a difficulty. It is impossible tual as well as practical results.
to ignore this element, for, if we did so, we We feel all the same how difficult it is to pre- should ignore the greater part of these volumes. serve the mere literary view of Mr. Gladstone. We should not have their author before us save As a writer even he is always more than the man in a very imperfect shape. In fact, we should of letters; he is moved by more than the mere not have him before us at all. For the subjects literary instinct. In point of fact, there is only which are farthest away from religion in these one of the seven volumes—the second of the volumes are yet impregnated by religious conseries—to which he himself has ventured to give ceptions, and run back by many roots to the ecthe title “Personal and Literary.” The other clesiastico-religious soil which lies so thick and volumes, like the first and fourth, are mainly po- deep in Mr. Gladstone's mind. In contemporary litical, or deal with subjects of constitutional or literature he is much more than a theological or political interest; the third again treats of “ His- political writer, otherwise we should not have set torical and Speculative" questions; while two ourselves our present task ; but it may be doubtare entitled “Ecclesiastical," and deal exclusively ed, even when he ranges farthest a-field, whether with Church questions. The ecclesiastical ele- he does not drag behind him the ecclesiastical ment, more than any other, pervades all the sev- chain which was bound around all his intellectual en volumes; and upon the whole there is nothing impulses, in those years when he believed he was less allied to literature, or which less admits of helping the public mind by such discussions as pure literary treatment, than ecclesiastical topics. constitute “The State in its Relation with the The Church has often protected and fostered lit- Church” (1838–39). erature—sometimes she has notably done the re- The subjects discussed in these volumes adverse; but whether she has been friendly or ad- mit of very imperfect classification, as any one verse to intellectual progress, the spirit of the may see from comparing, in the table of conChurch is always something more and something tents prefixed to the last volume, the titles with
the list of subjects below. It could serve no *" Gleanings of Past Years, 1843–79." By the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone. London: John Murray,
useful purpose to endeavor any estimate of these 1879.
contents in detail. We wish to estimate the writer rather than any of his special productions, period of not less than thirty-five years. It would and we will best accomplish our purpose by have been better in some respects if the author looking in succession at what appear to be the had contented himself with a chronological arbroad qualities impressed upon his writings gen- rangement. But there are few writers who less erally. We shall try to seize these qualities in stand in need of being estimated chronologically. the first instance, at least, in their pure intellec- In expounding “ The Evangelical Movement" in tual form.
1789, he is very much the same expositor as Perhaps the first, and in some respects the when he dealt at length with “ The Present Ashighest intellectual quality which marks these pect of the Church" in 1843. If in the former essays, is their varied energy of thought. There paper his attitude is different, which it could is no sign of weariness, of languor, or even re- hardly help being, considering the different mepose in them, but everywhere the throb of a fresh, dium he has found for his views,* he yet speaks powerful, and unsated intellectual impulse. A in both from the same background of substantial genuine life of thought moves in them all. It is conviction. His views are as fully formed in the impossible for any serious reader not to be one case as in the other. Nothing is more retouched by their depth and force of sentiment, markable, in fact, in these essays than the imand the frequent vigor and eloquence, if also the movable background of opinion which everyoccasional clumsiness and complexity, of their where crops through them. Whatever may have language. Mr. Gladstone writes always as from been the vacillations of Mr. Gladstone's political a full mind, in this respect alone taking at once career, there has been but little change in his a higher position than that of many contempo- more inward and higher thoughts. We do not rary writers. It is no conventional or professional know any other writer of the day who has reimpulse that animates his pen; he has always mained more steadfast through a generation and something to say, and which he is eager to say; a half to the same central principles. he is so moved by his thought, whatever it is, Nor is it merely that there is little change or that he brings all the forces of his mind to bear growth in his central thought; there is but little upon it. He never dallies, seldom pauses over a change in his manner as a writer. He writes subject; still less does he, after a prevalent mode with the same rhetorical fullness in the end as in ern fashion, touch it all round with satiric and the beginning—with the same energy and glow, half-real allusion, as if it were rather a bore to and excessive, at times inelegant movement. If touch it at all, and not of much consequence there is any difference in this respect, it is cerwhat conclusion the writer or the reader came to, tainly not in favor of the papers of his more maafter all. There is not a trace of persiflage in ture years. For with the same force and intenany of the essays. There is, in fact, far too little sity of thought these papers are upon the whole play of mind—too much of the Scotch quality of less duly proportioned, less harmonized. More weight. It is well to be earnest. In this respect literary care, apparently, has been taken in the it is nothing less than a relief to turn from the preparation of the remarkable series which fill silly and inconsecutive sentence-making of much the fruitful decade following 1843, than in some of our present writing to Mr. Gladstone's moving of his recent productions. We would notice for and powerful pages. But they are frequently their literary characteristics the articles on “Blanfatiguing from the very weight and hurry of their co White,” in 1845, and on “Leopardi,” in 1850; energy. And if sentence-making in itself be but and we must add to these, although of later a poor business with which no man will occupy origin, the articles on “Tennyson” and “Mahimself who has much to say, it is yet, so far, an caulay," If any one wishes to see Mr. Gladstone indispensable element in all literature. And Mr. at his best as a man of letters, let him read these Gladstone, as we may have occasion to point out articles, especially the two last mentioned. They before we close, too often neglects it. He lacks are intense and powerful, radiant with all his the special instinct of style, or the repressive art peculiar energy of conception; but they are also which restricts the outflow of energy in all the stamped by a special impress of literary form. highest writers, as indeed in every creation of The vivid and impetuous march of thought is genius — withdrawing the glowing conception held within bounds. The writer is less swept within the “mold of form.” But of this again. along by the force of his ideas; the rein is laid In the mean time it is not the negative but the upon them, and they beat step to a more harpositive aspect of his writings that we are notic- monious pace. ing. The quality of energy characteristic of Mr.
* The paper on “The Evangelical Movement : its Gladstone's essays is impressed on them from
Parentage, Progress, and Issue," is reprinted from the com
“British Quarterly Review," July, 1879; that on “The the first. It is perhaps their chief literary quality Present Aspect of the Church " is from the "Foreign to the last-and the volumes before us cover a and Colonial Quarterly Review," October, 1843.
It would be difficult perhaps to select any of Two brief passages from the same essay Mr. Gladstone's essays more finished in its rhe- especially rivet themselves upon the mind by torical fullness, and more felicitously composed their vivid energy and compact swiftness—their after his manner, than the essay of 1843, on the strength, great as it is, being well contained position and prospects of the Church of England. within a highly finished, if hardly graceful, vehiHis peculiar genius is here seen in full swing, cle of expression. We have the more pleasure and yet controlled throughout by a strong sense in quoting them as they show definitely that howof form. The secret no doubt is, that he then ever high may be Mr. Gladstone's conception of wrote not only from a copious and inspired in- the position and prerogatives of the Church, he telligence on a theme which stirred his whole is as far as possible from any vulgar inclination heart, but also with comparative freedom, under to Romanism. His sentiments on this, as on no other impulse than a faith jubilant in its cognate subjects, are presumably quite unaltered strength, and in the fresh light of the new morn- since 1843 : ing which seemed rising on the Church of England. This is how he speaks of the revival of Is our national history, bound up in great part Catholic principles. The passage has the in- with the grand protest and struggle that originated volved and long-drawn note of much of his later in their (the reformers') time, and resting upon it for writing at its best; but it has also a sweetness
much of its meaning and character, to be disowned and harmony, a graceful swell of tone, which this
and dishonored by our return to crouch at the feet
of the Roman bishop, to admit his impositions, and often lacks:
to implore his pardon for our long denial of his sovAnd strange indeed it would have been-at least ereign authority? “Never, never, never,” said Lord in the view of those who regard the Church visible Chatham, would he, if he had been an American; and Catholic as the everlasting spouse of Christ. have laid down his arms under oppression. “Nevdowered with the gifts which he purchased by his er, never, never"--would that we could add emphablood and tears-most strange to them it would have sis to his words-will this people so forego its duties been if in a great religious revival that spouse had and its rights as to receive back again into its bosom not found herself a voice for the assertion of her pre. those deeply ingrained mischiefs and corruptions rogatives. It is not indeed for her to do battle with which Rome and her rulers still seem so fondlyher foes like earthly potentates, for the sake of ac. God grant it may not be inseparably kto cherish. quisition or possession, of admiration or renown: ... We firmly believe that in the day when the sebut her prerogatives are also her duties, and by them crets of all hearts are revealed, it will appear that alone can she discharge any of the high trusts com- many and many a one has in these last years deeply mitted to her by her Lord. And so in an order pondered the subject of the bold claims of Rome on which seems to us to bear every mark of the hand our allegiance as Christians. . . . In the chamber of Almighty wisdom, after that the embers of faith of many a heart has that matter been sifted and reand love have been extensively rekindled in thou. volved ; on the one hand, with varying force have sands upon thousands of individual breasts through. marshaled themselves such inducements as have out the land, there came next a powerful, a resiste been described. Upon the other side men have reless impulse to combine and harmonize the elements
flected that the question is not of appearances, but thus called into activity, to shelter them beneath a
of realities; not of delights, but of duties ; not of mother's wings, that there they might grow into the private option, but of divine authority. And that maturity of their strength, and issue forth prepared solemn and imposing imagery which wins souls to for the work which might be ordained for them to Rome has, in the English mind, as we judge, been perform. This was to be done by making men sen- outshone by the splendors and overawed by the tersible that God's dispensation of love was not a dis. rors of the Day of Judgment; of the strong sense pensation to communicate his gifts by ten thousand of personal responsibility connected with that last separate channels, nor to establish with ten thousand account, and of the paramount obligation which it elected souls as many distinct, independent relations. involves, conjuring us by the love of the Redeemer, Nor again was it to leave them unaided to devise no less than commanding us by the wrath of the and set in motion for themselves a machinery for Judge, to try and examine well the substances lying making sympathy available and coöperation practic under those shows that surround our path, and to cable among the children of a common Father. But suspend upon his changeless laws alone the issues of it was to call them all into one spacious fold, under life and death. one tender Shepherd; to place them all upon one level; to feed them all with one food; to surround
Next to the energy of Mr. Gladstone's writthem all with one defense ; to impart to them all the in
ing in an ascending scale may be mentioned its deepest, the most inward and vital sentiment of com. constant ele
constant elevation and frequent ideality of sentimunity and brotherhood and identity, as in their fall ment. On the descending scale his energy is apt so in their recovery, as in their perils so in their to pass into sheer intensity and rhetoric. The hopes, as in their sins so in their graces, and in the “Never, never, never" which he borrows from means and channels for receiving them.
Lord Chatham, and would even emphasize in its