תמונות בעמוד

make room in order to indicate the quality of the dred pounds and made colonel of a regiment, simply bework. Here is part of an entry in the journal under cause the servant of a friend of ours happened to give date of October 16, 1874, when they were cruising him a pair of Aylesbury goslings, which in time grew up in the Grecian Archipelago :

and had a family of their own. The Sultan, who is pas

sionately fond of all animals, saw and admired them at The wind was blowing strong, and exactly in our

the guard-house, and wished to buy them. The serteeth, so that the Sunbeam's head was pointed for Scyros geant refused to name a price, but begged the Sultan to instead of the Dardanelles. Mount Athos was visible, accept them, and accordingly was rewarded by promorising grandly from the sea, six thousand feet above Cape tion. The command of one of the largest ironclads was Santo. On the summit there is the strictest monastery given to a common sailor because he had a very pretty in the world. Not a female animal of any kind is al cat, to which he had taught all sorts of tricks. He prelowed within miles, so that the monks have to do with- sented it to the Sultan, and was told to name his own out milk, or fresh eggs even, and travelers are not al- reward. These stories sound like romances, but they are, lowed to carry even dead hens on their saddles for pro- I believe, really undoubted facts. vision. A few years ago two English ladies landed here

These, and such as these, it is true, are the pur. from a yacht. As most of the men here wear petticoats, and the women trousers, and the monks have not a chance ple patches in a fabric of a much more sober hue ; of much experience in such matters, they did not dis- but, as a dinner should not be all pudding, so a reccover the sacrilege that had been committed for some ord of a yachting cruise should not be expected to time ; and then you may imagine their horror and dis- be all novelty and excitement. The dull minutiæ gust, and the penances they had to perform-poor things! which form so many entries in the journal are neces

sary to give relief and perspective to the more strik. The all-pervasive dogs of Constantinople have ing incidents, and in fact it is these which give its often been commented on by visitors ; yet the fole air of perfect trustworthiness and verisimilitude to lowing details are not without novelty :

Mrs. Brassey's narrative. A more artistic and selfWhen we landed the first day in the arsenal, poor lit- confident writer might have made a different use of tle Félise [a pet dog] was immediately set upon by about the materials at command; but Mrs. Brassey has twenty fierce dogs, looking like wolves. Strange to say, aimed to give an exact idea of what yachting is, and in a few days they learned to know her, and came to the in this she has perfectly succeeded—even furnishing conclusion that she did not wish to settle among them or in an appendix the data for computing the precise take away their food, but simply to get quietly by ; so cost of such voyages. they allowed her to pass through them without molestation. These fierce dogs abound in every part of the three trated, and contains a map of the Mediterranean

The volume is profusely and admirably illuscities, and, as they are the natural scavengers of the place, they are never interfered with, but are regularly

sea and coasts, and another of the Island of Cyprus. fed by the inhabitants. They all have their own quarters, perhaps a dozen to half a street, and woe betide the unhappy dog who comes from another quarter in It is a curious example either of the secularizasearch of food! He is immediately set upon and de- tion of religion or of the growing tendency to sancvoured, unless he lies down on his back and puts up his tify human attributes that so reverent a writer as paws in token of surrender. Then, in the thickest of the fight, his assailants stop and content themselves with Mr. Tom Hughes should select for a serious work walking round him and growling, and seeing him safely such a title as “The Manliness of Christ " ;* and back to his own quarter. The puppies are innumerable, the surprise which the title causes is not diminished and, when there are too many to be supported in one when we find the author declaring that he admits, quarter, the parents desert their offspring, and fight their frankly and at once, that if the life of Christ will own way somewhere else, in order to leave them enough not stand the test [of manliness) throughout, in every to eat. If you once throw one a bit of bread in passing, separate action and detail, the Christian hypothesis he never forgets you, but looks out every day to fawn breaks down.” Of course, in applying such a test upon you as you go by. These facts I have heard from many long residents here ; so that, in spite of their illa of manliness adopted by the author; and here the

to such a subject, the vital point is as to the criterion savored, mangy appearance, there is a good deal to be said for the intelligence of these animals, and their scav

moral standing of both the book and its title is vinenging services are most necessary, for refuse of every dicated. In Mr. Hughes's view the essential tests of kind is thrown outside the door.

manliness are courage, loyalty to truth, and patience

(or self-control); and as a matter of course he has A better illustration of the essential rottenness no difficulty in showing that for all these qualities and depravity of the Turkish absolutist system of Christ was the most supreme model and exemplar government could hardly be found than is afforded that the world has known. We are not far wrong, by the following piquant anecdotes :

perhaps, in saying that the true raison d'atre of the The Grand Vizier's salary is thirty thousand pounds a

little book is that Mr. Hughes, whose earlier writ. yeat, that of the minister of finance fifteen thousand; ings contributed so largely to that admiration for and, as these officials are changed on the slightest ca- physical vigor and “pluck” which is so characterprice of the Sultan, their great temptation is to fill their istic of contemporary Englishmen, now that he has own pockets during the short time they may be in office. Their elevation is equally curious. The last Grand Vi- * The Manliness of Christ. By Thomas Hughes, zier was a common chaouch, or sergeant in a line regi- Author of "Tom Brown's School-Days,” etc. Boston: ment. Another chaouch was presented with five hun. Houghton, Osgood & Co. 16mo, pp. 160.

reached a more serious and reflective period of life, asites, and men of the town who hang about her, feels it incumbent upon him, as it were, to show that with a minuteness of detail and an audacity of lanthere is a moral manliness which is of a far purer guage that must astonish even those who are familiar and loftier type than mere animal manliness--that with his previous performances. If to excite disgust the so much admired "courage" and "pluck" are a and repulsion in every reader of any refinement suf. very animal-like attribute in comparison with those fices, as the author claims, to justify such art, then it serener heights of manliness which it is given to man must be conceded that “Nana" is an entirely moral only to scale. The only objection to the attempt is work. But it can not be justified on any such that many good people will be repelled by the seem- ground. “Nana” arouses at once commiseration ing irreverence of associating such distinctively secu. and contempt; yet it soils the imagination with conlar qualities with a figure so sacred as that of Christ; ceptions and thoughts which eat into the fibers of but even these will admit that certain aspects of moral purpose as gangrene eats into a wound. No Christ's character and career are presented by Mr. doubt the reader of Zola's novels has learned to Hughes in a novel and suggestive light.

know man- and woman-kind better; but the knowl. .... Though it contains nothing quite so strik. edge is of that sort which the wisest of the Greeks ing and pungent as the chapter of “Portraits” has said we may well pray the gods to keep us ignowhich opened the work, the second volume of Ma- rant of. dame de Rémusat's Memoirs * shows no falling off . . The paragraphs contributed to the Boston in either interest for the reader or value for the his. "Evening Transcript" by Causeur (it is an open torian. The truth is, that a character so many-sided secret, we believe, that Causeur is Mr. Hovey, the and complex as that of Napoleon can not be depicted editor of the paper) are certainly far above the aver-it can not even be outlined adequately—in a gen- age of journalistic writing; but, when gathered into eral summary of a few pages; and the vast aggregate a book, * they challenge comparisons which make of details to which every successive chapter of Ma- them appear somewhat light and tenuous. Neverdame de Rémusat's makes its contribution, must be theless, the little book is very readable-dipped into weighed and considered as a whole, before one can now and then, at odd moments. As a relater of be sure that he has caught the more delicate grada- stories, Causeur is remarkably felicitous, and among tions of light and shade in a portrait which is the his Causerie are some of the freshest and best-told more fascinating the more carefully and minutely it stories that we have encountered for a long time. is drawn. The present volume covers the period Almost equally felicitous are the touches of personal between 1804 and 1807, during which the Empire portraiture and the passing thrusts at certain social was founded and consolidated, and in which occurred foibles; but more serious topics for reflection are the splendid episode of the campaign of Ulm and sometimes suggested. Whatever may be his subject, Austerlitz, which raised Napoleon to the zenith of Causeur never loses his light and graceful touch ; and his renown and power. Particularly interesting are he brings to it a freshness of view and a geniality of the chapters on the organization and etiquette of the feeling which please even when they do not amuse. Emperor's Court, on his household and its expenses, ... A lecture on “The Origin of the Hoon the great military, civil, and ecclesiastical author- meric Poems,” + which was delivered in Vienna in ities of the new state, on the routine of palace life, 1860 by Dr. Hermann Bonitz, and which has since and on the literature and art of the period. The passed through four editions in Germany, has been discussion of these latter shows a keenness of in- translated by an American scholar, who gives as his sight and a literary skill on the part of Madame de reason for doing so the fact that it is the best brief Rémusat for which the reader was hardly prepared and compact statement of the reasons that have led by what went before ; and there are more of the so many German scholars to doubt the unity of anpiquant personal details about the Empress Jose. thorship of the poems attributed to Homer, and to conphine and other members of the Bonaparte circle. clude that if there ever was any such person as Homer

. ... Paraphrasing an oft-repeated quotation, it he certainly did not write the Iliad and the Odyssey may be said that while bad began in Zola's earlier in the form in which we now have them. Nearly novels, worse remained behind in “Nana,” † the half the little volume is occupied by notes on the sequel to “L'Assommoir.” In it M. Zola has depict. lecture, and these notes contain a very valuable bibed the life of a public woman, and of the pimps, par. liography which would be of great service to any

one who desired to study the Homeric problem. * Memoirs of Madame de Rémusat, 1802-1808. Translated from the French by Mrs. Cashel Hoey and John * Causerie. From the Boston Evening Transcript. Lillie. In three volumes. Vol. II. New York: D. Ap Boston: Robert Brothers. 18mo, pp. 203. pleton & Co. 8vo, pp. 238.

+ The Origin of the Homeric Poems. A Lecture. 1 Nana. A Sequel to L'Assommoir. By Emile Zola. By Dr. Hermann Bonitz. Translated from the fourth Translated by John Stirling. Philadelphia : T. B. German edition by Louis R. Packard. New York: Har. Peterson Brothers. Part I. 16mo, pp. 185.

per & Brothers. 18mo, pp. 119.

[blocks in formation]

[A recent work from the English press, entitled occasional brilliancy of the different speakers. It "Conversations with Distinguished Persons during seems too true that French conversation twenty years the Second Empire, from 1860 to 1863," by the late ago was much better than English conversation at Nassau William Senior, affords a mine of material the present day. The superiority can not be attribof an historic and personal character. These volumes uted to the language, because Mr. Senior writes in are supplementary to two preceding journals pub- thoroughly idiomatic English. In some instances he lished in 1878, bearing a somewhat similar title. Mr. may perhaps have pruned away redundancies or added Senior was Master in Chancery, Professor of Political force to the original phrases ; but his own style in Economy, a corresponding member of the Institute speech or writing was rather solid and weighty than of France, and author of numerous treatises and epigrammatic. No man was less inclined to antithessays. He had, it seems, unusual opportunities for esis or paradox, though he never hesitated to avow intimacy with his famous French contemporaries, opinions which might be novel, and therefore unwhich include such distinguished persons as Thiers, popular. The merits of the French contributors to Guizot, Prince Napoleon, Barrot, Changarnier, Ré- his collection are their own, and they are also renan, Mérimée, Cousin, Lamartine, Montalembert, sponsible for an incidental defect which is common Trochu, and numerous other persons of political or to them all. Some of their number discharge with social importance, among which were the Confederate credit that part of the prophetic function which con. Slidell, and the American Minister Dayton. The sists in the enunciation of sound principles and sugconversations largely relate to the history of France gestive warnings ; but, in the sense in which a prophet in her domestic perplexities and foreign embroilments, is so called because he predicts future events, the from August, 1860, to May, 1863, shortly after which oracles are all equally deceptive. It is true that altime Mr. Senior contracted the illness that terminated most all Mr. Senior's Parisian friends, differing widely in his death in the following year. His journals have among themselves, agreed in hatred and professed been edited by his daughter, Mrs. M.C. M. Simpson. contempt for Celui-ci, as they designated the Em“Their style and matter,” remarks the “Saturday Re- peror. Some of them foretold his overthrow through view," " display the highest point of perfection in a the errors of his domestic administration, and many branch of literature which he may almost be said to as the result of his foreign policy ; but they were all have invented. Only long practice combined with equally certain that his power would be of short dunatural aptitude rendered it possible to report, in good ration. A war with Prussia was a contingency which English and with a substantial accuracy which is was often mentioned as probable, but it seems not to proved by internal evidence, long conversations con- have occurred to any distinguished Frenchman that ducted in French. In estimating the value of the state. France might possibly be defeated. Again and again ments and opinions which Mr. Senior has recorded, Mr. Senior was assured that the Church, the army, it is necessary to remember that they were all in- the middle class, and the workmen were bitterly tended for future publication. The interlocutors hostile to the Empire ; yet, seven years after the latest trusted, with good reason, in Mr. Senior's discretion conversation recorded, seven millions of Frenchthat they would not be compromised with the Gov- men, forming an overwhelming majority of the total ernment or with contemporaries whom they might number of voters, supported the Emperor against all criticise; but they knew that they were speaking to the sections of the opposition. A ruinously unsuca more or less remote public audience, and that Mr. cessful war, which had been in its origin wholly unSenior's long head was, as Mrs. Thrale said of Bos- necessary, fulfilled by an accident the vaticinations well, equivalent to short-hand. The only doubt which in which it had never been included as one of the could arise as to Mr. Senior's accuracy and fidelity probable causes of the fall of the Empire. Unful. might be suggested by the vigor, the fullness, and the filled prophecies, though they may have been of little


use when they were delivered, afterward furnish valu- expenditure, shameless adulation, and all the vulable materials for the history of opinion. As in the gar pleasures of mind and body. But events former installments of the journals, Mrs. Simpson seem to be preparing which, whether he like it has edited the work with judgment and ability. The

or not, will force him to action. notes in which she gives biographical accounts of some of the less known personages of the dialogues [In some instances the names of distinguished are instructive and judiciously concise. Mr. Senior, men are suppressed, being indicated by letters only.] though he is ordinarily content to leave his interlocutors to speak, takes in these volumes a less infre- A. B. C. I know, too, that one of his inmost quent part in the discussions, always representing, feelings is hatred of the Pope. As a Carbonaro, where it was often wanted, the element of skeptical he hates him. As a revolutionist, he hates him. good sense; yet he seldom intervenes except for the He hates him for having refused the Sacre. He purpose of eliciting explanations or of recalling at- hates him as the possessor of a spiritual power tention to matters which had been overlooked. Hav- which his own temporal power can not break or ing proposed to himself a definite object, he adhered elude. His ambition, or rather his vanity, is beto his plan with a self-denying and artistic consis- yond all description, beyond all comparison, except tency. Few writers of equal ability and accomplish- among the Cæsars. He is a mixture of Augustus ment would be content to efface themselves so habit- and Nero—as anxious for power as Augustus, as ually, with the result of preserving a dramatic unity anxious for admiration as Nero. He would like, of design."

In the first series of extracts that follow we have like Augustus, to be Pontifex Maximus, as well as brought together from different parts of the two vol- Imperator; and, like Nero, to be the first of fluteumes, but from different speakers, numerous opin. players. Hence his jealousy of all eminence. If ions, predictions, and anecdotes referring to the late he heard that a great dancer had come to Paris, Emperor.]

his first idea would be to rival him; and, if he

thought that he could do so, he would like to LOUIS NAPOLEON.

collect all Paris in the Place Vendôme, and exCORO ORCELLE.*-Louis Napoleon believes him-hibit his activity and grace from the top of the

self to be the type of the French nation. He Column. I have no doubt that one of his mothinks that his feelings and wishes are also theirs. tives for wishing to merge all Italy in Sardinia is To a considerable extent he is right; the great his jealousy of Garibaldi. Garibaldi is more picmajority of the French are eager for war, and turesque than he is, a better soldier, a greater glory, and conquest, and extension of territory. conqueror. He hopes that when Italy is quiet These feelings, originally excited by Louis XIV., under a real king, a man born in the purple, exaggerated by Napoleon, and kept alive, or Garibaldi's role will be over. rather resuscitated, by the Opposition in their

I asked Changarnier his opinion as to the blind eagerness to discredit Louis Philippe, have


of Louis Napoleon. taken possession of the uneducated and ill-edu

Changarnier. It is great in theory, small in cated masses. In no mind are they stronger than practice. He forms schemes to which great perin that of Louis Napoleon; that is the secret of sonal danger is incidental. But when the danger what is called his knowledge of the French char- comes he quails before it. acter. He knows it, because it is his own. He

At Strasbourg, when the regiment on which thinks, with truth, that those masses prefer the he depended refused its support, he ran, and was Bonaparte policy to that of the Bourbons, war to found in a state of abject terror, hiding under a peace, intimidation to conciliation, glory to pros- carriage. In the Boulogne attempt, when he perity, equality to liberty, and he is anxious to had got half way across the Channel, he became show himself a Bonaparte. But he is dilatory alarmed, and wished to turn back. The people and irresolute; he is easily checked, easily turned about him called for champagne, and kept him aside; he is alarmed by the attitude of Europe; to his purpose by making him half drunk. As and I really believe that his present wish is to sit he approached the town, and no friends apdown under his laurels and enjoy uncontrolled peared, his alarm returned. The first troops that

* Count François de Corcelle shared the opinions of met him were under the command of a sensible Tocqueville before the Revolution of 1848, but after that old officer, who, when he saw the strange procestime his ardent Catholicism drew him nearer to Monta- sion, accompanied by the tame eagle, and was lembert. In 1849 he represented France at the Vatican, told that Louis Napoleon was at its head, instead and assisted the Pope in restoring the Papal Govern- of joining him, summoned him to surrender. ment. It was said that Pius IX. entreated him to re

Vaudreuil had said that at Strasbourg Louis main, and be his Prime Minister ; but M. de Corcelle refused to forsake his own country. After the Franco- Napoleon had not dared even to fire a pistol in German war he again became ambassador to the Vatican. his own defense. Louis Napoleon recollected He has now entirely given up public life.

this mot, kept a pistol in his hand, and fired at the officer ; but his hand shook so that, though —if you take the land on which the peasant feeds the man was not five paces off, he missed him his cow-you will create more paupers than you and wounded a poor cook, who in his white apron will relieve. And how do you intend that the was standing at a door to see what was going on. paupers shall cultivate these lands? Who is to Louis Napoleon turned, ran toward the sea, and supply them with capital ? Who is to supply got into a boat. A boat from the shore pulled them with industry and with skill ? ” after him. He gave himself up, begged them “Well," he replied, “what is to be done? not to hurt him, and said that he had 200,000 How am I to provide for the poor?" francs in his pocket, which he would give to “You are not," I said, “to provide for them them. He was landed, and begged M. Adam, at all. All that you have to do is, to give them the Maire, to take the 200,000 francs.

peace at home and abroad, and they will provide Adam said that he would take care of them, for themselves. This is not a brilliant policy; it but, with business-like habits, chose to count them produces no sudden results, but it is a safe one; first. It was lucky for him, for, when they were and, if you follow it, you will go down to postericounted in the presence of the crowd, there were ty as one of the benefactors of France.” found to be only 120,000. These 1 20,000 francs, Senior. Do you believe that his Italian policy when he was on his trial before the Peers, he is a deep-laid scheme in order to have a pretense claimed, and the cruel government of Louis Phi- for taking the Rhine ? lippe let him have them.

Barrot. I do not. I do not believe that any Senior. Did he not show courage at Ma- of his schemes are deep-laid. I do not believe genta?

that he has any Italian policy. He hates the Changarnier. He never crossed the Ticino. Austrians and the Pope. He is not sorry, perHe was smoking in a house during the whole time. haps, to see them upset. He hates the King of At Solferino he did not move or give an order, Sardinia too, but is afraid to stop him. He hates but he smoked fifty-three cigars. We know this, Garibaldi, but he fears him still more. He would as he always carries with him little boxes, each like to extend our frontiers to the Rhine. It of which contains fifty cigars. One was quite would remove the stain on the Bonapartes, that exhausted, and three had been taken out of the they lost all that the Republicans had gained. other. Once a spent ball came near him, but But I do not believe that he sees his way. In that is the only occasion on which he could be fact, he does not see, he feels. He is a man in considered as under fire. I saw a letter from one the dark, il tåtonne. of the Cent Suisses to his mother. “You need be under no anxiety,” he said, “ about me. I am

I called on Madame Cornu,* and found there with the Emperor, and therefore out of danger." M. Maury, of the Academy of Inscriptions. He In fact, none of them were ever hit.

is assisting Louis Napoleon in his work on Julius Barrot. I hear that he has now become Cæsar. I asked after its progress. haughty, irritable, and inaccessible: that was not Maury. Much is finished, and the materials his character when I knew him. He was then for the rest are collected. He is still on his inmild, accessible, and always ready to listen. So troduction, and is now at the times of the Graclittle effect was generally produced by one's ar- chi. But some subsequent portions are comguments that I sometimes doubted whether he pleted, particularly the story of Catiline. really heard them. When he made me his Min- Madame Cornu. Catiline was always one of ister, he sent for me, and said that he wished to his favorites. He maintains that Cicero and Saltalk over with me his system of government. I lust were unjust to him. At one time he almost said that nothing could be more satisfactory to thought him a patriot incompris, until he found me.

that he had pillaged Africa as governor, and es“When a man,” he said, “is at the head of caped condemnation only by being defended by such a nation as this, he is bound to do great

Cicero. things."

Maury. He says, with truth, that if Catiline I bowed.

had been, as Cicero makes him out, a mere rob“ You have read,” he said, “my book on pau- ber, who wished to burn and pillage Rome, he perism?"

* Madame Cornu was the wife of an eminent artist. I was forced to admit that I had not.

Her mother was dame de compagnie to Hortense, ex“ I will give you, then,” he said, “ an outline Que of Holland. She was bred up as a sister with of it. I propose to take all the common lands, Louis Napoleon, visited him every year during his imand to divide them among the poor families which prisonment at Ham, and corrected his writings. She want relief.”

continued devoted to him until the coup d'état, when she " In the first place," I answered, “you have would not be reconciled to him for nearly twelve years.

broke with him, and, in spite of his persistent advances, no right to take them; and, if you do take them She died before the war of 1870.

« הקודםהמשך »