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a Buddha, or a Jina-suffering as a substituted self-mortification (tapas), self-restraint (yama), victim for the rest of mankind. Every being and asceticism. Only twenty-four supreme saints brought into the world must suffer in his own and Tirthan-karas can appear in any one cycle person the consequences of his own deeds com- of time, but every mortal man may be a selfmitted either in present or former states of being. restrainer (yati). Every one born into the world It is not sufficient that he be rewarded in a tem- may be a striver after sanctity (sādhu), and a porary heaven, or punished in a temporary hell. practicer of austerities (tapasvi). Doubtless, at Neither heaven nor hell has power to extinguish first there was no distinction between monks, the accumulated efficacy of good or bad acts ascetics, and ordinary men, just as in the earliest committed by the same person during a long suc- days of Christianity there was no division into cession of existences. Such accumulated acts bishops, priests, and laity. All Jainas in anmust inevitably and irresistibly drag him down cient times practiced austerities, but among such into other mundane forms, until at length their ascetics an important difference arose. One parpotency is destroyed by his attainment of per- ty advocated an entire abandonment of clothing, fect self-discipline and self-knowledge in some in token of complete indifference to all worldly final culminating condition of being, terminated ideas and associations. The other party were in by complete self-annihilation.
favor of wearing white garments. The former And thus we are brought to a clear under- were called Dig-ambara, sky-clothed, the latter standing of the true character of a Jina or self- S'vetāmbara (or, in ancient works, S'veta-pata), conquering saint (from the Sanskrit root ji, to white-clothed.* Of these the Dig-ambaras were conquer). A Jina is with the Jains very nearly chronologically the earliest. They were probwhat a Buddha is with the Buddhists.
ably the first to form themselves into a regular He represents the perfection of humanity, the society. The first Jina, Rishaba, as well as the typical man, who has conquered self and at- last Jina, Mahāvīra, are said to have been Digtained a condition so perfect that he not only ambaras, and to have gone about absolutely naceases to act, but is able to extinguish the power ked. Their images represent two entirely nude of former acts; a human being who is released ascetics, whereas the images of other Jinas, like from the obligation of further transmigration, the Buddhist images, are representations of a and looks forward to death as the absolute ex- sage, generally seated in a contemplative posture, tinction of personal existence. But he is also with a robe thrown gracefully over one shoulder. more than this. He is a being who by virtue of It is not improbable that the S'vetāmbara dithe perfection of his self-mortification (tapas) has vision of the Jainas were merely a sect which acquired the perfection of knowledge, and there- separated itself from the parent stock in later fore the right to be a supreme leader and teacher times, and became in the end numerically the of mankind. He claims far more complete au- most important, at least in western India. The thority and infallibility than the most arrogant Dig-ambaras, however, are still the most numerRoman pontiff. He is in his own solitary person ous faction in southern India, and at Jaipur in an absolutely independent and infallible guide to the north.f salvation. Hence he is commonly called a Tir- And, indeed, it need scarcely be pointed out than-kara, or one who constitutes a Tirtha *_ that ascetics, both wholly naked and partially that is to say, a kind of passage or medium clothed, are as common under the Brāhmanical through which bliss may be attained—a kind of system as among Jainas and Buddhists. The ford or bridge leading over the river of life to the god S'iva himself is represented as a Dig-ambara, elysium of final emancipation. Other names for or naked ascetic, whenever he assumes the charhim are Arhat (“venerable "), Sarva-jna (“om- acter of a Mahā-yogi-that to say, whenever niscient"), Bhagavat (“lord "').
he enters on a long course of austerity, with an A Buddha with the Buddhists is a very simi- absolutely nude body, covered only with a thick lar personage. He is a self-conqueror and self- coating of dust and ashes, sitting motionless and mortifier (tapasvi), like the Jina, and is besides a wrapped in meditation for thousands of years, supreme guide to salvation ; but he has achieved that he may teach men by his own example the his position of Buddhahood more by the perfec- power attainable through self-mortification and tion of his meditation (voga, samādhi) than by abstract contemplation. the completeness of his self-restraint and austeri
* The actual color of an ascetic's dress is a kind of ties.
yellowish-pink, or salmon color. Pure white is not much
used by the Hindus, except as a mark of mourning, The whole system hinges on the efficacy of when it takes the place of black with us.
+ There is also a very low, insignificant, and intensely * The word Tirtha may mean a sacred ford or cross- atheistical sect of Jainas called Dhundhias. They are ing-place on the bank of a river, or it may mean a holy much despised by the Hindus, and even by the more man or teacher.
It is true that absolute nudity in public is now their mouths, they look very like hooded Roman prohibited by law, but the Dig-ambara Jainas Catholic nuns. who take their meals, like orthodox Hindūs, in strict seclusion, are said to remove their clothes When we come to the Jaina moral code, we in the act of eating. Even in the most crowded find ourselves transported from the mists of fanthoroughfares the requirements of legal decency ciful ideas and arbitrary speculation to a clearer are easily satisfied. Any one who travels in In- atmosphere and firmer ground. The three gems dia must accustom himself to the sight of plenty which every Jaina is required to seek after with of unblushing, self-asserting human flesh. Thou- earnestness and diligence, are right intuition, sands content themselves with the minimum of right knowledge, and right conduct. The naclothing represented by a narrow strip of cloth, ture of the first two may be inferred from the three or four inches wide, twisted round their explanations already given. Right conduct conloins. Nor ought it to excite any feeling of prud- sists in the observance of five duties (vratas), ish disgust to find poor, hard-working laborers and the avoidance of five sins implied in five protilling the ground with a greater area of sun- hibitions. The five duties are: Be merciful to tanned skin courting the cooling action of air all living things; practice almsgiving and liberaland wind on the burning plains of Asia than ity; venerate the perfect sages while living, and would be considered decorous in Europe. As to worship their images after their decease; confess mendicant devotees, they may still occasionally your sins annually, and mutually forgive each be seen at great religious gatherings absolutely other; observe fasting. The five prohibitions innocent of even a rag. Nevertheless, they are are: Kill not ; lie not; steal not; commit not careful to avoid magisterial penalties. In a se- adultery or impurity ; love not the world or cluded part of the city of Patna, I came sudden- worldly honor. ly on an old female ascetic, who usually sits quite If equal practical importance were attached naked in a large barrel, which constitutes her to these ten precepts, the Jaina system could not only abode. When I passed her, in company fail to conduce in a high degree to the happiness with the collector and magistrate of the district, and well-being of its adherents, however pershe rapidly drew a dirty sheet round her body. verted their religious sense may be. Unfortu
In the present day both Dig-ambara and S've- nately, undue stress is laid on the first duty and tāmbara Jainas are divided into two classes, cor- first prohibition, to the comparative neglect of responding to clergy and laity. When the two some of the others. In former days, when Buddhsects increased in numbers, all, of course, could ism and Jainism were prevalent everywhere, “ kill' not be ascetics. Some were compelled to en- not " was required to be proclaimed by sound gage in secular pursuits, and many developed of trumpet in every city daily. industrious and business-like habits. Hence it And, indeed, with all Hindūs respect for life happened that a large number became prosper- has always been regarded as a supreme obligaous merchants and traders.
tion. Ahinsă, or avoidance of injury to others All laymen among the Jainas are called S'rā- in thought, word, and deed, is declared by Manu vakas, “hearers or disciples," while the Yatis, or to be the highest virtue, and its opposite the "self - restraining ascetics,” who constitute the greatest crime. Not the smallest insect ought only other division of both Jaina sects, are the to be killed, lest the soul of some relation should supposed teachers (Gurus). Many of them, of be there embodied. Yet all Hindūs admit that course, never teach at all
. They were formerly life may be taken for religious or sacrificial purcalled Nirgrantha, “ free from worldly ties,” and poses. Not so Buddhists and Jainas. With are often known by the general name of Sadhu, them the sacrifice of any kind of life, even for "holy men.” All are celibates, and most of the most sacred purpose, is a heinous crime. In them are cenobites, not anchorites. Sometimes fact, the belief in transmission of personal identity four or five hundred live together in one monas- at death through an infinite series of animal extery, which they call a Upās'raya, “ place of re- istences is so intense that they live in perpetual tirement,” under a presiding abbot. They dress, dread of destroying some beloved relative or like other Hindū ascetics, in yellowish-pink or friend. The most deadly serpents or venomous salmon-colored garments. There are also fe- scorpions may enshrine the spirits of their fathers male ascetics (Sadhvini, or, anciently, Nirgran- or mothers, and are therefore left unharmed. thi), who may be seen occasionally in public The Jainas far outdo every other Indian sect in places clothed in dresses of a similar color. carrying the prohibition, “not to kill,” to the When these good women draw the ends of their most preposterous extremes. They strain water robes over their heads to conceal their features, before drinking, sweep the ground with a silken and cover the lower part of their faces with pieces brush before sitting down, never eat or drink in of muslin to prevent animalcula from entering the dark, and often wear muslin before their
mouths to prevent the risk of swallowing minute priestly Yati, who hears his confession, pronounces insects. They even object to eating figs, or any absolution, and imposes a penance. The penfruit containing seed, and would consider them- ances inflicted generally consist of various kinds selves eternally defiled by simply touching flesh- of fasting; but it must be observed that fasting meat with their hands.
is with Jainas a duty incumbent on all. It is a One of the most curious sights in Bombay is duty only second to that of not killing. the Panjara-pol, or hospital for diseased, crippled,
MONIER WILLIAMS. and worn-out animals, established by rich Jaina merchants and benevolent Vaishnava Hindūs in a street outside the fort. The institution covers several acres of ground, and is richly endowed.
A NATIONAL THEATRE, Both Jainas and Vaishnavas think it a work of the highest religious merit to contribute liberally ONE great advantage the French stage untoward its support. The animals are well fed doubtedly possesses in having such a headquarand well tended, though it certainly seemed to ters as the Théâtre Français, and such a perpetual me, when I visited the place, that the great ma- corporation as is furnished by the sociétaires of jority would be more mercifully provided for by that theatre. Here, where theatres are equipped the application of a loaded pistol to their heads. and companies collected by individual enterprise, I found, as might have been expected, that a the headquarters of the drama are shifting—by large proportion of space was allotted to stalls courtesy at least we do generally have a headfor sick and infirm oxen, some with bandaged quarters—and the traditions accumulated by one eyes, some with crippled legs, some wrapped up management are dispersed when that managein blankets and lying on straw beds. One huge, ment is broken up. The waste of this dispersal bloated, broken-down old bull in the last stage is prevented by the continuous existence of a of decrepitude and disease was a pitiable object guild of actors at the house of Molière, which in to behold. Then I noticed in other parts of the virtue of its undisputed lead among the theatres building singular specimens of emaciated buffa- becomes the rendezvous of all interested in the loeb, limping horses, mangy dogs, apoplectic pigs, dramatic art, poets, painters, architects, archæparalytic donkeys, featherless vultures, melancholy ologists. They bring their contributions to one monkeys, comatose tortoises, besides a strange center, and the accumulated wealth of their ideas medley of cats, rats and mice, small birds, rep- is handed on in a full stream from one generatiles, and even insects, in every stage of suffering tion to another. and disease. In one corner a crane, with a kind To this advantage there is a counterbalancing of wooden leg, appeared to have spirit enough disadvantage. Such centers tend to become too left to strut in a stately manner among a number conservative. They get into the hands of old of dolorous-looking ducks and depressed fowls. fogies. The young men of genius, with their The most spiteful animals seemed to be tamed fresh ideas, are excluded. But the evil rights itby their sufferings and the care they received. self in time. The conservatism of the old fogies All were being tended, nursed, physicked, and gradually gives way to the innovating ardor of fed, as if it were a sacred duty to prolong the ex- the young men of genius ; the ideas of these istence of every living creature to the utmost young men have their day, and give place in their possible limit. It is even said that men are paid turn to new aspirations. to sleep on dirty wooden beds in different parts It would, we take it, be an unquestionable of the building, that the loathsome vermin with advantage for the English stage to have some which they are infested may be supplied with such fixed center of dramatic life as the Théâtre their nightly meal of human blood.
Français. But can such a center be artificially As to the other precepts of the Jaina moral created ? That is another question. The feat code, it is noteworthy that the practice of con- is so unlikely that we can hardly believe in the fessing sins to a priestly order of men probably possibility of it till it has been accomplished. It existed in full force among the Jainas long before is, in fact, one of those things which may grow its introduction into the Christian system. A up out of some favorable concurrence of accipious Jaina ought to confess at least once a year, dents, but which can not be designed and exeor, if his conscience happens to be burdened by cuted by deliberate calculation and energy. It the weight of any recent crime-such, for ex- is vain for any ardent well-wisher of the drama ample, as the accidental killing of a noxious in- outside to say, “Go to, let us have a national sect-he is bound to betake himself to the con- theatre." Unless the time is ripe for it, unless fessional without delay. The stated observance the necessary elements are ready to fall into their of this duty is called Pratikramana, because on a places at the sound of some enthusiastic trumpetparticular day the penitent repairs solemnly to a note, no human energy can create them and bring them together. The supremacy of the Théâtre Do we, after all, fare so badly under our priFrançais is an inheritance from the past. It was vate enterprise system that there ought to be any established by royal influence, when royal in- vehement desire for a change? The only want, fluence was all-powerful, and there were few we believe, really felt is a commodity of good dramatic companies. Such a headship could not plays, and that, we may depend upon it, is felt be established among the thirty-three theatres quite as much by theatrical managers as by the of Paris now, if it had not descended from an public for whom they cater. The great advanearlier time. The most unshakable conviction in tage of our present system is that it is so sensithe paramount importance of a national theatre tive to the demand of the play-going public; in this country, the most indomitable energy, managers are all keenly on the outlook to anticicould not give a new institution the necessary pate, or at the least keep pace with the wishes stamp of authority among the hardly less numer- of play-goers. If people imagine that a national ous theatres of London. We might as soon try to theatre would satisfy the public appetite for somechange a ganglionic animal into a vertebrate. thing new, they have only to look to France, where
For good or for evil, our theatrical system is it has for some time been a prevailing complaint, established on the free-trade principle, and it among the writers of new plays, that the Théâwould require very strong proof that this system tre Français devotes itself too much to the rehad failed to produce a general feeling in favor production of old masterpieces, and looks for novof trying to improve the drama by subsidies. elties to play-makers of established reputation. The endowment of a national theatre would As regards costumes, furniture, and scenery, practically mean giving a bounty to some one our private adventure theatres will compare fakind of entertainment. If a knot of superior per- vorably with the state supported institutions of sons, dissatisfied with everything now to be seen our neighbors. All that an endowed theatre at our numerous theatres, choose to subscribe to could do would be to secure the very best artissupport a kind of entertainment which the pub- tic and the very best archæological talent. For lic will not support—we may assume that, in the many years this has been done in England by keen competition among theatres, managers do private adventurers. Macready could not have not need to be bribed into producing anything taken greater pains than he did to be accurate in that people in sufficient numbers would pay to every detail. If he was not so accurate as he see—there is no reason in the world why they might have been, the fault was to be attributed should not do so. But if they claimed for their not to him, but to the condition of archäological venture that it was “national,” they would make knowledge in his time. We doubt whether the themselves a laughing-stock. Before they had Théâtre Français was more accurate than Maany right to call their theatre a national theatre, cready in his generation. Since that time, the they would have to gather round them a represen- study of the antique and the mediæval has made tative company, consisting of the acknowledged great strides, and our stage has kept pace with leaders of “the profession" in all its walks. .The it. The stage all along has been in the most inincomes which these leaders make are so enor- timate relations with the artistic world, and has mous, by comparison, for example, with what grown with its growth. To take the most recent can be made by an associate of the Théâtre instance. The play of “Coriolanus” is to be Français, that any management which aimed at produced under Mr. Irving's management at the including them all would have to provide itself Lyceum, and Mr. Alma-Tadema has been enwith a very long purse. Everything would have gaged to sketch the scenes for the scene-painter. to be done by the power of the purse in the pro- Could the managers of a national theatre have posed national theatre; it could not pay its mem- done better? And, if we cast our vision over a bers, as a long-established and venerable institu- wider range, over the last ten or fifteen years, tion might do, in distinction. And supposing it can it be said that the managers of our leading were possible to bring all the acknowledged stars theatres have stood still in the old grooves, while of our theatrical world together under one man- new ideas stood clamoring at their doors for adagement, where is a national theatre to find an mission ? No national theatre could have seauthority capable of reconciling conflicting pre- cured more enlightened talent for the production tensions in the apportionment of parts ? Re- of scrupulously accurate scenic accessories than marks have often been made upon the difficulty Mr. and Mrs. Bancroft employed at the Prince of keeping the Liberal party together, but that of Wales's. Mr. Hare's management of the would be nothing compared with the difficulty of Court Theatre, an offshoot from this, can not be managing a national company of actors. There said to have been more careless about accuracy would be wigs upon the green in a national of scenic detail. No endowed management theatre before many months of its existence were could have taken greater pains in this respect over.
than they have done.
It may, we think, be taken for granted that all probability have the effect of producing a sufno amount of endowment would insure greater ficient supply of competent players for the smallattention to the arts by which the stage produces er parts. They might be cured of ungainly gesits illusion of reality than has been shown by in- tures, and they might be taught to speak blank dividual enterprise single-handed. It is the natu- verse with good accent and good discretion. ral tendency of competition under our present If they had not the making of decent playsystem that the projectors of novelties should ers in them, they might be stopped at the threshave a fair hearing. Supposing that a genius hold. should arise with the capacity for revolutionizing Nor would the mediocre actors alone benefit scenic representation-say by abolishing foot- by a dramatic school, conducted by accomplished lights and applying electric lighting to stage pur- professors. The few men and women of genius poses, or by developing hidden properties in the would be saved much of the painful drudgery, illuminating power of wax-candles—he would be the weary process of trial and failure, by which much more likely to get an opportunity of try- they now slowly build up the mastery of their ing his experiment from a private manager than craft. The knowledge which, under the present from the manager of a national theatre. The system of self-teaching, reaches them by acciutility of endowment begins only when perfec- dental hints and discoveries, they might start tion has been reached, and the potentialities of with from the beginning, and their genius would invention have been exhausted. Even with a be left free and unwasted to search out new view to the maintaining of advances already means of triumph. made, to the conservation of progress, the pri- It is at this point that public or private envate enterprise system is not altogether ineffec- dowment might advantageously come to the astive. We are not to suppose that when a new sistance of private enterprise in theatrical matline has been struck out, a new light seized and ters. But we should deprecate any idea of pasuccessfully flourished, it serves its day unre- tronizing a great profession like that of acting. marked by the purveyor for the future. There If a school of acting is, as we believe it is, a deare keen eyes at work to see that nothing with sirable thing, the initiative in establishing it ought which play-goers are pleased be allowed to to come from actors themselves. They are perdie.
haps more keenly alive to the need of it than any Managers do not need to be encouraged by outsiders. Why should they not combine and bounties to pay attention to scenic accessories. organize a society of the members of their proIt pays them directly to do so. They have their fession, as men of science have done, and paintreward in well-filled theatres. There really is ers? We have no doubt that if they did so, and only one respect in which subsidies might enable projected a college for the training of actors, they them to raise stage representations above their would not appeal in vain for public help in setpresent level, that, namely, which was indicated ting the institution upon its legs. Such an inby Mr. Hare when he showed apropos of Mrs. stitution might also become a central depository Pfeiffer's proposal that a national theatre was im- for the knowledge which each generation conpracticable. The education of actors for their tributes to the craft and mystery of representing profession might be endowed. There might be plays. a national school of acting.
New Quarterly Magazine. Actors at present have few facilities for learning their art, and the result is only too apparent upon the stage. Self-teaching succeeds only
A MODEL ART-CRITICISM. with the very finest instincts, and such a multitude of performers are required for a stage rep
[The “Athenæum" recently described a new resentation that we can not expect all of them to picture by Rossetti—“The Lady at the Window"have those requisite gifts of nature without which “a profoundly pathetic exposition of the motive of self-culture means loutishness and harsh eccen
a passage in Dante's ‘Vita Nuova,'" and permitted tricity. Much of the crudeness which offends a itself to indulge in a strain of comment of which cultivated audience in our attempts to deal with the following sentences afford a good example: “ The the poetic drama is referable to want of rudi- in the eyes and lips is in keeping with the deep sym
profundity of the pity which is marked so distinctly mentary training. Managers at present often
pathy of that womanhood which, although it has have no choice but to engage incapable perform- ripened, is incomplete. This incompleteness
, or ers, performers whom they know to be incapable, rather this physical and mental expectancy and inand whose tones and movements inflict agony sufficiency of self
, is impressed by nature on the upon them. No amount of training would in all sumptuous loveliness of the lady, and appears in the cases develop histrionic ambition into histrionic suppressed languor of her broad eyelids, in the potenfaculty, but a properly organized school would in tialities of passion rendered plain in the morbidezza