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When they are highly developed you can deal SOME FORGOTTEN ASPECTS OF THE

with them as individual entities whose power of IRISH QUESTION.

resistance is destroyed when you have cut off or

overcome the head. In low organizations, on the It ,

on behalf of the British Parliament, that it centers of life and of resistance. Ireland was has gradually undone the wrongs of centuries, politically in this undeveloped condition at the and has at last placed the people of Ireland on a time of Strongbow's invasion. No victory, howfooting of perfect equality with the people of ever decisive on the spot, sufficed to crush the England. But the mere undoing of a wrong resistance of the population at large, because does not always place the injured person on an the population at large acknowledged no single equality with those who have not been wronged. head. Dispersed at one place, they suddenly atThe sovereign's “pardon" does not necessarily tacked at another. Harassed and exasperated place the innocent convict where he was before. by this style of warfare, the English seem to His health may have been ruined meanwhile, or have conceived the idea of exterminating the his business, or both. In equity, therefore, if not large majority of the native population. The in strict law, he has exceptional claims on the atrocious laws decreed against them hardly adconsideration and sympathy of the Government mit of any other interpretation. The Irish were, which did him wrong. The conduct of Eng- simply as Irish, placed outside the protection of land in the past goes far to explain the present the law, and were treated as vermin. Submiscondition of Ireland. If that conduct has been sion to English rule did not bring with it the exceptional in the highest degree, the Irish may correlative privileges of an English subject. To be less unreasonable than is generally supposed kill an Irishman was no murder. “To break a in demanding some exceptional remedies. contract with him was no wrong. He could not

It is popularly supposed that the special ill- sue in the English courts. The slaughter of the treatment of Ireland by England began at the Irish and the seizure of their property were acts time of the Reformation. Undoubtedly the Ref- rewarded by the Government." There was no ormation introduced a new element of discord restraint on the greed and cruelty of the oppresby adding to the antipathy of race the more po- sor, except the fear of retaliation. “A common tent and more bitter antipathy of religion—the defense in charges of murder was that the murreligion of a handful of English officials in Dub- dered man was of 'the mere Irish."" To eslin imposed upon the Irish nation by the Mussul- cape from this cruel bondage the Irish repeatedman argument of the sword. Before the Reforma- ly petitioned for admission to the benefits of Engtion the Irish nation was outlawed for the crime of lish law, and were always refused. Such was the being Irish. At the Reformation it was outlawed condition of the Irish beyond the Pale. Nor was anew for the additional crime of being “Papist.” the lot even of those who lived within it an envi

But to say that the Irish were outlawed by able one. The degree of protection which subEngland may appear to some an exaggerated mission to English rule afforded them may be statement. It is, however, the literal fact. The tested by a statute of 1465, which decreed that truth is, that England found the conquest of Ire- “any person going to rob or steal, having no land a much more difficult matter than it had faithful man of good name or fame in his combargained for. If the Irish had been united po- pany in English apparel,” might be killed by the litically under one head, one of two results must first man who met him. This placed the life of have followed-either the English invaders would every Irish man and Irish woman within the Pale have been driven out of the country, or the Irish at the disposal of any Englishman who might would have submitted after a few decisive de- feel tempted to indulge his passions. feats. But the ancient Irish were broken up into But it is right to record even small mercies, a number of separate tribes, owing collectively and therefore I hasten to add that the brutality no allegiance to any one single chief. This made of this law was somewhat mitigated by a subseit impossible, without a military occupation of quent statute which directed the Irish within the the whole country, to subdue and rule them in Pale to wear English apparel. the mass; and a military occupation of the whole Such, however, was the fascination of the country was impossible. Political organizations Irish character, stimulated here and there, perare in this respect like animal organizations. haps, by sympathy with undeserved wrongs or by love of adventure and a wild life, that Eng- ger would be a better, because a speedier, weapon lishmen were allured across the Pale in consider- to employ against them than the sword.” This able numbers. These became proverbially“ more barbarous policy succeeded too well. Pestilence Irish than the Irish.” They learned the lan- and famine committed frightful havoc among guage, adopted the costume, imbibed the man- those who had escaped the sword and fire. ners, and got infected with the wit of the subject Starving children were to be seen feeding in the race. If this process of amalgamation had been silent streets on the corpses of their parents, allowed to go on unchecked, Ireland would prob- and even the graves were rifled to appease the ably have had a different history. But it was pangs of hunger. And these horrors went on, arrested inside the Pale by the Reformation; not during one or two years, but at intervals exoutside the Pale by the statutes of Kilkenny. tending over generations. According to Sir WilBy these statutes an impassable gulf was dug liam Petty's calculation, no fewer than five hunbetween the two races. To intermarry with the dred and four thousand of the native Irish perished, Irish, or indeed to form any sort of connection out of a total population of one million four hunwith them, was a capital crime. It was also made dred and sixty-six thousand, in the eleven years highly penal to present an Irishman to an ecclesi- of the war following the rebellion of the Irish in astical benefice, or to grant the rites of hospitality 1641—a rebellion of which Burke says, “No histo an Irish bard or story-teller. Yet the result of tory that I have ever read furnishes an instance it all was that when Henry VIII. quarreled with of any that was so provoked.” “Figures, howthe Pope, and thus added the bitterness of relig- ever," says Mr. McLennan, in his most interesting ious persecution to the hatred already engendered and instructive“ Memoir of Thomas Drummond," by English tyranny, the area of English rule was “convey but a poor notion of the state to which contracted within a compass of twenty miles. the country was reduced. Famine, as at the end

Till then the extermination of the Irish, though of the Elizabethan wars, stepped in to complete aimed at in various acts, was never openly rec- the havoc of the sword. A plague followed. ommended by English officials. It was left to Suicide became epidemic, as the only escape from Protestant zeal to stain the English name with the intolerable evils of life. Cannibalism reapthis infamy. The poet Spenser calmly contem- peared. According to an eye-witness, whole plates the extermination of the Irish as the counties were cleared of their inhabitants. ... surest method of making an “Hibernia Pacata.” When survivors were found, they were either old After describing in pathetic terms the desolation men and women, or children. 'I have seen of Munster by the ruthless soldiers of Elizabeth, these miserable creatures,' says Colonel Laurence, he observes: “The end will (I assure me) be 'plucking stinking carrion out of a ditch, black very short, and much sooner than it can be in and rotten, and been credibly informed that they so great a trouble, as it seemeth, hoped for; al- digged corpses out of the grave to eat.'” though there should be none of them fall by the sword nor be slain by the soldier, yet thus being Did these dreadful sufferings soften toward kept from manurance and their cattle from run

the Irish the hearts of their English oppressors? ning abroad, they would quickly consume them- On the contrary, says Sir William Petty, writing selves and devour one another."

in 1672, "some furious spirits have wished that This horrible anticipation was, in fact, liter- the Irish would rebel again, that they might be ally fulfilled, both in Elizabeth's reign and on put to the sword.” several subsequent occasions. In the reign of

Another era of persecution dates from WilJames I., for example, Sir Arthur Chichester re- liam of Orange, and it was not till the twentyported that he had found Ulster “abounding with seventh of the reign of George II. that the Penal houses, corn, cattle, and a people who had been Code reached what Mr. McLennan calls“ the fullbred up in arms ” and were highly prosperous.

ness of its hideousness—the reproach of politiBut they were Roman Catholics, and must make cians, and disgrace of Protestants and Churchroom for Protestants. Accordingly, this militant men.” He gives such an admirably compressed propagandist left the country“ desolate and waste, summary of these abominable laws, that I think and the people upon it enjoying nothing but as the reader will excuse my quoting the passage fugitives, and what they obtained by stealth.” in extenso: But the sword and torch were too slow as instru

The Papist was withdrawn from the charge and ments of destruction, or perhaps too expensive. education of his family. He could educate his chilAt all events, Chichester agrees with Spenser in dren neither at home nor abroad. He could not be putting his trust mainly in famine. “I have often their guardian, nor the guardian of any other per said and written, it is famine that must consume son's children. Popish schools were prohibited, and the Irish, as our swords and other endeavors work special disabilities attached to Papists bred abroad. not that speedy effect which is expected. Hun- A premium was set on the breach of filial duty and the family affections. If a son declared himself tory of the inhabited world. If the wars of England, Protestant, which he might do in boyhood, a third carried on here from the reign of Elizabeth, had been of his father's fortune was at once applied to his use; waged against a foreign enemy, the inhabitants would the father's estate was secured to him as heir, a life- have retained their possessions under the established rent merely being left to the father. father's set. law of civilized nations"; but the policy of England tlement to the prejudice of the heir-at-law might be was " a declaration of perpetual war against the nainstantly defeated by the heir becoming Protestant. tives of Ireland, and it has rendered her a blank If the heir continued a Papist, the estate gaveled amid the nations of Europe, and retarded her progwent in equal shares to the sons—a modification of ress in the civilized world." old Irish law introduced to break up the estates of the Papists, so that none should be on the land above

Of the Irish landlords he says that "confiscathe condition of a beggar. If there were no sons it tion is their common title; and from their first gaveled on the daughters; if no children, then on settlement they have been hemmed in by the old the collaterals. Papists who had lost their lands, inhabitants brooding over their discontent in suland had grown rich in commerce, could neither buy len indignation.” One of the great evils of our land nor lend their money on heritable security. dealing with Ireland is, that we have persisted in The Papists could get no hold, direct or indirect, governing her according to English prejudices upon the soil. Even a lease to a Papist, to be legal, and ideas. Not thus have we dealt with India, must have been short. Any Papist above sixteen or French Canada, or even the Isle of Man and years of age might be called on to take the oath of the Channel Islands. The land tenure of Ireland abjuration, and, on thrice declining, he suffered a

was altogether different from that of England. pramuniri. If he entertained a priest or a bishop. The land belonged to the sept, not to the chief, he was fined; for a third offense he forfeited his whole fortune. The exercise of his religion was

or to any of his vassals. This was forgotten or forbidden ; its chapels were shut up; its priests ban. ignored when the lands of chiefs were declared

The ocished, and hanged if they returned home. ... A forfeit and granted to fresh landlords. Papist could not enter the profession of the law. cupiers, on the other hand, regarded these lands He could not marry a Protestant (the fatal Kilken- as their own; and this idea, founded originally ny provision against mixing over again). He could in fact, has never passed clean out of their minds, neither vote at vestries, nor serve on grand juries, and it lies at the root of a good deal of the presnor act as a constable, as a sheriff, or under-sheriff, ent land agitation. It was not a mere class which or a magistrate. He could neither vote at elections the confiscations disinherited and uprooted from nor sit in Parliament. In short, he was excluded the soil, but the entire race of Irishmen; and from any office of public trust or emolument. “The these still cherish the tradition that they are the Catholics,” says Sir H. Parnell, “in place of being lawful owners of the land. the free subjects of a prince from whom they were And, as if it were not enough to have divorced taught to expect only justice and mercy, were made a whole nation from the soil which gave it birth, the slaves of every one, even of the meanest of their and which of right belonged to it, the ingenuity Protestant countrymen.” Had they become mere of English statecraft found other means of comslaves they might have expected some degree of humane treatment; but, as the policy which had made pleting the ruin of Ireland. Till Queen Elizathen slaves held them at the same time as the natu. beth's reign the Irish had a flourishing trade in ral and interested enemies of their masters, they supplying England with cattle. This was supwere doomed to experience all the oppression of posed to depreciate rents in England, and Irish tyranny without any of the chances, which other cattle were accordingly declared by act of Parliaslaves enjoy, of the tyrants being merciful, and feel- ment "a nuisance,” and their importation was ing their tyranny secure.

forbidden. Thereupon the Irish killed their cat

tle at home and sent them to England as salted In short, the Irish Roman Catholics who sur- meat. This provoked another act of Parliament, vived their persecutions were literally dispossessed forbidding in perpetuity the importation of all of their native country. Lord Clare, the Irish cattle from Ireland,“ dead or alive, great or small, Lord Chancellor at the time of the Union, made fat or lean.” Nevertheless, the Lord-Lieutenant that statement in his place in Parliament. After appealed to Ireland on behalf of the sufferers showing that “the whole land of Ireland had from the great fire of London. The Irish were been confiscated, with the exception of the estates wretchedly poor, and had no gold or silver to of five or six families of English blood,” and that spare ; but they sent a handsome contribution in “no inconsiderable portion of the island had been cattle. This gift the landed interest in England confiscated twice, or perhaps thrice, in the course resented in loud and angry tones as “a political of a century,” he goes on to make the following contrivance to defeat the prohibition of Irish catremarkable declaration :

tle." Driven to their wits' ends, the Irish turned “The situation therefore of the Irish nation at the the hides of their cattle into leather, which they Revolution (of 1688) stands unparalleled in the his- exported to England. But here too they were



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baffled by English jealousy. Then they took to it also; and Manchester, in 1785, sent a petition sheep-farming, and sent excellent wool to Eng- to Parliament, signed by one hundred and sevenland. Again the landed interest of England took teen thousand persons, praying for the prohibialarm, and Irish wool was declared contraband tion of Irish linens. The voice of reason and by act of Parliament in the reign of Charles II. justice for once prevailed, and Derry, and BelThe Irish then manufactured the raw material at fast, and Lisburn flourish to prove what the rest of home, and soon drove a thriving trade in woolen Ireland might now be, if the purblind champions stuffs. The manufacturers of England thereupon of “British interests ” had not then, as lately, igrose up against the iniquity of Irish competition, norantly sacrificed, to a purely imaginary danger, and the woolen manufactures of Ireland were the welfare and good will of an oppressed race. promptly excluded from the markets of the Con- The sins of nations, as of individuals, are sure to tinent. They were, however, so excellent and so find them out, and we have no just cause of cheap that the industry still flourished. But Eng- complaint if events should prove that our sins lish jealousy never ceased its clamor against it, against Ireland are not yet expiated in full. We and in the year 1698 both Houses of the English robbed the Irish of their land, and they betook Parliament petitioned the King to suppress it. themselves to other industries for livelihood. Of His Majesty replied to the Lords that he would these we robbed them also, and drove them back “ take care to do what their lordships desired.” upon the land exclusively for their support. Yet To the Commons he said, “I shall do all that we wonder that there is now a land question in in me lies to discourage the woolen manufactures Ireland ! of Ireland.” Discouraged they were accordingly; and so effectually that, whereas two centuries ago MALCOLM MACCOLL (Contemporary Rethey held their own against England in foreign view). markets, I find from an official return of 1866 the following significant figures : The value of the woolen exports of Great Britain in that year

BUDDHISM AND JAINISM. was £21,795,971 ; that of Ireland, £246. The woolen industry being destroyed, the Irish tried entitled “ Buddhism and Jainism," we extract a few

(From an article in “The Contemporary Review," their hand, with marked success, at the manufacture of silk. From that field also British jeal- passages descriptive of the Jains or Jainas, a reli

gious sect of India.] ousy drove them in despair. But they are a pertinacious race, and do not readily “say die.” BUDDHISM was destined to become extinct So they tried their hands at the smaller indus- with its founder. The Buddha died, like other tries, since all the larger ones were tabooed men, and, according to his own doctrine, became them. Availing themselves of Ireland's facilities absolutely extinct. Nothing remained but the for the manufacture of glass, they were sum- relics of his burned body, which were distributed marily stopped by a law which prohibited the in all directions. No successor was ready to step exportation of glass from Ireland, and its im- into his place. No living representative was portation into Ireland from any country save competent to fill up the void caused by his death. England. Cotton, sugar, soap, candle-making, Nothing seemed more unlikely than that the and other manufactures were all tried in turn, mere recollection of his teaching and example, and with a like result. To crush her industries though perpetuated by the rapid multiplication beyond all hope of competition with English mer- of shrines, symbols, and images of his person, chants, all the Mediterranean ports were closed should have power to secure the continuance of against her, and she was at length shut out from his system in his own native country for more commerce with the whole world, Old and New, than ten centuries, and to disseminate his docincluding even our own colonies. To such a trines over the greater part of Asia. What, pitch did this cruel policy, and not more cruel then, was the secret of its permanence and diffuthan stupid, reach, that even the spontaneous sion? It really had no true permanence. Buddhproduce of the ocean which washed his shores ism never lived on in its first form, and never could not be enjoyed by the Irishman without spread anywhere without taking from other systhe jealous interference of English interests; and tems quite as much as it imparted. The tolerant the fishermen of Waterford and Wexford were spirit which was its chief distinguishing characthought presumptuous for pursuing their calling teristic permitted its adherents to please themalong their own coasts because, forsooth! the selves in adopting extraneous doctrines. Hence fish-markets of England might thereby be in- it happened that the Buddhists were always jured. One solitary industry remained to Ire- ready to acquiesce in, and even conform to, the land. She was allowed to cultivate the linen religious practices of the countries to which trade, though “ British interests" tried to strangle they migrated, and to clothe their own simple creed in, so to speak, a many-colored vesture of meditation, and true knowledge. In these crupopular legends and superstitious ideas.

cial doctrines the theory of Brāhmanism is supeEven in India, where the Buddha's memory rior to that of Buddhism and Jainism. Accordcontinued to be perpetuated by strong personal ing to the Brāhmans, the living soul of man has recollections and local associations, as well as by an eternal existence both retrospectively and prorelics, symbols, and images, his doctrines rapidly spectively, and only exists separately from the One lost their distinctive character, and ultimately Supreme Eternal Soul because that Supreme merged in the Brāhmanism whence they original- Soul wills the temporary separate personality of ly sprang.

countless individual spirits, dissevering them from Nor is there any historical evidence to prove his own essence, and causing them to pass that the Buddhists were finally driven out of In- through a succession of bodies, till, after a long dia by violent means. Doubtless occasional per- course of discipline, they are permitted to blend secutions occurred in particular places at various once more with their great Eternal Source. With times, and it is well ascertained that fanatical, the Brāhmans existence in the abstract is not an enthusiastic Brāhmans, such as Kumārila and evil. It is only an evil when it involves the conSankara, occasionally instigated deeds of blood tinued separation of the personal soul from the and violence. But the final disappearance of impersonal Eternal Soul of the Universe. Buddhism is probably due to the fact that the Very different is the doctrine of Buddhists two systems, instead of engaging in constant and Jains. With them there is no Supreme Beconflict, were gradually drawn toward each other ing, no Supreme Divine Eternal Soul, no separate by mutual sympathy and attraction ; and that, human eternal soul. Nor can there be any true originally related like father and child, they ended soul-transmigration. A Buddhist and a Jaina by consorting together in unnatural union and believe that the only eternal thing is matter. The intercourse. The result of this union was the universe consists of eternal atoms which by their

luction of the hybrid systems of Vaishnavism own inherent creative force are perpetually develand S'aivism, both of which in their lineaments oping countless forms of being in ever-recurring bear a strong family resemblance to Buddhism. cycles of creation and dissolution, re-creation The distinctive names of Buddhism were dropped, and re-dissolution. This is symbolized by a wheel but the distinctive features of the system sur- revolving for ever in perpetual progression and vived. The Vaishnavas were Buddhists in their retrogression. doctrines of liberty and equality, in their absti- What, then, becomes of the doctrine of transnence from injury (a-hinsă), in their desire for migration of souls, which is said to be held even the preservation of life, in their hero-worship, more strongly by Buddhists and Jains than by deification of humanity, and fondness for images; Hindūs? It is thus explained : Every human while the S'aivas were Buddhists in their love for being is composed of certain constituents (called self-mortification and austerity, as well as in their by Buddhists the five Skandhas). These comsuperstitious dread of the power of demoniacal prehend body, soul, and mind, with all the organs agencies. What, then, became of the atheisti- of feeling and sensation. They are all dissolved cal, philosophy and agnostic materialism of the at death, and absolute extinction would follow, Buddhistic creed? Those doctrines were no more were it not for the inextinguishable, imperishexpelled from India than were other Buddhisticable, omnipotent force of Karman or Act. No ideas. They found a home, under changed sooner are the constituents of one stage of exisnames, among various sects, but especially in a tence dissolved than a new set is created by the kindred system which has survived to the present force of acts done and character formed in the day, and may be conveniently called Jainism.... previous stage. Soul-transmigration with Buddh

ists is simply a concatenation of separate exisWhat is the great end and object of Jainism ? tences connected by the iron chain of act. A Briefly, it may be stated that Jainism, like Brāh- man's own acts generate a force which may be manism and Buddhism, aims at getting rid of compared to those of chemistry, magnetism, or the burden of repeated existences. Three root- electricity—a force which periodically re-creates ideas may be said to lie at the foundation of all the whole man, and perpetuates his personal three systems: first, that personal existence is identity (notwithstanding the loss of memory) protracted through an innumerable succession of through the whole series of his separate exisbodies by the almighty power of man's own tences, whether it obliges him to ascend or deacts; secondly, that mundane life is an evil, and scend in the scale of being. It may safely be that man finds his perfection in the cessation of affirmed that Brāhmans, Buddhists, and Jains all all acts, and the consequent extinction of all per- agree in repudiating the idea of vicarious suffersonal existence; thirdly, that such perfection is ing. All concur in rejecting the notion of a repalone attained through self-mortification, abstract resentative man—whether he be a Manu, a Rishi,

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