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to the ladies' notice him who during dinner has their climate. Slavery in India is the direct reshown a singular predilection for shell-fish. He sult of rice, in Egypt of dates, of maize in Mexwill recognize the being with large discourse look- ico and Peru. ing before and after in him who breakfasts as if We all remember the mischievous effects of uncertain of dinner, and dines as if reflecting he meat on Oliver Twist. When from the recesses had not breakfasted. He will mark the weak of Mrs. Sowerberry's coal-cellar that boy blasstomach as the sure concomitant of the weak phemed Mr. Bumble, “ It is not madness," said brain. He will be prepared for impetuosity of that dignitary, after deep meditation, “it's meat!” temper in him who subsists on animal out of all Had the boy lived on gruel it had never happroportion to vegetable aliment, or, if in any pro- pened. The congenital irritability of the Engportion, in such as Falstaff's intolerable quantity lish is perhaps owing to their consumption of of sack to his one halfpenny-worth of bread. He animal food in a higher proportion than most will perhaps expect to find good eating the parent other nations of Europe. “Beef,” said Lord of good sense. He will receive as an exquisite Sparkish, in Swift's “Polite Conversation,” “is illustration of natural laws the circumstance that, man's meat." Europa is borne now, as formerin one chapter of a fashionable novel, the young ly, by a bull. Beef conduces to courage. It was lady, the heroine, during her residence in the tem- roast-beef, maybe, that won the day at Blenheim perate zone of the family, will eat about equal and Ramillies, and potages and kickshaws that proportions of meat and vegetables, of carbona- lost it at Agincourt and Poictiers. The French ceous and nitrogenous matter. In another chap- themselves say, “C'est la soupe que fait le solter he will find her transported to the arctic circle dat. However that may be, the lightness of their of Miss Monflather's seminary; and there, in ac- cookery appears to have caused considerable cordance still with the laws of Nature, she will lightness of heel in their dancing-masters. Greece be ready to devour the blubber and whale-oil of was once famous for song. How has its poetry the pole. Yet again, in a third chapter, he will sunk since the inhabitants of the Morea substimeet with her in the tropical atmosphere of a tuted coffee for wine ! zealous young curate, and there behold her din- A good dinner is indeed necessary to make a ing, like Amina the delicate, on a few grains of good subject. Correct views in politics and right rice or an apple. Then, indeed, will her stomach opinions in religion are no less dependent on our be prouder than that of Arthur Clennam in nutriment than animal intrepidity and amiability "Little Dorrit,” which awoke the indignation of of disposition. The word Whig is derived, it is Mr. F 's aunt. She will disdain the familiar well known, from a word used in North England conjunctions of pork and pease-pudding, of ba- for sour milk; and the advancement of the Cathcon and beans, of mutton and capers. Only olic faith was certainly contemplated by the after repeated solicitations will she be induced to monks of the Abbey of Fécamp when they con"try a little ” of what some one with a pretty secrated each bottle of their famous Benedictine taste for the letter has called "the pernicious pas- liqueur with the mystic letters A. M. D. G., withticcios of the pastry-cook, or the complex com- out which none, it may be added, is genuine. binations of the confectioner.”

Even architecture and natural philosophy were Not a few philosophers have endeavored to shown by Sinon to be intimately related to cookshow the intimate relation which subsists be- ery; and none will be surprised at his placing tween the meat and the morality of nations. the science by which the greatest sum of pleasure Some have gone so far as to consider the eleva- is afforded to our friends, in close juxtaposition tion of gastronomy to be that of the whole cir- to that of military strategics, whereby the excle of arts and sciences, and regarded man as treme amount of annoyance is occasioned to our nothing more nor less than a sublime alembic. enemies. The professors of medicine and mo

Buckle, in his “ History of Civilization," fol. rality are about equally indebted to the cooks. lowing Cabanis, considers food as one of the Few, however, have borrowed from them for such four physical agents most powerfully influencing an early period of life as Van Helmont, who dethe human race. The organization of society manded of them a mystic sop of bread boiled in and the differences in peoples are traceable, in beer as a substitution in infants' food for that his opinion, to a diversity of dinner. Men's natural milk of which the amiable Dr. Brouzet manners and morality, their customs and condi- seems to have had so bad an opinion. Nor have tion, depend mainly, if he may be believed, on philosophers been unwilling to apply to themwhat they eat. The boldness of the Norseman selves in practice the principles they advocated and the timidity of the Bengalee are ascribed as in theory. Boswell's illustrious friend, for examjustly due to their respective preferences for meat ple, was equally solicitous to supply heat and reor vegetables, for carbonaceous or nitrogenous pair waste in his corporeal system. Half a dozen diet, imposed on them by the temperature of · large peaches, according to Mrs. Piozzi, before

VOL. VIII.-3

breakfast, counterbalanced a well-boiled leg of comestible thrush of the ancients was the smallpork for dinner; the outside cut of a salt but- est of its kind, known to us as the red-wing. It tock of beef was accompanied by a liberal sup- visits our coasts in severe winters, but is never ply of chocolate, made with much cream or melt- fattened as at Rome. ed butter; nor could a veal-pie swell the veins in Horace expresses an opinion that nothing is his forehead with satisfaction unless it contained better than a fat thrush ; nothing fairer than an plenty of sugar and plums. It is said of him ample sow's udder. Martial agrees with Horace, that he sought less for flavor than effect. His and has composed a little poem, of which the proposition that a man seldom thinks with more burden is that, in the poet's judgment, the titbit earnestness of anything than he does of his din- among birds is a thrush ; but among quadrupeds ner, he certainly defended by his own example, a hare. On another occasion he tells us that he in his admirable admixture shown in the veal-pie, prefers a sucking-pig to any meat. The Spanhis favorite dainty, of substances with and with- ish epigrammatist also observes that a crown of out nitrogen, mixed it may be with an exactitude nard or roses may delight others, but he himself, of chemical combination which would have been is chiefly delighted with a crown of thrushes. written down, doubtless, in that Cookery-Book Such a present, to make his mistress know that of his, composed on philosophical principles, he has not forgotten her, is suggested by Ovid to could he have been, in the interests of humanity, his pupil : “Missaque corona Te memorem domiinduced to undertake it.

testificere tuæ.A subtilty of palate is hinted The ancient Hebrew writers say little about at in Persius, so exquisite as to be able to disdinners; and what indeed could be expected from criminate between the flavors of the male and a people who seem to have eaten meat only on female bird. Another poet tells us that to mix festivals ? Their silly simplicity confounds the them with oysters disarranges the stomach, and labors of Vatel and Francatelli, of Soyer and is productive of bile. In a word, for once that Carême. They inverted the science of cookery the Roman authors speak of the music of these by regarding bread as the principal dish, and birds in the groves, they speak a dozen times of flesh or its juice as a mere accessory. Widely their merit on the table. They praise their savor different from these were the dishes that adorned rather than their song. They are agreeable in a the tables of imperial Rome. Vedius Pollio, the poplar-tree, but more agreeable in a pasty. Lufriend of Augustus, was singularly delicate in his cullus, says Varro, built an aviary, containing a diet. His most pleasing plat was lampreys, salle à manger, by which ingenious device he which he fattened with disobedient slaves. Ha- was enabled to eat thrushes cooked and contemdrian's favorite dish, says Spartianus, in the bi- plate them alive at one and the same opportunity. ography which he wrote of that emperor, was They, or rather their breasts, form a notable incalled Tetrapharmacum, from its consisting of gredient in the famous Patina Apiciana, or plat four principal ingredients-to wit: sow's udder, of Apicius, which also contained the inevitable peacock, pheasant, and the gammon of a wild udder, besides fish, fowl, and beccaficoes, and boar in paste. These meats appear to have been everything of the best. The relative merits, inmixed in some manner which the author has deed, of beccaficoes, thrushes, mushrooms, and omitted to mention. For the wild-boar pasty oysters were so difficult to determine, that Tibethere is indeed to be found more than one receipt rius is said to have given a prize of some two in Apicius Cælius. The best, perhaps, is the thousand pounds to one Asellius Sabinus for an following: First boil the gammon with plenty of essay, in the form of a dialogue, on that subject. dry figs (in another receipt the exact number Beccaficoes were eaten in England in the days twenty-five is given) and three laurel-leaves. of Henry II. Among the pious and dutiful sons (The use of these figs, it is said, made the flesh of that king, who set their countrymen almost as tender.) Then skin it, slice it superficially into fair an example of filial obedience as the sons of dice, and fill it with honey. Knead four with the first three Georges, Prince John was at least oil, and cover it with this paste. When the dough wise enough to know the best, perhaps the only, is cooked, take it from the oven, and serve. means to win the people's respect and love. He

Faute de grives on mange des merles" is courted popularity, according to Sir William an old French proverb, and thrushes dressed in Scott, by a sumptuous repast. When it is redifferent ways are still devoured in France. Any membered that his death was occasioned by a person anxious to know how to cook them will surfeit of peaches and new ale, it will probably probably find his curiosity satisfied by the cook- be admitted that he put no great constraint upon ery-books of Dubois or Carême. In England himself in this matter. Be that as it may, it is they are scarcely a common dish, and the index recorded in “ Ivanhoe” that he held high festival to Mrs. Beeton's recipes may be consulted in in Ashby Castle, where the tables “groaned,” vain. Formerly they were highly esteemed. The not indeed for the first or last time, under the

quantity of “good cheer." The dishes were ren- Juvenal occupies a whole satire with considdered as unlike their natural forms as possible, erations for cooking a single fish ; and Martial “as is done," says the author, “by the modern has consecrated the chief portion of one of his professors of the culinary art." He might have books, called “Xenia,” to a poetic catalogue of included the ancient ones. Ingeniosa gula est, subjects of diet. Not the least remarkable of and the traditional schoolboy will remember the these is a dish made of flamingoes' tongues, reaphy or anchovy which the cook of Nicomedes, minding the reader of the páté of tongues of King of Bithynia, produced for him from that singing birds, composed by Clodius Æsopus, the vegetable on which the sober Cincinnatus was actor. The tongue of the flamingo was one of content to dine. More wonderful changes than the ingredients of Vitellius's celebrated entrée, these, however - transubstantiations instead of which he called his Shield of Minerva. Martial transformations-are known to sacred and pro- and Pliny were both admirers of foie gras-the fane literature. The story of the celebrated din- latter pathetically alludes to it as the tenderest, ner of Numa Pompilius is told by Plutarch, who moistest, and sweetest of livers; and the liver of is troubled with a pagan skepticism about its a white goose fed on fat figs is mentioned by truth. The king had invited his subjects to a ple- Horace as one of the delicacies of the table of beian meal of extreme frugality. Suddenly he lifted Nasidienus. Many dishes, like Wordsworth's up his eyes, and said his familiar Goddess Egeria ideal woman, not too good for human nature's was present; whereupon the tables were forth- daily food, appear at that weird feast, but none with filled with a variety of delicate food. This of them equal in horror the blinded cuttle-fish in sudden change recalls that of St. Patrick, who, the “Rudens" of Plautus. Here is a dish that the being a-hungered on a fast-day, helped himself famous cream-sauce of the Marquis de Béchamel furtively to a couple of pork-chops. Then the could hardly render palatable, although that coursaint's conscience smote him, and he cast the tier of the Grand Monarque boasted that with it chops from him into a pail of water, with a prayer a man might eat his own mother-in-law and yet for forgiveness. His petition was probably heard, fail to discover her natural inherent bitterness. for the pieces of pork were immediately con- “I hate him worse than cold boiled veal,” Macauverted, by more than mortal means, into a couple lay said, or is reported to have said, of the modof fat pike.

est Mr. Croker; but what is cold veal to a clamA change of flavor in fish and fowl was one my cuttle-fish? Surely, of the two a man would of the curious features in the dinner given by prefer the Lacedæmonian black broth, which one, Nasidienus. The pontifical dinner of Lentulus, having tasted, observed he wondered not any on his election to the office of flamen (the abste- more, seeing this was their life's chief nutriment, miousness of the clergy made a pontifical dinner at the Spartan intrepidity in facing death. Pineproverbial at Rome, as that of the French priests nuts (pignons) are also sung by Martial as a pehas originated the repas de chanoines), is a fa- culiar delicacy. These are probably a sort of mous dinner of antiquity. Posterity is indebted pistachio. To translate the Latin term, as is to the Saturnalia of Macrobius for a menu of commonly done, by “ fir-cones" would be to folthe banquet. The names of many of the ani- low the example of the " Journal des Débats," mals eaten have exercised much exegetical inge- which French “ Times" once, if we may believe nuity to very little purpose. The peloris—“a Archbishop Trench, spoke of pommes de pin as sort of shell-fish " (Dict.)—still remains a mys- the conclusion of a Lord Mayor's feast, being led tery. The spondylus —"a sort of shell-fish” into the mistake by our use of pineapple for ana(Dict.)—is yet unknown. Of the balani—“ a sort na, and then commented in good set terms on of shell-fish” (Dict.)—both white and black, we the grossness of the English appetite. are told nothing, save that they probably derive King's proposed dinner to Gaspar Barthius their name from their resemblance to an acorn, by of a salcacaby, a dish of fenugreek, a wild sheep's the laborious Forcellini. But, though an exact head and appurtenance, with a suitable electuary, knowledge of the ingredients of numerous plats a ragout of capons' stones and some dormouse has been thus removed from us, probably for sausages, probably suggested to Smollett his dinever, by the ruthless hand of Time, thus much ner in the manner of the ancients in “Peregrine of certainty remains. In the first course were Pickle," of which the concoction of the dishes served sea-urchins, oysters, thrushes on aspara- was the cause of the dismissal of five cooks as gus, and a fatted hen. Haunches of wild veni- incapable, while even of the sixth, compulsorily son and beccaficoes formed a part of the second retained, it made the hair stand on end. The course, which has been sadly mutilated. The whole of this satire on Akenside is very nearly third was made grateful by a sow's udder, a wild copied from the receipts of Apicius; from the boar's cheek, a ragout of fish, ducks, hares, boiled boiled goose, with its sauce of lovage, coriander, teal, capons, frumenty, and Picentian bread. mint, rue, anchovies, and oil, to the hypotrimma of Hesychius, which Smollett describes as a mix- sus, and smokes in the middle of the Doctor's ture of vinegar, pickle, and honey boiled to prop- table as described by Smollett. Its stuffing of er consistence, with candied asafoetida ; but it minced pork, hog's brains, eggs, pepper, cloves, is composed in the cookery-book of Apicius of garlic, anise-seed, rue, ginger, oil, wine, and pickle many more ingredients, as lovage, pepper, dry corresponds as usual very nearly with the receipt mint, pine-nuts, raisins, boiled-down wine, sweet given in Cælius Apicius. cheese, and oil. So in the famous salacaccabia, An inconvenient quantity of a food somewhat which so seriously discomposed the French mar- perhaps analogous to the sow's udder has been quis, many dainties are omitted which had as- stigmatized by the first of French satirists. suredly rendered that miserable man's condition in the list of the subjects which the Gastrolfar worse. Its successor, the dormouse pasty, aters sacrifice to their ventripotent God on interliquored with the sirup of white poppies—a so- larded fish and other days, Rabelais has given poriferous dainty no less effective than an owl- us almost a complete catalogue of the eatables pie—is a modification of the dish of dormice in of his time, comprising some extraordinary dishes Trimalchio's banquet in Petronius, where they which are comparatively rare in cookery-books are represented sprinkled with honey and white either ancient or modern. Such, for instance, poppies' roasted seed, and set as an opposite dish are the fishes which, in the English translation, to hot sausages on a silver gridiron, beneath are called sleeves, gracious lords, jegs, precks, which were damsons and pomegranate-grains to botitoes, pallours, smys, and chevins; also the represent black and live coals. In Trimalchio's birds, if birds they be, named duckers, filembanquet there are several dishes besides these mings, squabbs, queests, and snytes. The dinsausages of which English society at the present ner of these Gastrolaters has none of that disciday could partake without any feeling of disgust. pline of cookery which amuses the reader of But in Smollett's feast there is not probably a Molière. In the “Bourgeois Gentilhomme," for single dish but will excite more or less loathing. instance, Dorante speaks of a dinner which He has omitted from his ancient dinner all that might have been given by a certain Damis, so might attract the appetite, as sedulously as, in distinguished is it by elegance and erudition. the abusive sacrifices to the Lindian Hercules, “To show you his science of good eating,” says the priests, according to Lactantius, omitted every the Marquis to Dorimène, “he would have diword of good omen, lest the whole ceremony lated on the bread baked by itself, with its sides should be vitiated or made null and void

of gold rendered more toothsome by crust all Another dinner, modeled apparently on that round crumpling tenderly under the tooth; on of the ancients, presents itself to the eyes of Sir the wine, with its velvety juice armed with an Epicure Mammon in “The Alchemist." Leaving acid not too commanding; on a loin of mutton his footboy by far the best fare, after our un- garnished with parsley, or of Normandy veal, learned taste, in pheasants, calvered salmons, long, white, delicate, a very almond paste in the knots, godwits, and lampreys, he confines him- mouth; on a partridge made excellent by its self to dainties such as are, from the egg to the wonderful aroma; and, for his masterpiece, on a apples, almost as uninviting to us as those in the soup à bouillon perle, supported by a plump bill of fare of Smollett. Of these the least gen- young turkey cantoned with young pigeons, and erally known are cockles boiled in silver shells, crowned with white onions married with chiccory.” shrimp swimming in butter of dolphin's milk, In this description we recognize with delight that carp - tongues, camel's heels, barbels' beards, proper appreciation of delicate food which is the boiled dormice, oiled mushrooms, and sow's chief distinctive feature of a civilized life, and so paps.

highly necessary to all domestic happiness. In Martial's dinner invitation to his friends, In Ben Jonson's, masque of “The Metamorthe sow's udder usually occupies a prominent phosed Gypsies," in which such specimens of place. According to Pliny, it was in the primest Rommany slang abound as to render it hard to condition when cut off immediately, or at the be understood without the aid of an expert, the longest one day, after the sow had farrowed, captain of the gypsies, after examining the hand before the young had derived any nourishment of King James, whom he compliments by calling from it; it was of the worst quality when the a lucky bird, says that he should, by the lines in animal miscarried. It was considered a delicacy his palmwhen set on the table, as one author describes "Love a horse and a hound, but no part of a swine." it, moist with the salt liquor of a tunny-fish. The dish is frequently mentioned by the poets It is probable that the astute actor had heard of from Plautus downward. It occurs in the sec- his sacred Majesty's menu for Satan: Joint, loin ond course of Trimalchio's banquet vis-à-vis of pork; entrée, a poll of ling; dessert, a pipe of with a hare fitted with wings to resemble Pega- tobacco. This erudite potentate, in his aversion to pig's flesh, shared a national peculiarity, ac- and domestic; and simnel-bread, made of the cording to the author of "Waverley," who, in finest wheat-four, and, being twice cooked, exhis description of a Highland feast of MacIvor, ceedingly light; and wastel-bread, from which mentions piles of beef and mutton, but nothing comes the French gâteau, a delicate kind of cake of pork. The chief feature worthy of record in with which Madame Eglantine, the prioress, fed this banquet, distinguished by a rude simplicity the small dogs she loved so dearly, and the richrecalling that of the dinner of Penelope's suitors, est of pastry. But above all there was a Karum was the central dish, a yearling lamb, named pie, a Sibylline name to which unfortunately no for some curious philological reason a “hog in note of elucidation or etymology is appended, har'st," which, roasted whole, stood on all-fours made of beccaficoes and nightingales, which with parsley in its mouth.

Athelstane, Thane of Coningsburgh, swallowed, The same author has given the world a de- to the laughter of the company, under the impresscription of gypsy cookery in “Guy Mannering." sion that they were larks and pigeons. Whether The big black caldron of Meg Merrilies, whom the worthy thane took Martial's advice and added the Dominie conjectured to be a witch, contains pepper to the waxen beccaficoes or not, he could something far superior, in an æsthetic point of well afford to be laughed at, for he left nothing view, to the ingredients of the hell-broth of the for his neighbors of these succulent dainties, on weird sisters on the blasted heath. Can the fillet which Byron confesses, in “Beppo,” he liked to of a fenny snake, or an adder's fork, be compared feed. with a boiled fowl; the root of hemlock, whether The dinners of all times have had competent digged in the dark or at mid-day, with a hare; or historians. As Sir Walter Scott has furnished a the nose of a Turk and a Tartar's lips with par- sample of a feast in the days of King Henry II., tridges and moor-game? Potatoes and leeks so has Swift given a representation, sufficiently present a pleasing contrast to a tiger's chaudron accurate, probably, of one in the days of Queen and the liver of a Jew; and Dominie Sampson Anne. In that author's complete collection of was doubtless pro-di-giously satisfied in drink- polite and ingenious conversations, we have a ing a warm cupful of brandy, in the place of, sort of photograph of the breakfasts and dinners what he apparently expected, the cold blood of a “partaken of,” to use a term suited to the occababoon. The desperate fashion of witches' din- sion, by the bon-ton of society at the commenceners, commonly to be met with, was probably ment of the eighteenth century. The former set by such dishes as were assigned by classic meal was simple enough, consisting only of tea, writers to ladies of the type of Canidia and Erich- bread-and-butter and biscuit, though one of the tho. Pierre de Lancre, the good old magistrate' party took a share of beefsteak, with two mugs of Bordeaux-who certainly may be credited of ale and a tankard of March beer as soon as with some knowledge of the ways of witches, he got out of bed; but the latter is remarkable seeing that he burned over five hundred of them for its picturesque profusion. Oysters, sirloin of alive-gives such a description of the dinner- beef, shoulder of veal, tongue, pigeon, black-pudor Sabbath, as he calls it-of these unhappy ding, cucumber, soup, chicken, fritters, venison night-hags, as might with the mere horror of it pasty, hare, almond-pudding, ham, jelly, goose, eclipse the laboring moon. Such entrées as can rabbit, preserved oranges, partridge, cheese, and be mentioned are foaming toads, and the fat of sturgeon, are all mentioned as ingredients of the gibbeted murderers gathered from the gallows- feast, and appear to have been eaten in the order tree; beasts which have died a natural death, or in which they are set down. The drink consisted what the Scotch call braxy; and the corpses of of claret, cider, small beer, October ale, Burthe lately buried torn out of their graves. But gundy, and tea. The consequences of this feast the pièce de résistance was a pasty of fetid odor upon the guests are not mentioned by the Dean composed of the powdered liver of an unbaptized of St. Patrick's. Authors are not invariably so infant, in a coffin of black millet-crust. Salt, reticent. Gray, for instance, after relating the however, was never used-a circumstance from particulars of a dinner at which Dr. Chapman, which Dominie Sampson, when fasting from all the Master of Magdalen College, Cambridge, disbut sin, took heart, because it was appointed by tinguished himself, closes his account in the folGod to season all sacrifices, and Christians are lowing sympathetic fashion: “He has gone to expressly required to have salt in themselves and his grave with five fine mackerel (large and full peace with one another.

of roe) in his belly." To remove the taste of the witches' banquet, Tous ces braves gens," says Taine, speaking the reader may return to that of Prince John, at of Fielding's principal characters, “se battent Ashby Castle, in “ Ivanhoe.” Delicacies from bien, marchent bien, mangent bien, boivent foreign parts and islands far away abounded at mieux encore." Roast-beef descends into their this feast. There were the rarest wines, foreign powersul stomachs as by a law of nature into its

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