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a fireless room and had choice of two beds, one coal-gas or coal ; or, more correctly speaking, a a curtained four-poster and the other a camp Calorigen stove can be obtained either for gas or bedstead, I would no doubt, under the special for coal. The stove has this great advantage, circumstances, choose the four-poster, but not as that it warms and ventilates at one and the same a general principle by any means.
time. The stove contains within its outer cylinIn our modern bedrooms, furnished accord- der or case a spiral iron tube, which by its lower ing to modern taste and fashion, the best plan to end communicates with the outer air, and by its adopt is that of admitting air freely to the sleep- upper end opens into the room. The heat gener, at the same time taking care that throughout erated in the stove communicates heat to the spithe whole of the night the air shall be kept, with- ral tube, and the air in the spiral is heated and in a few degrees, at the same temperature. I ascends into the room. The ascension of warm repeat, at the same temperature, for uniformity air causes a draught from below, and so a curof warmth during all the hours of sleep is as rent of warm air is at all times diffusing through essential as warmth. To have an overheated the room so long as the fire of gas or coal is atmosphere at one time of the night and a burning. At the same time the products of low temperature at another is just the kind of combustion from the stove are conveyed away by change that is attended with most hazard. In- another pipe into a fue or chimney. deed, I doubt whether an equable cold atmos- When one of these stoves is in good action phere is not on the whole safer than one in which the air of an apartment may be kept pure and there is frequent and marked fluctuation. warm for any length of time, and the tempera
The safest method is to have the air of the ture can be maintained at the same uniform deroom, a short time before it is occupied, brought gree all the while. There is also about the methup to a uniform temperature of from 60° to 65o od the immense advantage that it secures freeFahr. It should never fall five degrees below dom from cold draughts from doors and from 60° and never rise above 65° under ordinary cir- windows. The copious influx of warm air from cumstances. In cases where the occupant of the the stove is, indeed, so effective that when the room is extremely enfeebled it may be necessary stove is heated to its full, and the room is of to raise the temperature to a higher point, but I moderate size, there is a draught or current of am thinking at this moment of sleepers who are air out of the room by the doors when they are in fair health, and for whom no such special pro- opened a little way, unless there be a provision vision is required.
for a fixed ventilating outlet. Properly there A mistake is sometimes made in observing ought always to be a ventilating outlet, even the temperature. The reading of the thermom- when the room is steadily charged with fresh eter is taken in one part of the room only, per- and warm air, for a current is always desirable. haps in the warmest part, that is to say, over the My friend Mr. Henry C. Stephens, in an exfireplace or from the mantel-shelf. This is not a cellent paper which he has written on ventilafair observation, for a room at that part may be tion, maintains, with much force, that no mode very warm while it is very cold in other parts. of ventilation is actually perfect unless by preThe temperature should, properly, be taken at the cise mechanical means air be actually drawn into bed's head, about two feet above the pillow, and an apartment in duly measured quantities. He that is the best position in which to keep the suggests a system of supply of air by a mechthermometer, with which every bedroom ought anism moved and regulated by weight and balto be furnished. An ordinary thermometer suf- ance, so that the air through a house may be sysfices as a general index, but a registering instru- tematically supplied with all the accuracy of good ment is most advantageous when particular care and effective clockwork; or, if this be not appliis demanded in observation.
cable, he favors the admirable water-wheel venI now come to consider what is the best mode tilation which has lately been brought out by of warming the bedroom, and of maintaining Messrs. Verity, of Regent Street, London. There the equal warmth on which so much has been is much to be said in favor of Mr. Stephens's arinsisted.
gument, and if I were constructing a house from The simplest of all plans with which I am the first I should introduce Verity's ventilating acquainted is that which brings air from the out- system into every room; but we have to deal side through a small chamber or pipe that can with houses everywhere that were originally be heated by a fire or by gas, and which allows erected without the slightest regard to sanitary the air, after it has been warmed, to diffuse rules, and we must therefore adapt what is best steadily into the room.
and cheapest to improve if not to perfect. In A stove called the Calorigen, invented by Mr. the bedroom, the stove I refer to is of these adapWebb George, is, in my opinion, best adapted tations the best I know of. It is really automatic for use in the bedroom. It burns either with in action when it is once started, and it can be
THE FLOOR-COVERINGS OF THE BEDROOM.
put up anywhere where there is a chimney for the space beneath, the next best thing to do is the exit-pipe for consumed air. Lastly, it is quite to take up a floor-board and under it to carry a safe in the bedroom : the fire being inclosed, no box one foot deep between the joists of the floor sparks can fly from it, and the fuel makes no dust from the point where the air-pipe of the stove within the room.
pierces the floor-board to the outlet in the wall In my laboratory I have had one of the Calor- in which the air-brick or grating is inserted. The igen stoves in work for several years, and I have floor-board will form as it were the lid of this found it so manageable and good I can recom- box, and the air, drawn by the stove, will be mend it on the best of all recommendations, its through the box direct from the outside. The practical value. In the Annerley Industrial box should be made of pine wood, and neatly Schools, which I visited at the time of the Sani- planed on its inner surface. That surface should tary Congress, held last October, at Croydon, I be polished with beeswax and turpentine so soon found that the stoves were in common use, and as the box is laid in, and from time to time the that they were as much approved of by the floor-board should be removed and the polishing school authorities as they are by my own experi- should be repeated. The air passing over the ence of them.
surface of wax and turpentine is made singularThere is one precaution which I would sug- ly healthy and pure. It is as if it had been subgest to those who are going to introduce a Ca- jected to ozone before entering the chamber, and, lorigen into their bedroom. When the stove is if it enter the chamber at a temperature of 60° fixed it is usual for the man who fixes it to push to 65° Fahr., the fresh odor is distinguishable in the air - feeding pipe through the floor of the the room after it has been for a short time unocroom, so as to get the supply of air from under cupied. These plans are all very simple to carry the floor. No arrangement can be better if due out when they are simply explained, and, as a bedcare be taken, but it is essential to make sure of room that is well and easily warmed and well and three things in carrying out this plan: 1. It is easily ventilated is of priceless value, I make no essential to see that there is a free opening from apology for spending so much time on this one the outer wall by a perforated brick or grating topic. under the floor, so that the air-chamber beneath gets a due supply of fresh air from without; 2. It is well to see that there is no gas-pipe running The bedroom can hardly have too good a beneath the floor, from the joints of which gas foor, and after all no floor is so good as one of could escape and be drawn by the stove into the wood. If the wood is smooth and well planed air of the room above; 3, It is important to have it may be treated all over with wax and turpenthe space below the floor made quite free of old tine without being either stained or painted; or rubbish, and to have it made thoroughly dry. it may be stained all over and varnished; or, if it All these steps are really essential, for, if there be be rough and will not take stain well, as is not no admission of air beneath the floor from with- uncommon in cases where the floors are very old, out, the stove will exhaust, and the space will the boards may be covered with a good layer of be recharged with air from the room through zinc—white paint, colored according to the taste openings and chinks in the flooring ; if there be of the owner, and afterward well varnished. My any escape of gas beneath the floor, the stove own predilection is for Stephens's wood-stain, will diffuse the gas into the room ; if there be when the boards will admit of the application, decomposing matter or dust beneath the floor, and taking it all in all a light oak stain is, I think, the stove will also diffuse them, and if there be the best. The stain may be applied by any per- . damp it will diffuse the damp.
son who is at all deft at such artistic work. The I name these possible errors because I have floor is, in the first place, well cleansed by dry seen them all made, and actually, in one instance, scrubbing with clean sawdust, and any great I saw removed from beneath the floor of a bed- roughnesses and irregularities are planed or room and dressing-room twenty barrow-loads of otherwise smoothed down. Then the whole surdust and débris which had been lying there for face is covered with a layer of thin size, which is nearly a century. The workmen in building allowed to dry. The stain is next prepared by houses care little about leaving dust and rubbish mixing sufficient of it with water to get the reon ceilings that are covered by floors. In this quired depth of tint, and sufficient is made to case the rubbish consisted of shavings, sawdust, cover all the surface without recourse to a new and sundry other things, such as old slippers and solution. The stain is lightly and evenly laid on shoes, which had been lying there ever since the with a piece of sponge, and that also is left to house was built.
dry. Finally, a good layer of varnish is laid on If it be impossible, or if it be too expensive, with a brush over the stained surface, and, when to lift up the floor-boards and clean the whole of that is dry, the next best floor to a floor of real
and of polished oak has been obtained by the floor: or, if there be left any part still dirty, she trouble and cost expended on the work. The easily remedies the defect by an additional scrub floor prepared either by varnish simply, or by at that part. When all is finished she carries the staining and varnishing, or by paint and varnish, dirty sawdust away, and destroys it by burning should afterward be kept clean by dry rubbing, it in the kitchen fire. White sand may be used and by beeswax and turpentine. There is nothing instead of sawdust for this same purpose, but it really so clean, and nothing so healthy. After a is not so convenient, and is not so quick a cleanser short time the varnished floors take the wax very as sawdust. The same sand, if sand be used, well, and by that firm and smooth surface no- can be applied several times if it be cleansed, by thing is absorbed to create bad air. The floor is washing and afterward heating it over the fire easily dusted. Loose particles of dust, feathers, until it is quite dry. and woolen fluff are readily detected, and the I have to speak next about carpets in bedfact that there is any collection of dust or dirt on rooms. I need hardly insist on the fact that the the floor is at once made obvious. There are no old-fashioned plan of covering every part of the crevices or rough places in which the dust and bedroom with carpet-stuff, so as to make the fuff can be concealed.
carpet hug the wall, is as bad a plan as can posThere can not, I think, be a doubt that for the sibly be followed. In these days everybody is bedroom-floor dry cleansing is always the best. beginning to recognize this truth, and the change Water destroys the varnish on stained and paint, which has taken place within the last ten years, ed floors, making them patchy and dirty-looking; in the matter of carpets for bedrooms, is quite water destroys the evenness of surface; water remarkable. In some instances I notice that an makes the adoption of the waxed floor almost extreme change, which is neither wanted nor warimpossible; water when it is used often perco- ranted, has been instituted; that is to say, instead lates into the joints of the floor-boards, causing of the carpet that at one time covered all the surthem to separate and become holders of dirt; face of the floor with the greatest nicety of adapand, lastly, if water be used for cleansing the tation, there is no carpet at all
. This extreme chances are many in the course of a year that change is not at all desirable. It is good to have the room will be left damp and chilly. The floor carpets in every part of the room where the feet will be washed on some damp and foggy days, must regularly be placed. It is bad to have carthe boards will dry imperfectly, and, though at pets in any part of the room where the feet are bedtime they may be to appearance dry, they not regularly placed. These two rules govern will not be so entirely, while the air of the room the whole position, and the most inexperienced will be still charged with moisture ; so that, al- housewife can easily remember them. By these though the sleeper doe snot get into a damp bed, rules there should be carpet all round the bed, he does get into a damp bedroom, which in some carpet opposite to the wardrobes or chests of respects is equally injurious.
drawers, carpet opposite the washing-stand, carI have seen such very bad results from damp pet opposite the dressing-table, but none under sleeping-rooms, in which the dampness of the air the beds, and none for a space of two or three has been caused by washing the floors, that I do feet around the room—that is to say, two or three not press the lesson I wish to enforce at all too feet from the walls of the room. The carpets forcibly or earnestly.
that are laid down should be loose from each When from any circumstance the floor of the other, each one should be complete in itself, so bedroom can not have given to it a varnished or that it can be taken up to be shaken with the waxed surface—when, for example, the floor is least trouble, and each one should be arranged constructed simply of deal planks—it may seem to lie close to the floor, so that dust may not easito be absolutely necessary to clean the surface ly get underneath. with water. These floors, moreover, are just the Carpet-stuff for bedrooms should be made of floors that hold water the longest, and for all rea- fine material closely woven, and not fluffy on the sons are least adapted for water-cleansing. How, surface. Felt carpet-stuff for bedrooms is what then, it will be said, are such floors to be cleansed? is commonly recommended in the shops for bedThey are most easily cleansed in one dry way, room service, and after that Axminster. The viz., by dry scrubbing with sawdust. The ser- first is all wrong; it never lies neatly, it very vant takes up a small pailful of clean, fresh saw- quickly accumulates dust, and it is really not in dust, and, taking it out by handfuls, spreads it on the end economical. Axminster is more free from the floor, and with a hard, short-bristled brush these objections, but it is not so good as Brussels. scrubs with the sawdust as if she were using There was a form of Brussels carpet called “ tapwater itself. When the whole surface has been estry," which some years ago was very largely scrubbed in this way, she sweeps up the sawdust, used. It was as warm as the thickest blanket, and finds beneath it a beautifully clean and dry and it was almost like wire in fiber; in fact, it was tough enough to last half a lifetime, and it gested they save trouble in cleansing, by preventwas the best carpeting for bedrooms I ever re- ing dust and dirt from being trodden into the member. Fluff adhered to it very slightly, it floor. held an exceedingly small quantity of dust, and And now, having seen to the lighting of the it was always in its place on the floor. As a mat- bedroom, to the position of it in regard to aster of course, “tapestry” went out of fashion in pect, to the ventilation, to the warming, and to due time and season.
the construction and covering of the floor, I The advantages of small carpets in the bed- ought to pass on to the walls, and the curtains, room are many. They cause the footsteps to be and the beds. But I must ask the reader to noiseless, or comparatively noiseless, they prevent wait until next article for the final installment on the feet from becoming cold while dressing and the bedroom. undressing, they make the room look pleasant, and when used in the limited manner above sug- B. W. RICHARDSON, M. D. (Good Words).
Augustus, opening one of his letters the lus runs with the deepest, strongest, and yellownext morning.
est current, he found himself in the square of This was a note from the private detective, Great St. Simon Apostle, about half-past two in stating that the last clew which promised remark- the afternoon. He exchanged a few compliably well had terminated with no useful result; ments in whispers with the junior clerks, and in fact, it ended with a laboring-man who was then mounted the broad stairs, and began to suffering from delirium tremens. He regretted ramble idly about the passages. He passed with that this research had turned out so badly, but, reverence the doors of Mr. Augustus and Mr. he added, another clew had been discovered, the William Hamblin, the partners, and presently nature of which he would for the moment keep stood before that on which was still to be read secret. He proposed to follow this up vigorous- the name of Mr. Anthony Hamblin. He shook ly; he had no doubt that it would end in a com- his head gravely at sight of this. Then his eyes plete solution of the case. Meanwhile, he in- lit up, and his white eyebrows lifted, and his closed an account of his expenditure up to date, pink face shone with mirth and mischief, and he and would be obliged if Mr. Hamblin would send laughed in silence, shaking all over in enjoyment him another check for twenty pounds on account. of the imaginary situation.
It was a dreadful blow for Mr. Theodore “ If they knew," he murmured ; "if they only Bragge when he received a settlement in full of knew !" his account, with the information that the case Then he turned the handle softly, and looked was now closed, and his services would be no into the room. more required. He had long made up his mind No one was there : the room had not been that there was nothing to find out, and that he used since the death of its owner : the familiar might go on, for the rest of his natural life, fol- furniture was there, the old-fashioned, heavy, lowing up clews at a large salary with a percent- ' oaken table, without cover, which had probably age, so to speak, on his expenditure. Meat and been built for the very first Anthony, remained drink—especially drink—the case had been to in its old place, with the wooden chair in which him. He will never, he owns with tears, again the last Anthony had been wont to sit, and the find employers so generous as the firm of An- blotting-pad which he had used, before it. In thony Hamblin & Co.
one corner stood a low screen of ancient work. The day was Wednesday, which was young manship, also a family heirloom. There were Nick's half-holiday.
portraits of successive Anthonys on the wain
scoted walls, and there was a cabinet in massive from the chair himself, and acted it in dumb mahogany, with glass doors; but the contents of show-and say: “Young Nick—no, Nicholas the cabinet were kept secret by means of cur- Cridland, whom we are proud to call cousintains which had once been green.
you have shown yourself so worthy of confidence, In spite of the boy's possession of so great a that we instantly appoint you principal buyer and secret, he felt a ghostly feeling creep on him as manager at the dock-sales, for the firm. You he softly closed the door behind him, and en- will attend the next sale on Thursday afternoon, tered the room on tiptoe. He shuddered, as one with the samples in your pocket.” shudders when reminded of a dead man. Then The boy had got through this speech-always he recovered himself again, and began curiously in dumb show—and was thinking how to reply to examine the room and its contents. First he with a compliment at once to the sagacity of the opened the drawers : in the one immediately be- firm in selecting him for such responsible busifore the chair was a novel—“Ho! ho ! that was ness, and to his own extraordinary discretion, the way in which Uncle Anthony spent his time prudence, and secrecy, when he heard steps outin the City, was it?" in the other two he found side. The room was at the end of a long pasan heterogeneous mass of things-cigar-cases, sage, so that the persons to whom the feet beportraits of Alison, memorandum-books, letters, longed were clearly proposing to visit the room. menus of dinners, cards of invitation to civic ban- The vision of greatness instantly vanished, and quets, and so forth ; things which the boy turned the boy rushed for shelter behind the screen. It over with interest. Then he thought that he was a low screen, about five feet three high, quite would at last discover the contents of the mys- incapable of hiding Lady Teazle, had she been terious cabinet. He opened it; three of the of the average height of Englishwomen, but shelves contained Indian curios, covered with high enough to shelter the boy, who, indeed, dust : they had been brought home on one of sat upon the floor with his hat off, and looked the earlier voyages by the first Anthony, and through the chinks where the screen folded. had never left the office. But on one shelf stood The party which entered the room consisted a decanter, still half filled with sherry, and a box of the two partners, Mr. Billiter, and Gilbert of biscuits.
Yorke. To the boy's terror, the old lawyer, after When there was nothing more to see, the boy looking about for a place to set down his hat, solemnly seated himself in Anthony's chair, and, placed it on an angle of the screen. Fortunately, after a silent but enjoyable laugh, proceeded to he did not look over. Then they all sat down, meditate.
Augustus Hamblin at the head of the table. His reflections turned naturally upon the im- Gilbert Yorke placed before the chairman a bunportance of the secret which he carried about dle of papers. Everybody looked at his watch, with him, and of the grandeur which would be and all wore an air of grave importance. his whenever he chose to disclose it. Grandeur “ Lord," said the boy to himself, “now, if I unheard of, grandeur never before achieved by were only to jump up like Jack-in-the-box, and mortal boy; the part, indeed, played in history tell them who was teaching what, where he was by boys, save and except the drummer-boy, the teaching it, and for how much, and who was call-boy, the printer's devil, has always been lu- getting his boots downer at the heel every day, dicrously out of proportion to the number of how they would stare! I've half a mind to do boys existing at any period. Grandeur? Why it, too." it would be spread all over the House how he, But he did not, because just then his interest Nicolas Cridland, had not only discovered the in the situation grew more absorbing; for the secret, alone and unaided, but also kept it until party was completed by the arrival of none other the right time came. When would that time than Stephen Hamblin himself. come? Surely, soon. Would Uncle Anthony He arrived in the midst of an observation resolve upon continuing his disguise as a teacher which was being made by Mr. Billiter, as if folof writing while he, Nicolas, was received as a lowing up a conversation. clerk in the House ? while he rose gradually “ Life," he said, “is a succession of blunders, higher and higher, even in the distant days when chiefly committed through laziness, and a foolish he should be received as a partner? Surely, the desire to avoid present trouble.-Come in, Steday must some time come when he should be phen, and sit down. I was saying that most able to stand proudly before the partners, Au- crimes are the result of laziness. You are going gustus and William, and lay his hand upon his to be told of a most amazing blunder which has heart and say : “ Anthony Hamblin is not led us all astray.” dead, but living. I alone have known it all He looks mighty black," young Nick muralong." Then Mr. Augustus would get up from mured, gazing intently through the chink; “althat chair in which the boy was sitting-he rose most as black as when he was turned out of the