« הקודםהמשך »
Greeks in the present Greece. Even they would erty-stricken affair, not half so attractive to the find maintenance very difficult, and the develop- community as the great cities which the Northment of independent political strength nearly im- ern barbarians, who were savages when the Macpossible. They might obtain Arab help, and cabees were encouraging learning, have built up gradually extend themselves but in the existing in the West. We fear the Jews of England will circumstances of the world a Jewish kingdom or prefer London, even in this weather, to the delirepublic on the southeastern shore of the Medi- cious sky of Syria ; and that it will not be given terranean, with the desert behind it, and no car- to this age, which has seen so many nations rise rying trade for that trade will go by sea, if the and fall, to witness the restoration of the Jews to Duke of Sutherland builds railways from now till Palestine, and the renewal of the daily sacrifice A. D. 2000—would be a rather feeble and pov- on Mount Moriah.
particular evening, and to have quietly seen that A DANGERCUS CLASS IN AUTHORITY, their injunctions were respected. The whole ques
tion was between the proprietor and the police, and IT is unnecessary to say that in every community the law provides means for adequately and rightly 1 there ought to be on the part of the people a dealing with it. To have permitted a place of ille. great respect for law and authority; but then law and gal amusement to remain open a day after its real authority should also entertain a proper respect for nature had been discovered was, of course, a gross the people. While it is incumbent upon us all to dereliction of duty on the part of the police. If, howuphold order, it is equally incumbent upon us to up- ever, it was legally open, what right, then, had the hold the safeguards that protect the liberties of the police to make a “raid” upon it? Did it by any citizen. We are equally in danger from the excesses process shift from legal to illegal ground on that par. of dangerous classes on the one hand and from ticular night? No such affirmation is made. It is usurpations of authority on the other; and hence, true the house had been complained of as disorderly. while right-minded people give support to all neces. As a disorderly house it was certainly amenable to sary regulations and restraints, they should take law-that is, on competent testimony a warrant care that the authority which enforces these regula. should have been issued, the proprietor arrested, and tions and restraints does so within legal limits. In upon sufficient evidence of the truth of the allega. the light of these axioms let us look at an event that tion his license canceled-for it seems that this illeoccurred in New York recently.
gal place had been legally licensed—and, if otherOn Saturday evening, January 17th, a number of wise amenable to the law, he should have been prosepolicemen made a sudden descent, or “raid," as it is cuted, tried in the court organized for jurisdiction called, upon a dance-house in Bleecker Street. All over such offenses, and if found guilty punished acthe occupants of the house-proprietor, attendants, cording to the statute. Or, in case of a disturbance dancers, spectators-numbering some three hundred in the place, it would have been proper for the police to persons, were marched off to various station-houses have forced an entrance and arrested all persons found and locked up for the night. The next morning breaking the peace. The means for legal remedy in they were brought before a police-magistrate and the case were ample, straightforward, and as plain as most of them fined. It does not appear from the day; but the police thought fit to adopt a method accounts that anything was going on in the dance. that was a greater violation of the law than anything house of a turbulent or legally objectionable charac- alleged against the proprietor or the inmates. The ter. The house had been opened that evening just whole transaction was a high-handed piece of des. as it had been for many evenings successively before, potism of a kind that should never be tolerated in and people had flocked in for the kind of amusement any self-respecting community. In this wholesale given there. The questions, therefore, that prompt. capture every arrest was distinctly illegal, although ly arise are: Upon what ground was this place ame. it is very likely that under a legitimate process some nable to law on that particular evening more than persons could have been held. But the majority upon any other? Upon what warrant or authority were nothing more than idle spectators, allured into was this descent planned and the wholesale arrests a public place by bright lights and the promise of made? Was this dance-house legally or illegally amusement, and some no doubt were ignorant of its open to the public? If it was an illegal place of reputation. It is doubtless very bad taste to visit a entertainment, the plain duty of the police would place of this character, but if exhibitions of bad taste have been to have ordered it closed long before this are contrary to law some of our churches as well as
dance-houses will have to be closed. Some of the we have built up a power that may become as dan. inmates of the Bleecker Street house were very gerous as the evil it has overcome. likely no better than they should be-but it is not yet a principle of law that a roomful of people may be arrested and incarcerated because there is
MEDICAL PRACTICE IN THE EIGHa pickpocket among them. As for the persons
TEENTH CENTURY. who fell victims to misused authority on that January night, the worst thing we know of them is their IT is told of the late Dr. Magendie, the eminent littleness of spirit. They did not seem to know physiologist, that, in closing a series of his lectures their rights as citizens, but slunk away after paying at the College of France, he addressed the students their fines as if they had been really guilty of some of the medical school in the following terms : “Gen. offense.
tlemen, you have learned from my disquisitions, if The submission of the men arrested was deplora. they have been of any benefit to you, that there is ble, but the indifference of the general public was no such thing as a science of medicine, and that the worse. Had this dance-house been a reputable practice of medicine-empirical at the best-must place, there would no doubt have been a great explo- be based upon observation and experiments, many sion of wrath on the part of the people ; but, as the of which are as likely to injure as to help. No principle is the same whether a dance-house or a doubt, when you go out into the world and begin to fashionable club falls a victim to despotism, a lofty practice for yourselves, you will find the recovery of public sentiment would make no discrimination be- patients apparently consequent upon your efforts ; tween them. We fear, indeed, that, while the public but let me tell you what the agencies really are that would exhibit indignation in one case, they are dis- coöperate in the cure of disease: nature does much; posed to look upon the other as simply a good joke. careful nursing does much ; doctors devilish little." Their feeling in the matter is wholly personal and This can hardly have been regarded as encourage social. It is possible, also, that petty acts of despot. ing by the young men who were about to enter upon ism on the part of the police do not seem of much their career as professors of the healing art ; but importance to many persons. An act of usurpation even so scanty a measure of merit can scarcely be on the part of the Federal or a State government conceded to the medical practice of a century or two would doubtless arouse all their spirit, especially if ago. In the memoirs of Mrs. Delany (reviewed on the act had been committed by their political oppo- another page) there are many curious details of life nents; but police affairs they consider undignified and society in England during the eighteenth cenand insignificant, and affecting none but inferior tury, but none so startling and suggestive as those people. And yet the police stand in very intimate which reveal the methods and remedies then adopted relations to us all; and, although to be always live in the treatment of disease. If these revelations are ing under the likelihood of arbitrary arrest and im- to be believed--and they are evidently entirely trust. prisonment for purely fictitious offenses would not worthy—then it must be admitted that the physician be as serious a form of despotism as that which many should properly have been numbered among the communities have endured, it would be intensely perils of life at that unhappy period with plague, galling, and should not be submitted to for a day. pestilence, and famine. But there is a lack, we are sorry to say, of that high Mrs. Delany was a member of an ancient and spirited intelligence which resents the first encroach. opulent family, and among such families the troubles ment of authority under whatever guise it may come. of an infant began with its birth, for it was the cusThe cause of this, we suspect, lies in the fact that tom of the time not only for mothers not to nurse our people have always been too secure in their lib. their own offspring, but to subject them to something erties to look with alarm upon the small beginnings which bore a close resemblance to what in our day of despotism. The English people, on the other is called “baby-farming." We read repeatedly of hand, have wrested their liberties and privileges babies being delivered over to farmers' wives for from unwilling hands after centuries of struggle ; nursing and “bringing up," and it appears from cer. nearly every privilege they possess or liberty they tain items in Mrs. Delany's narrative that even those enjoy has been won after resistance and by blood. who had the reputation of being remarkably good We have had one fierce struggle for political inde. mothers would know hardly anything of their own pendence ; but even then our personal liberties were children until the period of infancy was past. The scarcely at stake, and since then they have seemed kind of treatment which such infants received, even so founded on the rocks that, while we give an intel. when placed under the most favorable conditions, lectual assent to the axioms and sentiments that may be inferred from a casual sentence in a letter warn us to guard these privileges well, we yet do not from Mrs. Granville, mother of Mrs. Delany, which feel intensely and deeply in the matter. We are not conveys the cheering news that her little grandchild watchful, jealous of encroachment, quick to insist (an infant not yet weaned) was “getting better of its that while the law must be obeyed the administrators sickness," in proof of which it had just eaten for of the law shall be bound by the law. Let us say dinner some" buttered turnips"! that if this spirit does not rouse itself, we in the That frequent illnesses should result from such a great cities, who have organized formidable means regimen might naturally be inferred, and, as a matter for restraining the dangerous classes, will find that of fact, children seldom make their appearance in
Mrs. Delany's correspondence except to have some sanguinary at times as the gazette of a battle. There record made of their sicknesses or death. The can be little doubt that the lancet was once a far "ague" seems to have been considered an inevitable deadlier weapon than the sword. People were bled ailment of childhood, precisely as whooping-cough before a fever, during a fever, and after a fever; they and the measles are now ; and no child of the period were bled as soon as the symptoms of disease preappears to have failed of its duty in this regard, sented themselves, and they were bled to help for. though how either patient or disease survived the ward convalescence; sick or well, some pretext was treatment to which it was subjected must always re- found for bleeding them, and, whenever a doctor main a mystery and a marvel. “Bark" was admin. could think of nothing else to do, he bared his lancet istered in quantities sufficient to have tanned the in. and began to feel around for a vein. Sweet Anne terior of their little stomachs, and when bark failed Granville, the sister of Mrs. Delany-a pale, frail, these two “infallible receipts" were recommended : delicate creature, who evidently stood in need of the “1. Pounded ginger, made into a paste with bran- most nourishing possible diet-was literally (as it is dy, spread on sheep's leather, and a plaster of it laid easy to see now) bled into a premature grave ; and over the navel. 2. A spider put into a goose-quill, Lord Tichborne, a boy of seventeen, eldest son of well sealed and secured, and hung about the child's the Duke of Portland, being sick with the small. neck as low as the pit of the stomach."
pox, had fifty-six ounces of blood taken from him Such children as were perverse enough to survive within forty-eight hours ! the ague and the bark sometimes had worms, but Some of the passages in Mrs. Delany's letters are there was another “infallible receipt" for the cure really too monstrous and sickening to quote ; and, in of these, and it was confided (in italics) by Mrs. De- view of all we have cited, well may the editor of the lany to her sister, whose little boy was so troubled: correspondence say that “ the constant agues which “ A pound of quicksilver boiled in a gallon of water children suffered from in the last century and the till half the water is consumed away; to be constant incessant course of drugs which they imbibed inly drunk at his meals or whenever he is dry." To be wardly and outwardly give cause for wonder that effective, it is added, this remedy “must be continued anybody survived to be öled when they were grown constantly for a year." Nearly as inviting, and up, or that, having thus survived, any one ever ardoubtless equally efficacious, was the remedy for rived at old age !" coughs: “ Does Mary cough in the night? Two or three snails boiled in her barley-water or tea-water,
MADAME DE RÉMUSAT. or whatever she drinks, might be of service to her: taken in time, they have done wonderful cures. She THE large public of readers who are now enjoymust know nothing of it—they give no manner of ing the perusal of Madame de Rémusat's revelations taste. It would be best nobody should know it but of social and court life, under the Consulate and the yourself, and I should imagine six or eight boiled in First Empire, would doubtless be glad to know somea quart of water strained off and put into a bottle thing of the rather remarkable woman who wrote would be a good way, adding a spoonful or two of these piquant and entertaining memoirs. Madame that to every liquid she takes. They must be fresh de Rémusat may be said to have been almost endone every two or three days, otherwise they grow tirely unknown in this country previous to the pubtoo thick."
lication of this work, and yet we find her included in It may seem incredible that any children should the “Portraits of Celebrated Women," which Saintehave survived both the diseases and the remedies; Beuve, the French essayist and critic, gave to the nevertheless, we have testimony to the fact that some world years ago. From this sketch we learn that actually did, and those who were unlucky enough to Madame de Rémusat had made essays in literature do so were speedily introduced to the small-pox. which attracted the attention of some of her conThis, like the ague, appears to have been numbered temporaries, but which are probably little known among the inevitable visitations of Providence, and, now. “She had written early with facility and so far from any attempt being made to escape the grace," says Sainte-Beuve (we make our extracts infection, particular pains were taken when one mem- from the translation of H. W. Preston, published by ber of a family was stricken down to give the rest Roberts Brothers); "short essays of hers have been an opportunity to enjoy the same distinction. Even discovered, composed at the age of fifteen or sixin such a family as the Duke of Portland's, where, teen, as well as novelettes and attempted translapresumably, the best medical advice would be had, tions of some of the odes of Horace. Every night no attempt seems to have been made to keep the for years she committed to paper a graphic narrative sick from the well ; and, the eldest son being absent of the day's events. All her life she wrote many at college when his sisters were taken sick, he was and long letters, the greater part of which have been allowed to come home and take his chances with the preserved and may yet be collected." She wrote rest—the result in his case being an especially malig- two romances: the first, entitled "Charles and Claire ; nant attack of the disease.
or the Flute," was published in 1814, of which SaintePeople at all familiar with earlier medical prac. Beuve says the plot was “graceful and peculiar"; tice are aware of the frightful amount of bloodshed the second, under the title of “The Spanish Letter ; to which sick and feeble folk were subjected. The or the Minister," was begun in 1805, but not comcorrespondence of Mrs. Delany in this particular is as pleted until 1820. Another work, published by her son after her death, consisted of letters on Female pened, Bonaparte inadvertently thought aloud. She Education. "I shall not examine in detail," re- could hear, comprehend, and follow him. He was very marks Sainte-Beuve. “ a book which any reader will quick to detect this sort of intelligence, and had an unappreciate. The whole aim and spirit of the work
bounded admiration for it, especially in a woman. ...
Different causes and circumstances soon checked the early are moral, earnest, graceful. We feel the presence
communicativeness, and put a stop to the conversations of in it of a peculiar inspiration, a kind of secret muse.
the hero with the woman of intelligence-first, her own One must be a mother to yearn thus tenderly over realization of the uncertainty of her position, then the coming generations; and when she drew her ideal increasing stringency of imperial etiquette. Mada wife she was thinking of her son."
Rémusat's was undoubtedly too free and active a mind Madame de Rémusat was Claire Elisabeth Gra. for her to hear politics discussed without subsequent revier de Vergennes, and was born in Paris in the year flections. This the Emperor perceived, and it made him 1780. She was grand-niece to that minister of Louis suspicious. She was attached by affection as well as XVI. who bore the same name. Her father, at the
position to the Empress Josephine, and she felt it to be
her duty to follow the fortunes of the latter. M. de time of the breaking out of the Revolution, held at
Rémusat continued near the Emperor, fulfilling the funcParis an important post, amounting to a kind of gen- tions of his office with more of precision and conscien. eral directorship. He took part in the administra- tiousness than of ardor. After the divorce there was a tion of the Commune in 1789, but was soon set marked and definite withdrawal of patronage, and their aside, and perished on the scaffold in 1794. Soon close connection with M, de Talleyrand during the last after, in her seventeenth year, Mademoiselle de Ver. years of the Empire caused the shadow of his disgrace to gennes was married to M. de Rémusat, a former
M. de Rémusat, a former fall upon them. magistrate of the Supreme Court.“ In this bridegroom of double her own age,” says Sainte-Beuve. Sainte-Beuve published this essay in 1858, and " she found an accomplished guide and friend: and Madame de Rémusat had even then long lain in the with him, her mother, and her sister, she continued
med grave. She died in 1821, nearly sixty years before for some years after her marriage to live a life of re
her descendants have thought fit to give her remarktirement, quiet enjoyment, and intellectual culture."
able reminiscences to the world. The “Memoirs" Madame de Rémusat's mother had long been ac. must have been known in part at least to Saintequainted with Madame Beauharnais, and their ac. Beuve, for he declared that he had not the right quaintance continued after the latter became Madame to appropriate them, and he describes the circumBonaparte. When the First Consul had firmly ese stances of her destruction of the first manuscript as tablished the new government, Madame de Ver. follows: "In 1815, during the hundred days, some gennes applied for a position for her son-in-law, and peculiar circumstances, which she doubtless exagMadame Bonaparte then conceived the idea of taking gerated, excited her alarm on the score of these Madame de Rémusat for one of her ladies in waite papers, teeming as they were with items and with ing, making M. de Rémusat Prefect of the Palace. names. Veracity is almost always terrible. She The readers of the “Memoirs" know the rest. Ma.
Ma sallied forth to place them in the keeping of a friend, dame de Rémusat was then twenty-two years of age,
but, failing to find her, she returned in haste, and and Sainte-Beuve describes her as follows:
threw them into the fire. Before an hour had
elapsed, she regretted what she had done. It was Her classic face was animated most of all by the ex. not until the publication of Madame de Staël's work pression of her very beautiful black eyes. The rest of on the French Revolution that she felt the courage her features, though not striking at first, rather gained to undertake once more the collection of her remi. upon inspection, and her whole person seemed to im- niscences. In default of the first incomparable nar. prove the longer you regarded it. ... should have too much to say, and I should say too little, were I to follow
rative, those will be partially indemnified who shall Madame de Rémusat through that court-life into which
one day read the second." she found herself thrust at twenty-two, after her sober and solitary youth. Gifted with prudence and maturity beyond ber years, her upright soul avoided danger, and her vigorous mind gathered instruction from what she
THE SPELLING REFORM. saw, ... Madame de Rémusat was one of those who talked most with the Consul during these first years.
An article in the last “Princeton Review," by To what did she owe this privilege? She herself has
Professor Francis A. March, entitled “ Spelling Reaccounted for the fact in a half-bantering tone. She form," is noteworthy not so much because of its ar. brought a frank simplicity and easy habits of conversa- guments as for the reason that it is printed in part tion into that world of etiquette and watchwords, the in conformity with the theory it upholds. Alphabet greater number of whose denizens were at first both is spelled alfabet ; are is ar, have is hav, learn is lern, ignorant and timid. She admired Bonaparte, and had philosophy is filosofy, and so on. not yet learned to fear him. To the abrupt questions continually advanced by the spelling reformers are
The arguments and rapid monologues with which he addressed them, the other women generally replied by monosyllables only,
that many letters in English words are silent, and while she sometimes had a thought, and ventured to ex
should therefore be excised ; that it is possible in press it. At first this caused something very like scandal. many instances to advantageously substitute one letand awakened extreme jealousy; and she was obliged to ter for another ; that our system of spelling, which is purchase forgiveness by silence on the morrow. But she now so conflicting, ought to be more uniform. There could do better even than respond, when, as often hap- is no denying these assertions : there are silent let. ters; there are instances where a word would be and American books, it is almost imperative for a spelled nearer to the sound by the change of a let. uniform system of spelling to be adopted. Whether ter; and there is irregularity in our system of or- men shall spell have hav, or philosophy filosofy, thography. But the extent of these evils is greatly seems to us very much less urgent than for such coexaggerated by spelling reformers ; and certainly we operation between English and American printers as should only add confusion to confusion if every writer will render books from either land equally easy to may at his pleasure set up a system of spelling, and comprehend and equally agreeable to read by Eng. every printer print books according to his notion of lish-speaking peoples everywhere. There ought to a reformed orthography. Already there are differ. be prepared an international dictionary under the ences in spelling between English and American joint supervision of English and American scholars, books, and even between Boston and New York having the sanction of the great seats of learning in books, that are vexatious to scholarly readers, and both countries, which should be accepted as the final doubtless perplexing to others; and one can but standard everywhere. If our spelling reformers wonder what sort of spelling reform that is which would labor to bring this about, they would do the begins by widening differences and intensifying the Anglo-Saxon world an immense service. But it is existing confusion. Reformers who prematurely hopeless to expect this so long as people entertain an force new divergences into common practice simply exaggerated idea of the defects of English spelling. show that they are very much more enamored of We sometimes hear of the enormous saving to writ. their theories than intent upon rendering practical ers and printers the exclusion of silent letters would service in the cause they espouse. To our mind it make, but, according to our estimate, these silent let. is very desirable that the English-speaking world ters are not more than five per centum, which does not should unite upon a uniform method of spelling and strike us as so great a matter. And it will be found that pronunciation. Whether there are a few more or the words which perplex foreigners so greatly consti. less silent letters in use, or whether an occasional word tute but a very small group. The main obstacle to is spelled contrary to established analogies, seems foreigners and pupils is the identity in sound of to us unimportant beside the question of uniformity. words that have different meaning, such as hear, American spelling is already so distasteful to Eng- here, there, their, and for this difficulty phonetic lish readers that they are repelled from our litera. spelling provides no remedy. The notions that the . ture ; and, if books are now to be printed in the present irregularity in our spelling is a fatal ob. manner of Professor March's article, our authors struction to learning to spell and that “one of the would be set down by English readers as writers in causes of excessive illiteracy among the Englisha barbaric tongue, and their books shut out alto- speaking peoples is the difficulty of the English gether. And then a very large number of books read spelling " seem to us very absurd. In fact, all those here are published in England, while in many in- people who habitually read and write know how to stances those published here are printed from stereo spell, and those whose habits are unliterary are very type-plates made from the English originals, giving, , apt to be bad spellers; and the spelling reformers of course, the English spelling. Inasmuch as read. will never be able to invent a short road to orthog, ers thus fairly divide their attention between British raphy that will obliterate this distinction.
Books of the Day.
TN those minute details which furnish the raw though Mr. James thinks that its tone “is not the 1 material of a biographer's work, the existing truly critical one"; but the difference between the records of the life of Hawthorne are singularly de. two essays is, that in Mr. Lathrop's the attention is ficient. All the facts that are known about him mainly concentrated upon Hawthorne the man, might easily be compressed within the limits of a while in Mr. James's the principal aim is to define magazine article, and even these facts will be found the quality and measure the value of Hawthorne for the most part curiously impersonal and inconclu- the author. In the one case, the writer is an arden: sive. Partly for this reason, and partly because the and enthusiastic devotee and hero-worshiper ; in the industry of Mr. Lathrop had already brought to- other, he is a cool and impartial analyst and dis. gether all accessible details, Mr. James's little book sector. on Hawthorne * has taken the form rather of a criti. The first definite impression that one gets in cal essay than of a biography. Mr. Lathrop's reading Mr. James's sketch is that of the peculiar “Study of Hawthorne" is also chiefly critical, attitude of separateness or dissociation which he as
— sumes and maintains toward Hawthorne. The fact * English Men of Letters. Edited by John Morley. that the book was written for an English series exNathaniel Hawthorne. By Henry James, Jr. New plains such items as his always calling “ The Marble York: Harper & Brothers. 12mo. Pp. 177.
Faun” by its English title of “Transformation,"