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and akin to the Latin pileus, a felt cap or hat, her knees beside the cradle, over which she bent as and indeed to the word felt itself.

she suckled the babe at her dead breast. The mo. As regards the identification of the heroine ment the light shone in the cottage she stood up, by means of the lost slipper, that seems to be, gazed sadly on her little one, and then went out of as has already been remarked, merely one of the the room without a sound, not saying a word to any

All those who saw her stood for a time terrormethods of recognition by which the stories of

struck. And then they found the babe was dead. brilliant beings, temporarily obscured, are commonly brought to a close. In ancient comedy a

In the Indian story of “ Punchkin,” * the recognition was one of the most hackneyed con- seven ill-used little princesses “used to go out trivances for winding up the plot, a convenient every day and sit by their dead mother's tomb,” dramatic makeshift akin to that which proves the and cry, saying: “O mother, mother, can not you brotherhood of the heroes of “Box and Cox.” see your poor children, how unhappy we are, and Thus in the numerous tales which tell how a how we are starved by our cruel step-mother?" hero who is really brilliant and majestic, but And while they were thus crying one day, a tree, apparently squalid or insignificant, saves a fair covered with ripe fruit, “grew up out of the princess from a many-headed dragon, but is grave,” and provided them with food. And when robbed of his reward and reputation by an im- the tree was cut down, a tank near the grave bepostor, he usually proves his identity with her

came filled with “a rich, cream-like substance, rescuer by producing, in the final scene, the which quickly hardened into a thick, white cake,” tongues of the dead monster. Thus also the of which the hungry princesses partook freely. troubles of the golden-haired hero who, like Cin- A similar appeal to a dead mother is made by a derella, emerges at times from his obscurity and daughter in a Russian story (Afanasief, vi., 28). performs wonders, come to a close when he is When in great distress, “she went out to the recognized by some token, such as the king's cemetery, to her mother's grave, and began to handkerchief in the Norse tale of “The Widow's weep bitterly.” And her mother spoke to her Son." All this finale business appears to be of from the grave, and told her what to do in order very inferior importance to the opening of the to escape from her troubles. drama, that which refers to the dead mother's guardianship of her distressed child. The idea The last of these tales belongs to the prethat such a protection might be exercised is of viously mentioned second division of Cinderella great antiquity and of wide circulation. Accord- stories, that which comprises the majority of the ing to it, the dying parent's benediction was not tales in which an ill-used maiden temporarily ocmerely a prayer left to be fulfilled by a higher cupies a degraded position, appears resplendent power, but was an actual force, either working on certain brief occasions, but always returns to of its own accord, or exerted by the parent's her state of degradation, until at length she is spirit after death. In the Russian story of Va- recognized, frequently by the help of her lost silissa the Fair, a dying mother bequeaths to her slipper. But, instead of her troubles being caused little daughter her parental blessing and a doll, by a step-mother or step-sisters, they are brought and tells her to feed it well, and it will help her upon her, in the stories now referred to, by some whenever she is in trouble. And therefore it member of her own family who wishes to drive was that Vasilissa would never eat all her share her into a hated marriage. From it she seeks of a meal, but always kept the most delicate refuge in flight, donning a disguise which is almorsel for her doll; and at night, when all were most invariably the hide of some animal. In at rest, she would shut herself up in the narrow some countries the “ step-mother” form of Cinchamber in which she slept, and feast her doll, derella appears to be rare, whereas the “ hatefulsaying the while: “There, dolly, feed: help me marriage " form is common. In Pitré's collection in my need !” And the doll would eat until of Sicilian tales, for instance, for one Cinderella “its eyes began to glow just like a couple of tale of the step-mother class, there are four which candles," and then do everything that Vasilissa begin with the heroine's escape from an unlawful wanted. In another Russian tale, known also to marriage. In the Gonzenbach collection there is Teutonic lands, a dead mother comes every night but one good variant of the Cinderella tale, and to visit her pining babe. The little creature cries it belongs to the second class. The specimen of all day, but during the dark it is quiet. Anxious this second group, with which English readers to know the reason of this, the relatives conceal are likely to be best acquainted, is the German a light in a pitcher, and suddenly produce it in “ Allerleirauh" (Grimm, No. 65), though it is the middle of the night.

very probable that to the same division belonged

also the story of “Catskin,” which Mr. Burchell They looked and saw the dead mother, in the very same clothes in which she had been buried, on * Miss Frere's “Old Deccan Days,” No. 1.


presented, with other tales, to the younger mem- also procured from the same source, she leaves bers of the family of the Vicar of Wakefield. home, carrying her wonderful dresses with her Perrault's “ Peau d'Ane" is a version of the in a bundle, and thus escapes from her abhorred same story, but as it is told in verse it has never suitor. To prevent him from noticing her abachieved anything at all approaching the success sence, she leaves two doves in her room together gained by its prose companions. Besides, the with a basin of water. As he listens at the door theme is not adapted for nurseries. It forms the he hears a splashing which is really due to the subject of the Lowland Scotch tale of “Rashie- birds, but which he supposes is caused by her Coat," in which we are told that the heroine fled ablutions. Great is his rage when he at length because “ her father wanted her to be married, breaks open the door, and finds that he has been but she didna like the man.” But the Gaelic tricked. We learn from another variant that he story of “ The King who wished to marry his was induced to knock his head against the wall Daughter" (Campbell, No. 14) states the case until he died, and so the dressmaking devil got more precisely. The heroine almost always de- his due. In one of the Russian forms of the mands from her unwelcome suitor three magnifi- same tale, the fugitive maiden has recourse to a cent dresses, and with these she takes to flight, still more singular means of concealing her abusually disguising herself by means of a hide or The story is valuable because it supplies other species of rough covering. In these dresses a reason for the introduction of the fatal ring. she goes to the usual ball or other festival, and that is said to be due to the malice of a maligcaptivates the conventional prince. The close of nant witch, who, out of mere spite, induced a the story is generally the same as that which ter- dying mother to give the ring to her son, and to minates the ordinary Cinderella tales which we charge him to marry that damsel whose finger it have already considered. Its special points of would fit. The ring is evidently of a superinterest are the reasons given for her Alight from natural nature, for, when the heroine tries it on, home, and the disguise in which she effects her not only does it cling to her finger "just as if it escape.

had been made on purpose for it,” but it begins Cinderella's troubles are brought to an end by to shine with a new brilliance. When Katerina the discovery that a slipper fits her foot; those hears to what a marriage it destines her, she of Allerleirauh, Catskin, Rashie-Coat, and the “melts into bitter tears" and sits down in despair rest of her widely-scattered but always kindred on the threshold of the house. Up come some companions in adventure, are generally brought old women bent on a holy pilgrimage, and to about by the discovery that a certain ring or dress them she confides the story of her woes. Acting fits her finger or form. Cinderella's promotion on their advice, when the fatal marriage-day aris due to her dead mother's watchful care. Rashie- rives, she takes four kukolki, dolls or puppets of Coat's degradation is consequent upon her dying some kind, and places one in each of the corners mother's unfortunate imprudence. Thus, in the of her room. When her suitor repeatedly calls Sicilian tale of “Betta Pilusa," * the hateful mar- upon her to come forth, she replies that she is riage from which the heroine Aies, wrapped up coming directly, but each time she speaks the in a gray cloak made of catskin, would never dolls begin to cry “Kuku," and as they cry the have been suggested to her had not her mother floor opens gently and she sinks slowly in. At obtained a promise from her husband on her last only her head remains visible. "Kuku" cry death-bed that he would marry again whenever the dolls again: she disappears from sight, and any maiden was found whom her ring would fit. the floor closes above her. Irritated at the delay, Some years later her own daughter finds the ring her suitor breaks open the door. He looks round and tries it on. It fits exactly, so she is con- on every side. No Katerina is there, only in each demned to the marriage in question. By the ad- corner sits a doll, all four singing “ Kuku! open vice of her confessor, she asks for three dresses, earth, disappear sister!” He snatches up an so wonderful that no mortal man can supply axe, chops off their heads, and flings them into them. But her suitor is assisted by the devil, the fire. In a Little-Russian variant of the same who enables him to produce the desired robes, story, the despairing maiden flies for solace to her the first sky-colored, representing the sun, the mother's grave. And her dead mother "comes moon, and the stars; the second sea-colored, de- out from her grave,” and tells her daughter what picting “all the plants and animals of the sea"; to do. The girl accordingly provides herself and the third “a raiment of the color of the earth, with the usual splendid robes, and with the likewhereon all the beasts and the flowers of the field wise necessary pig's hide or fell. Then she takes were to be seen." Hidden in her catskin cloak, three puppets and arranges them around her on

the ground. The puppets exclaim, one after * Gonzenbach, No. 38. Pilusa is the Sicilian form another, “Open, moist earth, that the maiden fair of pilosa, hairy.

may enter within thee." And when the third

In or

has spoken, the earth opens, and the maiden and In almost all the tales belonging to the second the puppets descend into "the lower world.” or “hated marriage " branch of the Cinderella Some vague remembrance of this descent of the story, the heroine accepts a very humble post in heroine into the lower regions appears to have the palace of the prince whom she eventually given rise to the strange opening of one of the weds. Just as her counterpart, the goldenSicilian variants cited by Pitré (No. 42). The locked prince of so many tales, becomes a sculheroine goes down into a well in order to find her lion at court, so she acts in the capacity of elder sister's ring. At the bottom she perceives scullery-maid or other despised domestic. But an opening, and passes through it into a garden, from time to time she quits the scullery and where she is seen by " the Prince of Portugal,” to appears in all the splendor of her mysterious whom, after the usual adventures, she is wedded. dresses among the noble guests assembled in

As a general rule the heroine makes her es- the princely banqueting or ballroom. cape disguised in a coarse mantle or dress made der to show the close connection between the of the skin of some animal. In another of the stories of Goldenlocks and Rashie-Coat, a few Sicilian variants (Pitré, No. 43) it is a horse's hide specimens of their popular histories may be given. in which she is wrapped, and the people who In the already quoted Russian story (Afanasief, meet her when she leaves home are surprised to vi., 28) of the princess who is advised by her see what they take to be a horse walking along dead mother to deceive her detested suitor by on its hind-legs. But sometimes this disguise disguising herself in a swine's bristly hide, her assumes a different aspect, being represented as subsequent fortunes are narrated as follows: Afsomething made of a less pliant material, a dis- ter she had fled from home she made her way on guise akin to the “wooden cloak, all made of foot into a foreign land, always wearing her swinstrips of lath," which was “so black and ugly," and ish covering. As she wandered through a forest which “made such a clatter” when the heroine, one day, a terrible storm arose. To shelter herwho was called after it “Katie Woodencloak,” self from the torrents of rain which were falling, went up stairs. The Norse story in which she she climbed a huge oak, and took refuge amid its figures commences with the step-mother open- dense foliage. Presently a prince came that way, ing, and it does not close with a slipper-test, but and his dogs began to bark at the strange anistill it belongs properly to the second division of mal they saw among the leaves. The prince the Cinderella group. In some of the other vari- gazed with surprise at the singular being thus ants this wooden cloak becomes intensified into revealed to him, evidently “no wild beast, but a an utterly rigid covering or receptacle of wood. wondrous wonder, a marvelous marvel.” “What

Thus in the Sicilian tale of “ Fidi e Cridi” (Pitré, sort of oddity are you?” said he ; "can you i., 388), the two daughters of the Emperor of speak or not ?" “I am Swine's Hide,” said Austria, one of whom, Fidi, has been destined she. Then he took her down from the tree, and by a fatal ring to a hated marriage, make their set her up on a cart. “Take this wondrous escape from home in a coffer of gilded wood. wonder, this marvelous marvel, to my father and They have previously stored it with provisions to my mother," said he. And when the king and made arrangements for its being thrown into and queen saw her they were greatly astonished, the sea. The waves waft them to Portugal, and gave her a room to herself to live in. Some where Fidi becomes the wife of the king. Her time afterward there was a ball at the palace. wedded happiness is for a time interrupted by Swine's Hide asked the servants if she might the arrival of the Emperor of Austria, who inflicts stand at the ballroom-door and look on. Get upon his fugitive daughter a parental curse so along with you, Swine's Hide !" said they. Out powerful that it turns her into a lizard for a year, a she went a-field, donned her brilliant dress with month, and a day. But eventually all goes well. the many stars of heaven upon it, whistled till a As early as 1550, Straparola printed in his “Tre- chariot came, and drove off in it to the ball. All dici Piacevoli Notti" (i., 4) a romantic version who were there wondered whence this beauteof this story, telling how Doralice, the daughter ous visitor had come. “She danced and danced of Tebaldo, Prince of Salerno, in order to elude —then disappeared.” Putting on again her swinher unnatural parent, hid herself in a large coffer ish covering, she went back to her own room. of beautiful workmanship. This coffer Tebaldo, Again a ball took place. Again did Swine's Hide under the influence of depression produced by appear in radiant beauty, dressed in a dazzling his daughter's disappearance, sold to a merchant, robe, on the back of which shone the bright from whose hands it passed into those of Genese, moon, on the front the red sun." Great was the King of Britain. Doralice used sometimes to sorrow of the prince when she suddenly left the issue from her wooden covering, and one day the dance and disappeared. " Whatever are we to king saw her, fell in love with her at once, and do," thought he,“ to find out who this beauty made her his queen.

is ?" He thought and thought. “At last he

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went and smeared the first step of the staircase at intervals in his true form, returns to his place with pitch, that her shoe might stick in it.” And of concealment with an equal want of apparent so, as she fled from the ball on the third occa- reason, and is at last fortuitously recognized. sion, she left her shoe behind her. Vainly did The well-known German tale of “The Iron all the fair maidens in the kingdom attempt to Man”* gives a very interesting version of the get it on. At last the unsightly Swine's Hide story, as also does the Norse tale of “The Widwas told to try her chance. And when the Prince ow's Son.” As these are accessible to every saw that it fitted her exactly, “ he ripped up the English reader, it may be as well to quote here swinish hide, and tore it off the princess. Then one of the less generally available variants of this he took her by her white hand, led her to his fa- widely-spread narrative. The Russian tale of ther and mother, and sought and gained their Neznaiko," in Afanasief's collection (vii., No. permission to marry her.”

10), relates how the young Ivan was persecuted In this story, as in the Norse tale of “Katie by his step-mother, who tried several methods of Woodencloak," the recognition is due to a Cinder- killing him, but was always foiled by the wise ella's slipper. But more often the discovery is advice given to him by a mysterious colt to which made in a different way. Thus in a modern he was tenderly attached. At length she perGreek version the despised goose-girl, who was suaded her husband to promise that the colt nicknamed “ Hairy" on account of the nature of should be killed. Hearing of this, Ivan ran to the hide in which she was always wrapped, the stable, mounted the colt in haste, and fled though she lost a shoe in Aying the third time with it from his father's house. After a time from a ball at the palace, was not discovered by they came to a place where cattle were grazing. means of it. But when the maids were about to There the colt left Ivan, promising to return take a basin of water to the king before dinner one when summoned by the burning of one of the day, she obtained leave to carry it. Before she hairs from its tail, which it left with him for that entered the king's chamber, “she slit the hide a purpose. But before parting with its master it little at the knee, in order that her golden dress told him to kill one of the oxen, flay it, and don might become visible.” And so it came to pass its hide ; also to conceal his fair locks under a that “when she knelt down, the golden robe covering of bladder, and never to make any other gleamed through the slit," and the recognition reply to whatsoever questions might be asked was soon accomplished. Another method of him than “ I don't know.” Ivan did as he was recognition is employed in the class of variants told, and presently, to the surprise of all who to which the Sicilian “Betta Pilusa " belongs. met him, there was seen walking along “ever When “ Hairy Betty" for the third time won the such a wonder; a beast not a beast, a man not a king's heart, at a ball in which she appeared in man, hide-bound, head bladder-covered,” anthe dress on which all the beasts and the flowers swering all questions with an “I don't know.” of the earth were to be seen, he presented her “Well, then," said they, “as you can only say with a costly ring. One morning she came into Ne Znayu, let your name be “Neznaiko,' or the kitchen while the cook was making the bread “Don't know.'" Even the king, to whom he was for the royal table, and she obtained leave to brought as an acceptable monster, could get nomake a loaf herself. Into it she slipped the ring. thing but his usual answer. So orders were givWhen the bread was drawn out of the oven, only en that he should be stationed in the garden, to her loaf proved eatable, so it was served up to the act as a scarecrow in order to keep the birds king himself, who, on cutting it, discovered the away from the fruit, but he was to get his meals ring. The cook was examined, and “Hairy Bet- in the royal kitchen. Now it happened about ty” was produced in her catskin dress. This this time that an Arab prince proposed for the she Aung aside, and appeared “young and love- hand of the king's daughter, and when his suit ly, as she really was, and in her beautiful gleam- was rejected, raised an immense army and ining robe.” The recognition by means of a ring vaded the king's realm. Ruin stared that monis, as every one knows, one of the commonest arch in the face. But Neznaiko doffed his bladcontrivances for bringing a story of adventure to der cap, flung off his ox-hide, went out into the a close.

open field, and burned one of the magic horseNow with this tale of a radiant princess who hairs. Immediately there appeared by his side a adopts a degrading disguise, appears at times in wondrous steed. On to its back vaulted Neznaher natural glory, but conceals it again without iko, and rode against the infidel foe. To tear any apparent reason, till her own caprice, or an from a slain enemy his golden armor, and to don accident which she had not foreseen, leads to her it himself, was the work of a moment. Then final recognition, let us compare one of the nu- he dashed, irresistible, among the Arab ranks. merous stories about a radiant prince who disguises himself in a like manner, reveals himself *“Der Eisenhans," Grimm, No. 136.

“Whichever way he turned, there heads flew gold, but an account and explanation of the gildbefore him. It was exactly like mowing hay.” ing process are given. Into this, however, it is at With rapture did the king and his fair daughter present unnecessary to enter. It is sufficient for view his exploits from the walls of the belea- our purposes to show how closely the story of guered city. But when they came down to greet the radiant hero—who is persecuted by a stepthe victor, there was no such hero to be found. mother and aided by a supernatural horse, and In quite unheroic garb Ivan had returned to his whose brightness is temporarily concealed under task of scaring the crows from the palace-gar- a covering of skin or hide, but who finally emerges den. A second time did the Arab prince renew from it to remain permanently resplendent-corhis suit and his invasion, and again did Ivan, as responds with the story of the radiant heroine a warrior in golden armor, slaughter his troops who is ill used by a step-mother and assisted by and put him to flight. On this occasion he was a supernatural cow, and whose radiance is likeslightly wounded in the arm, and was also wise concealed, but only for a time, under some brought before the king. But he would not sort of unseemly exterior, frequently formed out stay at the palace: he must needs ride away for of some beast's hard or furry skin. The tales of a time into the open field. Before he rode off, “Goldenlocks” and of “ Cinderella-Catskin ” however, the king's daughter took a scarf from are evidently twin forms of the same narrative, her fair neck and with it bound up his wounded brother and sister developments of the same hisarm.

torical or mythological germ. In one instance Soon after this a great feast was given at the the two forms have been combined into one narpalace. As the guests'strolled through the gar- rative, ending with a double recognition. The den they saw Ivan, and wondered at his strange Lithuanian story of “ The King's Fair Daughaspect. “What sort of monster is this?” they ter" (Schleicher, No. 7) tells how a princess was asked. “That is Neznaiko,” replied the king; urged to accept a hateful suitor after the death “acts for me in place of a scarecrow; keeps the of her mother, who had been a remarkable beaubirds away from the apple-trees.” But his daugh- ty, having “ around her head the stars, on its ter saw that Neznaiko's arm was bound up, and front the sun, and on its back the moon.” An recognized the scarf she had given to the heroic old woman's friendly counsels enabled her to winner of the fight. “She blushed, but said no- obtain " a silver robe, a diamond ring, and gold thing at the time.” Only thenceforth “ she took shoes,” as well as a disguising cloak lined with to walking in the garden and gazing at Neznai- skins of an unattractive kind. With these she ko, and she quite forgot even so much as to think fled from court. After a time she came to a about feasts and other amusements.” At length piece of water, and was obliged to go on board a she asked her father to let her marry his scare- vessel. The sziporius or skipper wanted her to crow. Naturally surprised, he expostulated. But marry him, and, when she would not consent, he when she cried, “ If you don't make him my hus- threw her overboard. But “she jumped ashore,” band, I'll never marry any one ; I'll live and die and pursued her journey. Coming one day to a an old maid,” he reluctantly gave his consent. place where stood great stones, she prayed that The marriage had just taken place when the a dwelling might be opened for her. And her Arab prince for the third time demanded the prayer was at once granted. In her dwelling hand of the princess. “My daughter is mar- within the rock, which always opened to let her ried,” replied the king. “ If you like, come and in or out, she left her fine raiment, and went see for yourself.” The Arab came, saw that the forth to live in a grand house, performing the fair princess was married to “ever such a mon- duties of a pelendruse or cinder-wench. In that ster,” and challenged him to mortal combat. house she found her brother, who had also fled Then Ivan flung off his bladder cap and his garb from home, and was acting as a clerk. But he of hide, mounted his good steed, and rode away did not recognize in the grimy servant-maid his to the fight, manifesting himself to all eyes under princely sister. From time to time she used to his heroic aspect. The Arab suitor was soon go to her stone dwelling, don her fair raiment, knocked on the head. And when Ivan rode back and drive to church in a carriage which always triumphant, the king perceived that his son-in- appeared for the purpose, her beautiful visage law was “no monster, but a hero strong and and costume making a great impression on the fair."

mind of the astonished clerk. One day she left In this variant of the story, nothing definite the church rather later than usual, so she had is said as to the golden nature of the hero's hair. not time enough to change her dress, and merely But in many others, as in the German and Norse “put her every-day clothes over those fine ones.” tales already referred to, as well as in numerous That day she was summoned by the clerk to variants found in many lands, not only is great “dress his hair." And while she dressed his stress laid upon the fact that his locks are of hair, his head resting on her knees,“ he took to

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