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spent the next five years of his life partly in United States to England. Here he was reFrance and partly in Switzerland, dependent to ceived with open arms by his former friends, a certain extent on the good will and pleasure of Alexander Herzen, Ogareff, and the little Rusthe police, owing to his being without papers. sian colony of political refugees established in In 1847, however, he was formally expelled from London. French territory at the request of the Emperor Herzen was at that time engaged in editing a Nicholas, in consequence of his having made a Russian newspaper, called the “ Kolokol" (the speech at a banquet on the anniversary of the Bell), directed against the despotism of the GovWarsaw insurrection, urging the overthrow of ernment. The illegitimate son of a Prince Jathe Czar's Government, and the establishment kowleff, and possessing a large fortune, he was of a confederate republic in its place. Tracked at all times much more moderate in his political everywhere and constantly watched by the police views than Bakunin, whose twelve years of prison agents of the Russian Government, which had had only had the effect of developing more thoroffered a reward of ten thousand rubles for his oughly his doctrine of universal chaos. Herzen, capture, he was forced to wander about from although what we should call an ultra-radical, one place to another, until the Revolution of 1848 was never at any time of his life an adherent to rendered his return to Paris possible. But he Nihilism. Notwithstanding the fact that his was greatly disappointed when the Provisional paper was strictly forbidden in Russia, it was Government turned a deaf ear to his tempting extensively read and appreciated throughout the proposals that France should take the lead in empire until the time of Bakunin's arrival in revolutionizing all Europe; and he soon received London. The coöperation of the latter in the significant hints which caused him to leave France editorship had a most injurious effect upon it. again toward the end of the year.
The comparatively moderate views which it had Proceeding to Prague he made an abortive until then professed were discarded, and Nihilism attempt to incite the youth of that city to revolt and universal anarchy preached in every number. against the Government. Pursued by the Aus- In consequence it speedily lost the consideration trian police, he escaped to Dresden, where he and influence which it had enjoyed. After takarrived just in time to take a very prominent part ing a prominent part in the organization of the in the serious disturbances of 1849. The insur- Polish insurrection of 1863, Herzen and Bakunin gents were in possession of the city, and only transferred their quarters to Geneva, where the surrendered after a three days' siege to the Prus- “Kolokol" shortly afterward died a natural death. sian and Saxon regular troops. Bakunin, whose Soon after their arrival in Switzerland, Bakunin proposal to set fire to the city when its defense separated from his friend Herzen (who died in was no longer possible had exasperated even 1870, leaving behind him several works of much the insurgents against him, was captured on the interest, which are being published by his son), 10th of May, 1849, at a short distance from Chem- and lost no time in actively interesting himself in nitz. After a year's imprisonment he was con- the various European revolutionary organizations. demned to death by the Saxon court-martial. In 1867 we find him not only a prominent memHowever, before the sentence could be carried ber of the “Internationale,” but also on the perinto effect, the Austrian Government demanded, manent committee of the “ League of Universal and obtained, his extradition. Sentenced to death Peace" in Switzerland. The attempts which he a second time by the Austrian judges for his do- made to convert these two organizations to his ings at Prague, he again escaped the penalty, in views met with but little success, and in 1868 he consequence of a request made by the Emperor was formally expelled from both associations. Nicholas that he should be transferred to the Thereupon he founded the “Alliance InternaRussian Government for punishment. From tionale de la Révolution européenne,” in connec1851 to 1856 he remained a close prisoner in the tion with the Nihilist party in Russia, of which dungeons of the St. Peter and St. Paul fortress he now became the acknowledged chief. A year at St. Petersburg.
later we find him in personal communication with Owing to powerful intercession made in his the notorious Netchaieff, whom he ended by sendbehalf, Alexander, on the occasion of his corona- ing back to Russia accredited as the emissary of tion, commuted his punishment to banishment the chief committee of the Nihilists. for life to the eastern part of Siberia. Being In 1870, after the fall of the empire in France, nearly related to Count Mouravieff, the Governor- he published a pamphlet entitled “L’Empire General of the province, he was treated with com- Knouto-Germanique et la Révolution sociale," in parative leniency, and even allowed a certain which he summons the proletarian classes of all amount of liberty on parole. In 1861 he man- Europe to assist France in bringing about a soaged to escape in an American trading schoonercial revolution, and to free her from the governto Yokohama, whence he traveled through the ment which German bayonets had imposed on her. It also advocates the dismissal of all offi- important revelations which he was good enough cials, the imprisonment of all landed proprietors, to make, his sentence was commuted to penal capitalists, and priests, the distribution of govern- servitude for life in the mines of Siberia. ment and private property, and concludes by According to a preconcerted arrangement, the recommending that all Bonapartists should be one hundred and eighty-three persons implicated transported for life. After the publication of this by his confessions were all seized on the same piece of literature, he betook himself to Lyons, day, the 20th of May, 1875. They consisted hearing that the Commune had been proclaimed chiefly of the sons and daughters of priests, in that city. He arrived there on the morning tradespeople, Jews, and small officials, and were of the 20th of September, and, after having been accused of having sought to propagate Nihilism most warmly received by Cluseret, Richard, and among the lower classes of the people. Some other Communists, assisted at the storming of very curious facts came to light during the trial. the Hôtel de Ville by the insurgents.
One of the accused, a girl named Idalia Polheim, Twenty-four hours later the National Guards acknowledged that she had received orders from had recaptured the Hôtel de Ville and dispersed the central committee to become the paramour the provisional government established there. of a wealthy old landed proprietor, and then to Bakunin himself was conducted to the railway- poison and rob him of his riches in favor of the station and seated in a train which brought him cause. On another occasion the same girl had back direct to Geneva. The remaining years of been instructed by the committee to become the his life were spent between Berne, Zurich, and mistress of a certain Larinoff, who had threatened Geneva, and actively employed in directing the to desert the revolutionary party. A student of revolutionary work in Russia. He died a few the name of Ituschin also confessed that a boy months ago at Geneva, and has been succeeded, at Moscow had been persuaded to murder and as leader of the Nihilist party, by a M. Drogo- rob his own father, and to hand over the plunder monow, who resides in the same city.
to the committee. Some astonishment has been Netchaieff, whom we have referred to in con- expressed at the large number of young girls nection with Bakunin, was a déclassé student of implicated in all these Nihilist conspiricies, who the St. Petersburg University. In 1869 he came seek to emulate the conduct of M. Tschernyto Geneva, saw Bakunin, and obtained from him schewsky's Vera. We would, however, remark a card bearing the following mystic words: “Al- that in Russia, as elsewhere, women are apt to liance révolutionnaire européene; le Comité Gé- rush to extremes in politics as well as in religion ; néral, 12 mai, 1869.” Armed with this document, with them the heart is stronger than the head. he returned to St. Petersburg and spent the next It is greatly to be regretted that this monster four years in comparative ease, living at the ex- trial, which lasted over eighteen months, should pense of others. Russians still retain much of have taken place with open doors, for the conthe Asiatic weakness for conspiracies, and Ne- duct of the judges who presided was so weak, tchaïeff had only to show the card in order to be and even unseemly, that the dignity of the Court received with the utmost enthusiasm by students must have suffered in the eyes of the auditors. and the discontented youth of both sexes, who The most extraordinary scenes were of daily regarded him almost in the light of a supernatu- occurrence. The accused were not only allowed ral being, and were ready to obey his slightest to address the Court, but even to preach the behest.
most rampant Nihilism from the prisoners' dock. He greatly impressed them by frequently The lawyers for the defense not only seized every talking about his secret chief,” and succeeded opportunity to vituperate the Government, and to in swindling many people out of large sums of hold up the accused as martyrs to its despotism, money, which he demanded in the name of the but also to excite the popular feeling against the revolutionary committee. Whenever there was gendarmerie and police, who, after all, had only the slightest hesitation about complying with any obeyed orders in arresting the prisoners. On one of his demands, he dropped hints about the dead- occasion some of the counsel were even allowed ly vengeance of the committee. In 1873 a young to go so far as to insist on the withdrawal of an man of the name of Ivanoff, having declined to officer of the gendarmerie from the court, on the submit any longer to his extortions, and threat- ground that “the sight of his hated uniform exened to betray him to the police, Netchaseff cited the public." The proceedings were not stabbed him in the back, wounding him mortally. terminated until the month of December, 1877, Although he managed to escape to Zurich, the when ninety-nine of the accused were sentenced Swiss Government made no difficulty about sur- to penal servitude in Siberia, thirty-six subjected rendering him to the Russian authorities as a to police supervision for a certain number of common murderer, and in 1874 he was tried with years, and the remainder acquitted. closed doors at Moscow. In consideration of the The great trial was scarcely over, when the Government was dismayed by the attempted as- murder the Czar with which the world is even sassination of General Trepoff, the chief of that now ringing. Of late, however, the Nihilists Third Section of the Imperial Chancellerie which appear to have changed their tactics to some exhas the control of the gendarmerie of the em- tent, and to have adopted the famous prescrippire. On the 5th of February, 1878, he was shot tion of Hippocrates, according to which, when down in the streets of St. Petersburg by a young medicines and the knife are powerless to heal, woman, formerly a medical student, and named fire should be tried (“ Quod medicamina et ferVera Sassoulitch. In consequence of her ac- rum non sanant, ignis sanat "). Arson has bequaintance with Netchaieff she had been sub- come the order of the day, and conflagrations jected to a constant supervision by the police, have increased to an enormous extent. During and goaded almost to desperation by their perse- the month of last June alone thirty-five hundred cutions. The “Committee " had, therefore, but fires broke out in St. Petersburg, Orenburg, little difficulty in persuading her to avenge a Koslow, Irkutsk, and Uralsk, destroying propflogging which Bogobjuloff, a Nihilist, had been erty to the amount of twelve million rubles; only subjected to for some infraction of prison disci- nine hundred of these fires could be properly pline. It should be added that Bogobjuloff was accounted for, the remaining twenty-six huna perfect stranger to her, and that she had never dred being attributed to Nihilistic incendiaries. even seen him. The Government was advised There is no doubt but that the Committee has not to treat her as a political offender, but rather considerable funds at its disposal. Agencies are as an ordinary criminal, and to have her case maintained at Berlin, Paris, and London, where decided by a jury. Her trial, which took place traveling Nihilists are fraternally received and at St. Petersburg, caused an immense sensation provided with money and the necessaries of life. throughout Russia. Here again the presiding However, when their resources are too heavily judges behaved in a most unaccountable man- taxed, they have no hesitation about levying ner, and allowed the proceedings to be carried on black-mail. Thus, for instance, during the past as if General Trepoff were the accused and Vera summer, two wealthy St. Petersburg merchants Sassoulitch the injured party. The consequence received anonymous letters from the Commitwas, that the jury brought in a verdict acquitting tee requesting sums of twenty thousand and the prisoner of a crime to which she herself had thirty thousand rubles respectively, and threatenpleaded guilty, and the judges directed that she ing them with a violent death in case of refusal. should be set at liberty. The verdict was re- The merchants in question lost no time in comceived with the most frantic applause, not only plying with the demands made upon their purses, by the persons present in the court, but also by and, when blamed for not having sought the proa large crowd of students and others who filled tection of the Government, replied with some the street. One young student present appears justice, "If the chief of the police is unable to to have completely lost his head on receiving the protect his own person from attacks, how can news. Drawing a revolver from his pocket, he we possibly expect efficient protection ?" suddenly fired a first shot at a policeman, with a The attempt on the Emperor's life in April second he seriously wounded a poor woman who last caused such consternation that the Governwas standing next to him, while with a third he ment thought it necessary to proclaim martial blew his own brains out. Vera Sassoulitch man- law in the greater part of European Russia. aged to escape from the supervision of the police Six military Governor-Generals have been apofficials of the Third Section, and is at the pres- pointed with the fullest powers to suspend, when ent moment living near Geneva.
they think it expedient, any of the ordinary poThe baneful effects of her trial soon became lice and judicial proceedings. Nihilists are now perceptible-political assassinations grew to be tried by courts-martial, which are conducted in quite the fashion. On the 17th of August of the a more dignified and expeditious manner than same year General Menzentsoff, who had suc- the civil tribunals. ceeded General Trepoff as chief of the Third While referring to the latter, we would avail Section, was shot in the streets of St. Petersburg ourselves of the opportunity to offer a word of by a young man who managed to effect his es- explanation concerning the astonishing conduct cape. Baron Heyking, commanding the gen- of the judges, to which we have before referred. darmerie at Kiev, and Prince Krapotkin, the When trial by jury and the West-European Governor of Kharkov, were also murdered in the mode of judicial proceedings were first adopted course of the summer. General Drenteln, who in Russia in the year 1865, great fear was exhad undertaken the direction of the Third Sec- pressed as to the difficulty which there would be tion after the assassination of General Menzent- in obtaining judges sufficiently independent of soff, was shot in the early part of 1879, and mat- any influence on the part of the Government and ters have culminated in the recent attempt to the aristocracy to administer justice equitably. The new judges, who were not chosen from the place who represents the Third Section. It is highest social grades, accordingly imagined that deeply to be regretted that, when the Czar deterit was their duty to give both to the Government mined to institute these municipal district and and to the aristocracy every proof of their inde provincial assemblies, he did not go one step furpendence, and, in fact, rather overdid the matter. ther and institute a national assemby; a House Whenever the lower classes came into conflict of Representatives chosen by the nation is the with either the aristocracy or the Government, only possible remedy in the present state of the judges invariably decided in favor of the things. By his somewhat too hasty reforms in former, no matter how unjustly. Little by little the early part of his reign, the Emperor gave his they grew accustomed to look upon themselves people a taste of liberty, and allowed them to as the representatives of the people, and as their acquire a taste for self-government, until then protectors against the oppressions of the Govern- unknown in Russia. They now demand that ment. It is, indeed, difficult to understand how this concession should be more fully developed. the Russian Government can ever have hoped There are at the present moment many loyal and that men of real talent and conscience would devoted subjects of the Czar, who would be horconsent to take any part in so half-hearted a rified at the bare idea of becoming Nihilists concern as the new judicial system in Russia. themselves, and who yet regard the proceedings On the one hand we have the open courts of of these destructives with a certain degree of justice with their juries and freedom of discus- complacency, hoping that it will force the Govsion, while on the other we find the notorious ernment to concede that which even the Mikado Third Section of the Imperial Chancellerie with of Japan has granted to his people—namely, a its army of gendarmes, and with its power with- Constitution. A Parliament controlling the naout trial to imprison, and to punish with penaltional expenditure, protecting individual liberty, servitude or exile to Siberia, at its pleasure. The and demanding of the Third Section an account newly instituted judicial system is comparatively of its actions, would not only have the effect of useless, since, even when the judge and jury acquit restoring the financial credit of Russia, but would, an offender, he is liable to be immediately seized by admittir.g the people to a share of the sovand punished by the Section for state reasons. ereignty, rally to the side of the Government
With the exception of the emancipation of many excellent and liberal-minded men who are the serfs, almost all of the well-intentioned re- increasingly dissatisfied with the present state of forms of Alexander II. have been nullified by the affairs. action of this Third Section, the chief of which Nihilism deprived of the larger portion of its has often been nicknamed the “ Vice-Emperor.” raison d'être--namely, stifled discontent-would For instance, the municipal district and provin- quickly lose the most capable of its adherents, cial assemblies are powerless to adopt any mea- and would probably prove as fleeting and unsure until they have obtained not only the ap- stable as are most of the impulses and ideas of proval of the Minister of the Interior and of the the Russian mind. Governor of the province, but also the consent FRITZ CUNLIFFE-OWEN (The Nineteenth of the commandant of the gendarmerie of the Century).
POEMS BY FRANÇOIS COPPÉE.
[Now that De Musset, Gautier, Baudelaire, and selves heard above the confused murmur of the others of the choir of French poets are gone, and general choir. Victor Hugo, the Nestor and primate among them A high, if not the highest, rank among this all, is drawing near the end of his long career, the younger generation of French poets must be asquestion naturally presents itself, Who are to take signed to M. François Coppée, the quality and charthe places which they have left vacant in French acter of whose song will be at least indicated by the literature ? To the worshipers of M. Hugo, the selected poems which these sentences are intended suggestion that any one can fill the “portentous to introduce. M. Coppée (christened Françoisvoid " which his death must create will savor of ir- Edouard-Joachim) was born at Paris in the year reverence; but even to these worshipers at an exclu- 1842, his father being an employee in the office of the sive shrine, however, the idea that the lesser gods Minister of War. He commenced at the Lycée may be replaced will not seem irrational; and one Saint-Louis studies which his feeble health did not turns with interest and hope to those newly-arisen allow him to finish there, but which he completed singers whose notes are beginning to make them- later by the aid of those lyceum lectures which Matthew Arnold regards as so valuable a part of the Grand Bailiff, and hereditary Margrave French machinery of education. At a very early Of Schlotemsdorff, by water and by land period of his life he devoted himself to the vocation Lord, chief and oldest among Saxon knights, of poetry; but his first efforts were so unsuccessful And of a proud, despotic race the last, that in a moment of discouragement he threw the Having—despite the rain-storm and his age, whole of them into the fire, and it was not until the For he was ninety-four-been forth to see first volume of his poems appeared, in 1866, that his Three peasants hanged, at the hour of Angelus, choice of a career was vindicated to himself and to After his supper, calmly, with the host the public at large. Some of the poems in this vol- Laid to his lip and his lean hands outspread ume (which was entitled “Le Reliquaire ") were afterward published in “ Le Parnasse Contemporain," Upon the crucifix, gave up the ghost, and their author was very cordially praised for the At his stronghold of Ruhn upon the Elbe. freshness of the inspiration which they exhibited, for Seeing the black flag, the whole country their spirit, vivacity, and good taste, and for “the breathed; delicate and engaging character of that note of truth For civil war raged. Drunken Wenceslas and sincerity which is perceptible in them.” M. Bartered his towns for gold. The rulers ruled, Coppée now began to contribute freely to various Each as he listed. Law and rights were none. periodicals, and in 1867 his “ Hymn to Peace” was Grasping and cruel ever had he been, sent to the Lyceum and obtained the prize. His The wellnigh centenarian lying there works and his name, however, still remained known All pale, his outlined form beneath the sheet to only a small literary coterie, when one of his Drawn to its full length. He had reimposed poems,
“The Benediction,” published in “ L'Ar. All the old imposts on the vintage, tax; tiste," obtained an immense success. It was publicly Tax on the harvest; tax on mills, fish, game; recited with great applause by Anatole Lionnet, and Poll-tax on pilgrims even. Halberdiers, also by Mlle. Agar, of the Odéon. For this latter Demons of violence, with blows enforced artist he wrote a comedy in one act and in verse
Reluctant du Death was the penalty (" Le Passant ") which was played at the second
Paid for refusal. Various in its form Théâtre Français, on January 14, 1869. The press unanimously praised it for its freshness, elegance, pas. Was the grim Margrave's vengeance. Clad, sion, wit, and those other qualities which the French
gloved, visored, are so quick to admire in compositions of this kind. In iron all, he came upon the spot In this same year, 1869, he published another collec- Girt with his pikemen, waved his hand, and tion of verse, entitled “ Modern Poems," which con- straight tained his masterpiece, “ The Angelus” (a poem of The barren gibbets budded. Vassals died a thousand lines), and other shorter pieces; and in By steel, or cord, or rod. Youth donned perMarch he was awarded the Lambert Prize by the force French Academy. His most recent volume, “Récits His archers' harness; for the old and weak et Elégies," was published in 1878. One of these There was naught left, save in their leprous rags later poems, “ The Night-Watch,” narrates an inci. Wearily, after vespers, to besiege dent of the Franco-German war, and is nearly as
The convent-doors and clamor for a crust remarkable as “The Benediction” for dramatic situ- Of hard black bread. Along the broad highation and intensity of feeling. These qualities, it will be observed, are found in an eminent degree in
way each of the poems that we have selected ; and it Beggars in troops laid bare their hideous sores. will also be observed that M. Coppée disdains to
Burying their coin in the earth, the citizens woo that meretricious muse which has inspired so Thought, at the outset, to protest. They chose much of the contemporary verse of his countrymen. One of their number, gray-haired and discreet,
The spirited translations of these poems are re- Sending him secretly to Trèves, to plead produced from a little volume entitled “Gottlob et Their cause with the Archbishop and set forth Cetera," by William Young, whose connection with Their grievances; but Gottlob, having wind the “New York Albion,” though it terminated long Of their intention, in advance dispatched since, has rendered his name familiar to a numerous To the Elector-Primate two fine mules circle of readers in this country.]
With golden pyxes and with velvet copes
Heavily charged. The saint-like Patriarch,
Zealous in serving God, received the gifts,
And hanged the townsmen's delegate. No more
Was said about the matter.
Now was woe
Satan's accomplice. One and all despaired,