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“ Absolutely sincere."
him, I will do everything to please you, although “He does not please me much."
I have always returned the friendship he has “Did he say anything to offend you?" ex- borne for me." claimed Horace, who was afraid his uncle might “Yes, send him back to his family, who must have been disagreeable while his mind was wan- object to our having him. May he return soon, dering with Manetho and the King Apepi. to tell his stories to them!”
“He is a man of talent," answered she, “but “But allow me I am his family; he is unI like some soul, and I suspect he has none." married, or rather he has been a widower for
As she spoke these words she fastened her thirty years, and has neither son nor daughter. great brown eyes on the face of the young man; But what do I care for his property?" he saw a soul in their depths; he might perhaps At these words Madame Corneuil came out have seen two.
of her rapture, and pricked up her ears like a dog “ You must be frank in your turn," resumed who scents unexpected game. she. “You do not know how to tell a lie, and “His property! You his heir! You never for that I love you a little. You told me that you told me so." were going to write to Madame de Penneville. “And why should I have told you? What is The Marquis is her answer."
money to us? This is my treasure,” added he, “I must say it is so," said he, “but, if the in trying to get a second kiss, which she wisely whole universe should put itself between you and refused, for one must not be too lavish. me, it would have its trouble for nothing. You “Yes, how base a trifle the whole subject of know that I love and that I adore you." money is !” said she. “Is the Marquis very rich?"
“Your heart, then, is indeed mine, wholly “My mother says that he has two hundred mine?" asked she, with a most bewitching thousand livres' income. He may do what he glance.
chooses with it. Since he does not please you, I “For ever, for ever yours," answered he, with will tell him plainly that I renounce my place as voice half choked.
his heir." They drew near an arbor, the entrance to “It must all be done with propriety," answered which was narrow. Madame Corneuil went in Madame Corneuil with considerable animation. first, and when Horace joined her she stood mo- “You are fond of him. It would make me tionless before him, gazing at him with a melan- wretched to set you against a relation whom you choly smile. Until that moment she kept him at love." a distance, without allowing him to make any “I would give up all for you," exclaimed he; advances, but now by a sudden impulse she “the rest seems so small." lifted up lips and forehead to him, as if to claim He remained a little longer at her feet; but a kiss. He understood, and yet hardly dared hope to his great grief she made him rise, saying: that he had rightly understood. He hesitated, “Monsieur de Miraval must remark our long but at last touched her lips with his. He felt ill. absence from him. We must be polite." Only once before had he felt the same wild emo- Two minutes after she entered the pavilion, tion. It was one day near Thebes, when making whither Horace followed her, and greeted the an excavation, he saw with his eyes—his own eyes Marquis with a tinge of affability which she had -at the bottom of the trench, a great sarcopha- not shown before; but, although she had changed gus of rose-granite. That day, too, he grew faint. her expression and manner, the spell was not
Madame Corneuil sat down; he fell at her broken, and its effect was even more perceptible. feet, and, with elbows upon the beloved knees, Monsieur de Miraval, after having recovered all he devoured her glances for a while. There was his wits in conversing with Madame Véretz, and only the width of a path between the arbor and giving her all sorts of confidences, was disturbed the lake; they heard the waves whispering to the anew at the appearance of his beautiful enemy. beach. She stammered a few words of love; He replied to all her advances in incoherent she spoke of that joy and mystery which no hu- phrases, and sentences without head or tail, which man tongue can express.
might have fallen from the moon. Soon, as if After a long silence Madame Corneuil said : angry with himself and his undignified weakness,
“Great happiness is always restless and un- he rose hastily, and turning toward Madame Véeasy, everything frightens it-it is scared at eve- retz with a profound bow, took his leave of her ; rything. I implore you, get rid of this diplomate. then, advancing toward Madame Corneuil, hc I never liked diplomates. All they can see in looked her full in the eyes, and said to her with the world is prejudice, interest, calculation, and a sort of fierceness in his voice: vanity."
“Madame, I came, I saw, and I have been “ Your wishes are sacred to me," said he to conquered." her, "and, even if I must for ever break with Thereupon he withdrew like one wishing to
get away, and forbade his nephew to accompany “Ten days—that is a century !” said she; him. It can be easily imagined that after his “but keep your word, or I shall break with departure he was freely discussed. All agreed you." that his conduct was peculiar; but Madame Vé- As he drew away she added, “ The next time retz protested that she thought him more charm- you meet Monsieur de Miraval, be distrustful and ing than odd, but Madame Corneuil thought him be shrewd.” more odd than charming. Horace, for his part, “He shrewd !” exclaimed Madame Véretz, tried to explain the eccentricity of his conduct when alone with her daughter; “ you might as by his varying state of health, or by a certain well order him to swim across the lake.” whimsical disposition excusable at his age. He “Is that meant for another epigram?” said acknowledged that he had never seen him so be- Madame Corneuil crossly. fore, but had always known him to be a bon vi “Since I adore him as he is," answered the vant, active, of good memory, witty, and easily mother, “what more can you expect? As for adapting himself to all.
Monsieur de Miraval, you are quite wrong to “ There is some mystery about it that you worry yourself on his account. My opinion is, must take pains to clear up,” said Madame Cor- that he is entirely won over to our side." neuil to him; and as he looked at his watch and “It is not mine," answered Madame Corwas about to withdraw—“By the way, lazy boy," neuil. said she to him, “when are you going to read “At all events, my dear, we must treat him me the famous fourth chapter of your · History with great tact, for I know from the very best of the Hyksos '? You must remember that authority” you were to read it some evening with a midnight “You are going to tell me," interrupted Masupper in its honor. We must have that supper dame Corneuil disdainfully, “ that he has an inin Paris. Will it not be delicious ?”
come of two hundred thousand livres, and that At thought of the little private banquet in Horace is his heir. Such base trifles are like afhonor of Apepi, Horace's heart thrilled with de- fairs of state to you.” light and his eyes beamed.
Soon after she said to her mother, “ Then " I will send you nothing until it is worthy of ask Horace to invite him to breakfast with us at you. Give me ten days more."
an early day.”
(Conclusion next month.)
THE year 1697 A. D. was rendered memo- destined to render that parent's name immortal. T rable, not only by the Peace of Ryswick, Their success was one of the unexpected triwhich saved so great a part of Europe from the umphs which fate has now and then accorded to horrors of war, but also by the earliest appear- literature. As little, in all probability, did the eldance in print of Charles Perrault's “ Cendrillon, er Perrault, grave member of the French Acadou la petite pantoufle de verre." It was in the emy and erudite defender of modern writers fourth part of the fifth volume of the “Recueil against the claim of the ancients to supremacy, de pièces curieuses et nouvelles,” published at dream of the fame which Cinderella and her the Hague by Adrian Moëtgens, that the narra- companions were to bring to him, as did Charles tive of Cinderella's fortunes, in the form under XII., who in the same eventful year succeeded which it has become familiar to the whole cive to the throne of Sweden, foresee the ruinous nailized world, first saw the light. In the same ture of the conflict in which he was doomed to eventful year it was a second time introduced to engage with his young brother monarch Peter the public, figuring as one of the eight histories the Great, just then, on ship-building intent, contained in the “Histoires ou contes du temps making his way toward the peaceful dockyards passé," which professed to be written by the of Holland. “Sieur P. Darmancour”; this “ Sieur" being the author's son, Perrault d’Armancour, a boy then C inderella's story had doubtless been familiar ten years old, who may possibly have acted as an for centuries to the common people of Europe. intermediate relater between the nurse who told, In the opinion of many critics it had, indeed, and the parent who wrote, the tales which were figured for ages among the heirlooms of human
ity. But Perrault's rendering of the tale natu- widow with one plain daughter. And the new ralized it in the polite world, gave it for cultured mistress of the house grievously ill-treated her circles an attraction which it is never likely to step-daughter, forbidding her to wash her face, lose. The supernatural element plays in it but a or brush her hair, or change her dress. And as subordinate part, for, even without the aid of a she became grimy with ashes, pepel, Mara refairy godmother, the neglected heroine might ceived the nickname of Pepelluga, that is, Cinhave been enabled to go to a ball in disguise, and derella, or Ashypet. Her step-mother also set to win the heart of the hero by the beauty of her her tasks which she could never have done, had features and the smallness of her foot. It is with not "the cow, which had once been her mother,” human more than with mythological interest that helped her to perform them. When the stepthe story is replete, and therefore it appeals to mother found this out, she gave her husband no human hearts with a force which no lapse of time rest till he promised to put the cow to death. can diminish. Such supernatural machinery as The girl wept bitterly when she heard the sad is introduced, moreover, has a charm for children news, but the cow consoled her, telling her what which older versions of the tale do not possess. she must do. She must not eat of its flesh, and The pumpkin carriage, the rat coachman, the she must carefully collect and bury its bones lizard lackeys, and all the other properties of under a certain stone, and to this burial-place the transformation scene, appeal at once to the she must afterward come, should she find herself imagination and the sense of humor of every be- in need of help. The cow was killed and eaten, holder. In the more archaic forms of the narra- but Mara said she had no appetite and ate none tive there is no intentional grotesqueness. It is of its flesh. And she buried its bones as she had probably because so many of the incidents in the been directed. Some days afterward, her steplife of “ Cucendron" (as she was generally styled mother went to church with her own daughter, at home, “though the younger of her step-sisters, leaving Mara at home to cook the dinner, and to who was not so uncivil as the elder, called her pick up a quantity of corn which had been pur'Cendrillon'") were so natural, that some my- posely strewed about the house, threatening to thologists have attached such importance to the kill her if she had not performed both tasks by final trial by slipper. “The central interest in the time they came back from church. Mara the popular story of Cinderella,” says Professor was greatly troubled at the sight of the grain, de Gubernatis in his valuable work on “ Zoologi- and fled for help to the cow's grave. There she cal Mythology," is “the legend of the lost slipper, found an open coffer full of fine raiment, and on and of the prince who tries to find the foot pre- the lid sat two white doves, which said, “Mara, destined to wear it.” But, if the tale be sought choose a dress and go in it to church, and we for in lands less cultured than the France which birds will gather up the grain." So she took the produced Perrault's “Cendrillon "and the Count- robes which came first, all of the finest silk, and ess d'Aulnoy's “ Finette Cendron," we shall see went in them to church, where the beauty of her that “the legend of the lost slipper" is no longer face and her dress won all hearts, especially that of “central interest," being merely used to supply of the Emperor's son. Just before the service the means of ultimate recognition so valuable in was over, she glided out of church, ran home, ancient days not only to the story-teller but to and placed her robes in the coffer, which immedithe dramatist. Let us take, by way of example, ately shut and disappeared. When her relatives a Servian version of the story : *
returned, they found the grain collected, the dinAs a number of girls were spinning one day ner cooked, and Ashypet as grimy as usual. Next a-field, sitting in a ring around a cleft in the Sunday just the same happened ; only Mara's ground, there came to them an old man, who robes were this time of silver. On the third Sunsaid : " Maidens, beware! for if one of you were day she went to church in raiment of pure gold to let her spindle fall into this cleft, her mother with slippers to match. And when she left, the would be immediately turned into a cow." There- Emperor's son left too, and hastened after her. upon the girls at once drew nearer to the cleft But all he got for his pains was her right slipper, and inquisitively peeped into it. And the spindle which she dropped in her haste. By means of it of Mara, the fairest of their number, slipped out he at length found her out. In vain did her stepof her hand and fell into the cleft. When she mother, when he walked in with the golden test reached home in the evening, there was her in his hand, hide her under a trough, endeavor to mother turned into a cow, standing in front of force her own daughter's foot into the too small the house and mooing. Thenceforth Mara tend- slipper, and, when this attempt failed, deny that ed and fed that cow with filial affection. But her there was any other girl in the house. For the father married again, taking as his second wife a cock crowed out, “ Kikerike! the maiden is under
the trough!" There the prince in truth found * Vuk Karajich, No. 32.
her, clothed from head to foot in golden attire, but wanting her right slipper. After which all glass shoe was brought by the prince's messenwent well.
ger to the house wherein lived two sisters, “ the In a modern Greek variant of the story (Hahn, auld sister that was sae proud gaed awa' by herNo.2), there is a similar but a still stranger open- sel', and came back in a while hirpling wi' the ing. According to it, an old woman and her shoe on." But, when she rode away in triumph three daughters sat spinning one day. And they as the prince's bride, “a wee bird sung out o' a made an agreement that, if one of them broke her bush: thread or dropped her spindle, she should be con
“Nippit fit and clippit fit ahint the king rides ; killed and eaten by the others. The mother's
But pretty fit and little fit ahint the caldron hides.” spindle was the first to fall, and her two elder daughters killed, cooked, and ate her. But their The blinding of the pretenders, however, is a younger sister did all she could to save her moth- rare incident. But in one of the Russian stories er's life, and, when her attempts proved fruitless, (Afanasief, vi., 30) the step-sisters of Chornushutterly refused to have anything to do with eating ka-so called from her being always dirty and her. And, after the unfilial repast was over, she chorna, or black-lose their eyes exactly as in collected her mother's bones, and buried them in the German tale. the ash-hole. After forty days had passed, she The industry of many collectors has supplied wished to dig them up and bury them elsewhere. scores of variants of this most popular narrative. But, when she opened the hole in which she had But those which have been mentioned will be deposited them, there streamed forth from it a sufficient to throw a considerable light upon one blaze of light which almost blinded her. And of its most significant features. Its earlier scenes then she found that no bones were there, but appear to have been inspired by the idea that a three costly suits of raiment. On one gleamed loving mother may be able, even after her death, “ the sky with its stars," on another “ the spring to bless and assist a dutiful child. In the Servian: with its flowers," on the third “the sea with its and the Greek variants, this belief is brought waves." By means of these resplendent robes prominently forward, though in a somewhat groshe created a great sensation in church on three tesque form. In the German it is indicated, but successive Sundays, and won the heart of the less clearly. In one of the Sicilian variants (Piusual prince, who was enabled to recognize her tré, No. 41), the step-daughter is assisted by a by means of the customary slipper. The German cow, as in the Servian story. Out of the hole in variant of the story given by Grimm (No. 21) which its bones are buried come “twelve damrepresents the grimy Aschenputtel—a form of sels" who array her “all in gold" and take her to Cinderella's name very like the Scotch Ashypet the royal palace. Here the link between the girl
-as being assisted to bear up against the un- and her dead mother has been lost, and the kindness of her step-sisters by a white bird, which supernatural machinery is worked by fairy hands. haunted the tree she had planted above her In another (No. 43) the heroine receives everymother's grave. From this bird she received all thing she asks for, exactly as in the German that she asked for, including the dazzling robe story, from a magic date-tree. But nothing is and golden shoes in which she, for the third time, said about its being planted above her mother's won the prince's heart at a ball in the palace. grave, and its mysterious powers are accounted One of these shoes stuck in the pitch with which for only by the fact that out of it issue “a great the prince had ordered the staircase to be smeared number of fati" or fairies. In the romantic story in the hope of thereby capturing her when she of “ La Gatta Cennerentola,” told by Basile in his fied from the ball; and by it he after a time rec- “Pentamerone" (published at Naples about the ognized her. The story is of an unusually savage year 1637), she is similarly assisted by a fairy tone. For not only does one of the step-sisters who issues from a date-tree. This suggests the cut off her toes, and the other her heel, in order fairy godmother of Perrault's tale, from which to fit their feet to the golden slipper-acting in our version appears to have been borrowed. For accordance with the suggestion of their mother, among us Cinderella's slipper is almost always who says, “ When you are a queen you need not of glass, a material never mentioned except in go afoot "_but they ultimately have their eyes the French form of the story and its imitations. pecked out by the two doves which have previ- On this part of Cinderella's costume it may be ously called attention to the fact that blood is as well to dwell for a time, before passing on to streaming from their mutilated feet. The surgi- the further consideration of her fortunes. As cal adaptation of the false foot to the slipper, and yet we have dealt only with what may be called its exposure by a bird, occur in so many variants the “dead-mother" or "step-mother" opening of that they probably formed an important part of the tale. We shall have to consider presently the original tale. Thus, in a Lowland Scotch va- a kindred form of the narrative, the opening of riant of the story quoted by Chambers, when the which may be named after the "hateful marriage " from which the heroine flies, her adven- was unknown, substituted the more familiar but tures after her fight being similar to those of less probable verre, thereby dooming Cinderella the ill-used step-daughter. That is to say, she is to wear a glass slipper long before the discovery reduced to a state of degradation and squalor, was made that glass may be rendered tough. and is forced to occupy a servile position, fre- In favor of the correctness of this supposition we quently connected in some way with the hearth have the great authority of M. Littré, whose dicand its ashes. From this, however, she emergestionary affirms positively that in the description on certain festive occasions as a temporarily bril- of Cinderella's slipper, verre is a mistake for liant being, always returning to her obscure posi- vair. In this decision some scholars, especially tion, until at last she is recognized; after which those who detect in every feature of a fairy tale she remains permanently brilliant, her apparently a “solar myth," refuse to acquiesce. Thus M. destined period of eclipse having been brought André Lefèvre, the accomplished editor of a reto a close by her recognition, which is accom- cent edition of Perrault's “Contes," absolutely plished by the aid of her lost shoe or slipper. refuses to give up the verre which “convient
As to the material of the slipper there has parfaitement à un mythe lumineux." * But the been much dispute. In the greater part of what fact that Cinderella is not shod with glass in the are apparently the older forms of the story, it is vast majority of the lands she inhabits outweighs made of gold. This may perhaps be merely a any amount of mythological probabilities. Befigure of speech, but there are instances on rec- sides, a golden shoe is admirably adapted to a ord of shoes, or at least sandals, being made of luminous myth. It was a golden sandal which precious metals. Even in our own times, as well Rhodopis lost while bathing, and which accordas in the days of the Cæsars, a horse is said to ing to the evidently Oriental tale preserved for us have been shod with gold. And an Arab geog- by Strabo and Ælian—was borne by an eagle to rapher, quoted by Mr. Lane, vouches for the fact the Egyptian King, who immediately resolved to that the islands of Wák-Wák are ruled by a make that sandal's owner his royal spouse. In the queen who “has shoes of gold.” Moreover, “no venerable Egyptian tale of “ The Two Brothers," one walks in all these islands with any other kind of another monarch is equally affected by the sight shoe; if he wear any other kind, his feet are cut.” of a lock of the heroine's golden hair, that is It is true that his authority is a little weakened borne to him by the river into which it had fallen, by his subsequent statement that these isles have and he makes a similar resolve. In a Lesghian trees which bear “fruits like women." These story from the Caucasus,t a supernatural female strange beings have beautiful faces, and are sus- being drops a golden shoe, and the hero is sent pended by their hair. “ They come forth from in search of its fellow, becoming thereby exposed integuments like large leathern bags. And when to many dangers. We may fairly be allowed, they feel the air and the sun, they cry ·Wák! without any slur being cast upon mythological Wák!' until their hair is cut; and when it is cut interpretation, to give up the glassiness of Cinthey die." Glass is an all but unknown material derella's slipper. If the substitution of verre for for shoemaking in the genuine folk-tales of any vair be admitted, it supplies us with one of the country except France. The heroine of one of few verbal tests which exist whereby to track a Mr. J. F. Campbell's Gaelic tales * wore “glass story's wanderings. For in that case we may shoes," but this exception to the rule may be due always trace home to France, or at least detect to a French influence, transmitted through an a French element in, any form of the Cinderella English or Lowland Scotch channel. Even in story in which the heroine wears a glass slipper. France itself the slipper is not always of glass. A somewhat similar mistake to that which vitriMadame d'Aulnoy's Finette Cendron, for in- fied Cinderella's slipper caused a celebrated picstance, wore one “of red velvet embroidered ture by Rubens to be long known by an inapwith pearls." The use of the word verre by propriate title. Many a visitor to the National Perrault has been accounted for in two ways. Gallery must have wondered why a portrait of a Some critics think that the material in question lady in a hat manifestly made, not of straw, but was a tissu en verre, fashionable in Perrault's of beaver or a kind of felt, should be designated time. But the more generally received idea is the chapeau de paille, before it was pointed out that the substance was originally a kind of fur by Mr. Wornum, in the catalogue, that paille called vair-a word now obsolete in France, ex- was probably a mistake for poil, a word meaning cept in heraldry, but locally preserved in England among other things wool and the nap of a hat, as the name of the weasel t-and that some reciter or transcriber to whom the meaning of vair * An amusing article on this question appeared in the
“Daily Telegraph," December 27, 1878, in reply to the
support given by "X" in the “ Times" to the cause of * “West Highland Tales," i., 235.
vair. + “Spectator," January 4, 1879.
+ Schiefner's “ Awarische Texte,'' p. 68.