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the wanderer in search of health and happiness and thence we reach our own land. Fort George reaches the south of France, a land which we are Island on the coast of Florida is selected as a true told pleases the eye and the fancy alike, seduces the paradise, “tropical in its attractions and balmy and senses, and invigorates the intellect :
healthful as the fountain of youth." Lake George
is described as a summer Eden ; then we are transBetween the Gulf of Lyons and the Bay of Biscay
ported a long distance to those Hesperides of the are two paradises divided by the sere waste lands of the Corbières: the paradise of Provence, of which Avignon
Pacific, the Sandwich Islands, where the climate is is the center, watered by the Rhône and dominated by so “balmy and regular that no word exists in the the grand and lovely peak of Mont Ventoux, and the Hawaiian language to express weather. Of course paradise of the Pyrenees, of which Pau is the center, the weather is always good, unvaryingly good; guarded by the awful Pic du Midi. I know of no part therefore it is not weather, for that implies vari. of Europe where a lovely scenery and a delightful climate ability, contrast, and change in atmospheric condi. have been more effectively aided by a wealth of historic tions. antiquities and the indescribable charm of great historic
But we must not linger longer in these rare associations, except Attica; and there we do not so
Edens, these magical spots where the charms of exmuch find a luxuriance of vegetation as a suggestive and glorious combination of tone and color.
istence are only too captivating. It would not be
easy for one to visit all the elysiums Mr. Benjamin We must not linger here, although Avignon and describes, and yet he omits southern California and Pau are fascinating, and Béarn lovely, and the “ Val New Mexico, the many lovely places on the shores d'Ossau, with meadows lush with harvests and flow of the South Pacific; he does not describe Caracas ers and picturesque with vine-hung poplars or wil. in Venezuela, where the climate is perpetual spring ; lows," like an enchanted valley, for there are other and assuredly there are paradises in Brazil and in paradises in the north of Portugal. We are told to the countries that lie southward of it. Yet he has go to Oporto, and from "the tremendous gorges of told us enough, for his successive pictures of earthly the Douro enter the paradise of the Minho e Douro, paradises bewilder us as it is; and is it not certain a province small in size, but exceeding in beauty any that, while these enchanting Edens are precious boons spot in Europe" the writer had seen. How strange- to invalids and all who need rest and recuperation, ly paradises multiply! One longs, as he reads Mr. they bestow their loveliness on others to the enervaBenjamin's book, to go from Oporto to Braga, and tion of their souls and the overthrow of their enerto look from the terrace of the Church of Bom Je- gies? There is some satisfaction in knowing that, sus upon the lovely and sublime prospect which com- if the cast winds bring pain and discomfort, they mands “ the silver line of the ocean, the verdure and have brawn and strength in their salt. glory of the Minho valleys, and the grandeur of the sharply formed, purple-hued pinnacles of the Gerez.” But ever in search of further paradises, we grow
THE PULPIT AND THE STAGE. restless, impatient, and are insatiate for new sensations ; and so hasten on to the isles of the Atlantic. THERE has always been in the popular mind a Here is Madeira, with its “ gardens of matchless connection between the methods of the actor on the splendor," where “grandeur and loveliness go hand stage and the preacher in the pulpit, probably for no in hand, and the lavish profusion of flowers beggars other reason than that both employ in some degree all description"; where “ the strawberries are ripe the art of elocution. But Dr. Howard Crosby, in a from March until September; the banner-like stalks recent address at Yale on the subject of preaching, of the banana are freighted with fruit for half the affirms that the pulpit and the stage have nothing year; the nectarine and the fig seem always ready to whatever in common. “The stage," he says, "has be plucked ; and the chestnut-forests are weighted as its object to amuse, and it has as its uniform with verdure from January to December." From method exaggeration, but the pulpit has as its obMadeira to the Azores the fight is a short one. ject to instruct, and it has as its method the simFayal is “a choice little island," with "a genial and plicity that becomes the delivery of truth. Young healthful air," with a magnificent volcano to add preachers who go to the stage for an example of sublimity to the picture, while orange-groves, bana- manner or utterance are on the high-road to minisnas, and superb masses of oleanders give “illimitable terial ruin, although they may make a newspaper beauty to the valley and the river of the Flamerjoz." fame. The stage-actor is etymologically and classiSouthward from the Azores is the famous Teneriffe cally the hypocrite, and has, so far as he is a stage of the Canary Islands, with its gigantic volcanic actor, no sympathy with the preacher and his solemn peak over twelve thousand feet high, and its fasci- duties. He will teach the minister who goes to him nating valley of the Orotava, whose upper sides are for instruction poses, gestures, tones, and grimaces dotted with chestnut-forests, whose air is heavy with that have no more to do with a minister's person the fragrance of fir-trees, while the climate is so de. than Hamlet or Romeo has to do with his theme." licious that the simple matter of existence is a lux. It is easy to show, we think, that Dr. Crosby does ury. Humboldt has declared that no landscape he not comprehend here the real nature of the stage had seen combines to such a degree the sublime and or the connection between it and the pulpit. The the beautiful. From Teneriffe we are carried to drama in its higher phase has no more design to the Bahamas; from the Bahamas to the Bermudas; merely amuse than poetry, or painting, or sculpture, or architecture has. Its place in the world's estima- greatly the imagination. This sort of elocution is tion is due wholly to its character as an art, and no simplicity itself, for it consists of nothing more than art worthy the name sets out to amuse. The great exact placing of emphasis, with such shades of mean. purpose of the stage is to awaken emotion, to stir ing as may be given by inflection. But, in order to the imagination, to arouse the sympathies and the be master of the art, simple as it is, the speaker sensibilities, and in these ends it evidently bears a must grasp clearly and distinctly the full meaning of very close relation to the purpose of the preacher. It the sentences he means to utter. No man can think is not true, moreover, that the actor is necessarily a in a slovenly or loose manner and be a good elocuhypocrite. He plays a part, it is true, but there is tionist. A clergyman, in order to read a chapter of no reason why he should not profoundly feel the 'the Bible with that use of elocution that shall bring sentiments that he utters; and, to the extent that out with great distinctness all the meaning, must those sentiments are human and true, he is very apt first comprehend with great clearness what that meanto feel them. The preacher emphasizes moral and ing is. Dr. Crosby will admit, we think, that this religious truths, but he mingles a good deal of dogma of itself would make one of the arts of the stage a and theological speculation with those truths. The very useful accomplishment for the clergyman. There actor utters moral and human truths, with perhaps a are a few other things that the preacher could learn less proportion of pure speculation than the preacher of the stage. He would discover that repose is taught does. Nevertheless, it is true that the duties of the as well as expression; that gestures should be large preacher are more solemn and more important than and noble rather than mean and belittling; that those of the actor, and that there are features of act. pure enunciation and correct pronunciation are neing which are most distasteful when transported to cessary for every public speaker. In fact, the art of the pulpit. One great reason of this is, that when the the stage-in its best and pure examples—is an art young preacher goes to the theatre to study methods not in the least out of keeping with the mission of of delivery, he is only too apt to learn and imitate the preacher,'and, rightly employed, would greatly the wrong things that he finds there. The exaggera- enhance his power of doing good. It may be said tions and affectations of some actors are bad enough that elocution can be learned elsewhere than at the in the theatre, but when copied in the pulpit are cer- theatre. The perfection of the art has always been tainly detestable. The method of the preacher should found on the stage, or with those speakers who have indisputably possess “the simplicity that becomes gone to great actors for instruction. The actor alone the delivery of truth," and the simplicity, moreover, makes delivery a prolonged and thorough study. that becomes the canons of taste. A theatrical man. Professor Bain, in his “ Education as a Science," ner in the lecture-room, or on the platform, or even thinks that demeanor as well as elocution should in the parlor reading, is almost as bad as a theatrical be studied at the theatre. “We see on the stage," manner in the pulpit. But there are certain fun- he says, “ the most consummate examples of manner damental principles which young preachers could and address in various situations, slightly exaggerated learn of accomplished actors if they once knew how from the necessities of distant effect, but surpassing to separate the essential from the accidental, the un- all, except the rarest, instances in common life. derlying laws from the mannerisms on the surface. Virtue and vice may be found alike on and off the A preacher, for instance, who puts his voice in train- stage ; but elocution and gesture can be learned in ing as an actor does would gain for it compass, tone, perfection there and there alone." and flexibility, and he would learn to talk without inflaming and tearing his throat, as half our public speakers do. The bronchial and throat troubles which so generally afflict clergymen are due wholly
TREES IN CITIES. to their ignorance of how to inflate their chests when talking, a process which not only saves the throat The Duke of Argyll, in his “Impressions of the but enables the speaker to talk without fatigue. New World,” which we reprint in this number of
Elocution, of which we hear so much, seems to be the “ Journal," comments, evidently with some surcommonly identified with numberless tricks with the prise, upon the general planting of trees in our towns voice, and affectations of manner, which has right. and villages. “Their streets," he says, “ are almost ly enough brought it into disrepute. But what is all avenues of handsome trees, the boughs meeting genuine elocution more than such use of emphasis, over the ample roadway, their foliage everywhere inflection, pause, and tones that will serve to bring conspicuous among the houses, and often giving a out the meaning of a sentence accurately and im- comfortable rural aspect even to the most crowded pressively? This elocution may be learned of a few seats of industry." We do not recollect an instance actors-not many—and scarcely at all of any one else. of any other European traveler commenting upon The preacher who has mastered the art has an im- this feature of American towns, and yet it is a charmense adjunct in affirming the truths which it is his acteristic that one would suppose would strike the mission to teach : for perfect elocution carries a stranger immediately. In European cities there are truth home with immense increase of force; by giv- numerous small inclosures of grass and trees, but it ing color and perspective to a sentence it makes its is only in the Paris boulevards and the Thames Emleading affirmations salient and penetrating, and thus bankment that trees planted at the curbstone, as not only convinces the understanding but impresses with us, can be seen. The average European town is absolutely treeless; even towns of small dimen- whole of the lower part of the city has been denuded sions consist wholly of narrow streets with not a of them. The boulevards and new avenues in the green thing to enliven them save flowers in the win. extreme upper part of the city have all been set out dows. This very marked contrast between Ameri. with trees, but in all the newly built streets below can and European towns does not seem to have elic. Sixtieth Street there has been very little tree-plantited comment from our own people traveling abroad ing. Long blocks of fashionable houses are often more than it has from Europeans coming here. The without a single tree or bush to break the monotony American village with its broad avenues lined with of their gloomy stretch of brown-stone. In the trees, and its houses embowered in shrubbery, is fair- older parts of the city still occupied by domiciles ly idyllic, and Americans are entitled to be proud of there are some good trees, but their number yearly it. One of our painters, Mr. A. F. Bellows, has dis- decreases. Those that die or which fall before sumtinguished himself by painting some of these village mer gales are rarely replaced, so that it is only a scenes, one of which has been engraved on steel, question of time as to when our city will become and makes a very good representative picture of life wholly shorn of these graceful, agreeable, and healthin New England.
ful denizens. If it is too costly to erect fountains There is little doubt that this distinctive feature and monuments, as we have often urged, we might of our towns will be preserved in all the smaller at least give a little attention to tree-culture, for places, but it is almost sure to disappear in New trees are certainly not a costly luxury, while no spe. York unless an effort is made to prevent it. There cial art-training is necessary to lead one to underis now not a tree left in Broadway, and nearly the stand and appreciate their beauty.
Books of the Day.
THAT such work as is contained in Professor poetry. “Thus," he says, “I have inserted several
1 Symonds's “Studies in the Greek Poets "* new translations in the chapters on the Lyric Poets should have attracted so little attention as it seems and the Anthology. The criticism of Euripides has to have done in England is an indication either of been enlarged, and the concluding chapter has been, great sluggishness on the part of the English read. in a great measure, rewritten. And each chapter has ing public or of an unsuspected richness in the cur- undergone such revision and alteration in minor de. rent literature of the higher order. In Germany or tails as might remove unnecessary repetitions and France, where interpretative criticism of the best bring the whole series of essays into harmony." kind ranks next in estimation to creative work, these As the starting-point of his work, Professor Sy“Studies" would have secured for their author im- monds defines the limits and states the characteristics mediate and widely extended fame ; but, if we are of the five great periods of Greek literature—the not mistaken, the slowly growing reputation of Pro- heroic, or prehistoric, or legendary period, of which fessor Symonds is due only in a small degree to a Homer and Hesiod are the chief monuments; the book which has scarcely a parallel in recent English period of transition from the heroic or epical to that literature, and which will bear comparison with the of artistic maturity in all branches of literature; the highest achievements of German scholarship and brilliant period of Athenian supremacy, from the criticism. Indeed, the “Studies" may almost be end of the Persian to the end of the Peloponnesian said to be unique in their combination of wide war; the second period of transition from maturity knowledge and minute research, with a mastery of to old age ; and the period of decline and decay, the literary art which alone would suffice to com- which is the longest of all, extending from B. C. 323 mand our warmest admiration.
to the final extinction of classical civilization. After As they appeared originally in England, the this preliminary survey of Greek literature as a "Studies" were rather a series of disconnected es. whole, he devotes a chapter to “ Mythology," which says than a consecutive and homogeneous workwas the source and fountain-head of Greek art as They were published in two series, at an interval of well as of the Greek religion, and a knowledge of three or four years; and many of them bore the un- which is indispensable to a right understanding of mistakable marks of having been issued in separate Homer and Hesiod, or the later and more conscious and independent form. In preparing them for the work of the Greek tragedians. In this chapter, ProAmerican edition, Professor Symonds has rearranged fessor Symonds discusses at considerable length and the chapters of both series in their proper order, and with much acuteness the whole question of the has made numerous additions, with the view of ren- genesis and nature of myths, as well as of the spedering the book more complete as a survey of Greek cial relation of Greek mythology to Greek culture
* Studies in the Greek Poets. By John Addington and thought. One or two paragraphs will convey a Symonds. In two volumes. New York: Harper & hint of his conclusions upon this important point, Brothers. Square iómo. Pp. 488, 419.
as well as of his method of treatment :
In this childhood of the world, when the Greek myths much. Need we ask ourselves again the question whether came into existence, the sun was called a shepherd, and he existed, or whether he sprang into the full possession the clouds were his sheep; or an archer, and the sun- of consummate art without a predecessor? That he had beams were his arrows. It was easier then to think of no predecessors, no scattered poems and ballads to build the sea as a husky-voiced and turbulent old man, whose upon, no well-digested body of myths to synthesize, is an true form none might clearly know, because he changed absurd hypothesis which the whole history of literature so often and was so secret in his ways, who shook the refutes. That, on the other hand, there never was a earth in his anger, and had the white-maned billows of Homer-that is to say, that some diaskeuast, acting unthe deep for his horses, than to form a theory of the der the orders of Pisistratus, gave its immortal outline tides. The spring of the year became a beautiful youth, to the colossus of the “Iliad," and wove the magic web of beloved by the whole earth, or beloved, like Hyacinthus, the “Odyssey"-but that no supreme and conscious artist by the sun, or, like Adonis, by the queen of beauty, over working toward a well-planned conclusion conceived and whom the fate of death was suspended, and for whose shaped these epics to the form they bear, appears to the loss annual mourning was made. Such tales the Greeks spirit of sound criticism equally untenable. The very statetold themselves in their youth; and it would be wrong to ment of this alternative involves a contradiction in terms; suppose that deliberate fiction played any part in their for such a diaskeuast must himself have been a supreme creation. To conceive of the world thus was natural to and conscious artist. Some Homer did exist. Some great the whole race; and the tales that sprang up formed the single poet intervened between the lost chaos of legendasubstance of their intellectual activity. Here, then, ifry material and the cosmos of beauty which we now posanywhere, we watch the process of a people in its en. sess. His work may have been tampered with in a thoutirety contributing to form a body of imaginative thought, sand ways, and religiously but inadequately restored. projecting itself in a common and unconscious work of Of his age and date and country, we know nothing.
But this we do know, that the fire of molding, fusing, To discuss the bearings of the linguistic and solar and controlling genius in some one brain, has made the theories of mythology may be reserved for another part “Iliad” and “Odyssey” what they are. of this essay. It is enough, at this point, to bear in mind that there was nothing in the consciousness of the
By this, the author is not to be understood as
By this, the Greeks which did not take the form of myth. Conse- meaning that one poet must have composed both quently their mythology, instead of being a compact sys. epics, but that each bears upon it the mark of unity tem of polytheism, is really a whole mass of thought, in conception and execution. Whether the same belonging to a particular period of human history, when poet produced both is a different question, and he is it was impossible to think except by pictures, or to record inclined to regard the “ Odyssey" as a later work, impressions of the world except in stories. That all Following the brilliant discussion of the Homeric these tales are religious or semi-religious - concerned, that is to say, with deities-must be explained by the ten
poems, chapters on Hesiod, Parmenides, Empedo
cles, the Gnomic (or didactic) Poets, the Satirists, dency of mankind at an early period of culture to conceive the powers of nature as persons, and to dignify
dignify the Lyric Poets, and Pindar, lead up to what are them with superhuman attributes. To the apprehension perhaps the most interesting and suggestive chapters of infantine humanity everything is a god. Viewed even in the book-those on Æschylus, Sophocles, Euripi. as a Pantheon, reduced to rule and order by subsequent des, and Aristophanes. Greek poetry-it may fairly reflection, Greek mythology is, therefore, a mass of the be said that Greek genius-culminated in the splendid most heterogeneous materials. Side by side with some productions of the Athenian dramatists ; and no few. of the sublimest and most beautiful conceptions which er than seven chapters (about a third) of Professor Sy. the mind has ever produced, we find in it much that is absurd and trivial and revolting. Different ages and
monds's work are devoted to a consideration of what conditions of thought have left their products imbedded
remains to us of this stupendous legacy. Discussion in its strange conglomerate. While it contains fragments of the kind iu
of the kind furnished in these chapters is only too of fossilized stories, the meaning of which has either apt to be technical and dull ; and it is perhaps the been misunderstood or can only be explained by reference crowning testimony to the author's skill that there to barbaric customs, it also contains, emergent from the is scarcely a page in them which the ordinary reader rest and towering above the rubbish, the serene forms of would not peruse with pleasure, or an exposition of the Olympians. Those furnish the vital and important which the scholar would complain as inadequate. elements of Greek mythology. To perfect them was the
There is a very instructive and valuable chapter work of poets and sculptors in the brief, bright, blooming time of Hellas.
on “ Ancient and Modern Tragedy "; and another
on “ The Comic Fragments," in which the author After disposing of these preliminary questions. traces the history of the later Greek drama, and disProfessor Symonds begins his work proper with cusses the points of similarity and difference between Homer, devoting a chapter to Achilles, whom he ancient and modern comedy. Theocritus, Bion, and regards as “the central subject " of the “Iliad," and Moschus are treated of in a most luminous and apthe “true type of the Hellenic genius," and another preciative chapter on “The Idyllists," whose works to the “Women of Homer." With regard to the gilded with a sunset radiance the decline of the anmuch-debated and never-settled problem of criticism. cient literature, and a little later ushered in the dawn whether Homer actually existed. or whether, as in of the modern. One chapter is devoted to the “Anthe case of Mrs. Harris, “there never was no sich thology"; another to the different versions of the person," he entertains very decided opinions, and
tale of “Hero and Leander " ; and two final chapgives them vigorous expression. He says:
ters discuss the “Genius of Greek Art," the essen
tial relation of all spiritual movement to Greek culIf of Homer we know nothing, we have heard too ture, and the contrast between the Greek, the mediæval, and the modern or scientific conception of special contents by analyzing the successive chapters Nature.
of which it is composed. The first chapter treats of We have not space even to summarize the con- collecting in general and print-collecting in particutents of these chapters, much as there is in them to lar, discusses the “proper motive for collecting," invite comment; but our notice would be incom- and points out “the advantages of print-collecting plete without a cordial word of praise for Professor as compared with other subjects, such as pictures, Symonds's spirited and elegant translations of select statues, coins and medals, gems, and drawings," and passages. It need not be said that these add incal. this with reference to the several points of “expense, culably to the value and interest of his work. space, preservation, portability, ascertainment of
quality and of genuineness, price, and pleasure derivable and communicable." The second chapter
treats of the classification of prints ; defines the difA BETTER proof of the widening interest in ev.
ference between wood-engraving and engraving on ery department of the fine arts in this country could
metal; and explains the modes of working by burin, hardly be found than is afforded by the publication
etching, dry point, mezzotinto, dotting, stippling, in sumptuous and greatly enlarged form of Mr. Ma
aquatinta, lithography, etc. Chapter three gives berly's “ Print-Collector."* Ten years ago an edi.
minute instructions regarding the tests to apply in tion of the Targum or of the Pandects would have
selecting specimens, explaining what 'is meant by been considered by publishers quite as likely to
"states," "proofs,” "early impressions," "good improve profitable ; yet there can be little doubt that
pressions," " burr," "shake," "copies,” and other at the present time the book will be welcomed by a
technicalities of the art. Chapter four gives ample large and highly appreciative circle of readers. For
information as to the prices of prints and the progone thing, it is both more valuable and more inter.
ress in value of ancient engravings; also regarding esting than such treatises usually are. It is the
what may be called the customs and usages of the work of a man who, though enthusiastic in his love
trade. Chapter five discusses the various considerafor the special art of which he treats, did not make
tions which should be kept in mind in deciding upon it a hobby; who collected prints because he really
the extent or limit of a proposed collection ; and admired them, and not because collecting had be
chapter six contains some highly useful suggestions come a mania; whose tastes were controlled by his
as to the care, keeping, mounting, handling, exhibitjudgment, not warped by his feelings or by commer
ing, and cleaning of prints. Chapter seven treats cial considerations; and who was enabled by his
of "the mode of commencing collector," the "exown experience to deal with just those difficulties
tent of expense,” “ chronology," and the “ different which are most likely to beset the print-collector, and
manners and processes," and then explains the charto impart the precise information which the print-col.
acteristics of the various “schools” of engravers, lector is always in search of, and which it usually
with notices of the principal engravers in each. costs him much labor and pains to acquire. In plan and scope Mr. Maberly's book was de
Chapter eight compares the old and new systems of
engraving; and, finally, chapter nine discusses the signed to meet the wants of amateurs rather than of
merits and deficiencies of the best-known books on connoisseurs and specialists. Presupposing on the
engraving. part of the reader only a genuine feeling for art, it
Mr. Maberly's little book was published in 1844, aimed to stimulate and cultivate that feeling, to fur
and while the greater part of the material which it nish good reasons for its gratification, to prove that
contains is as fresh and as useful to-day as when it engravings or “prints" combine greater advantages and opportunities for the average collector than do
was first written, there are many details as to prices, the products of any of the sister arts, and to show in
etc., which are no longer correct, and which might
mislead instead of assisting the beginner. To obdetail how the collector must set about and prose
viate this disadvantage, Mr. Robert Hoe, Jr., the cute his work. It possesses all the attractions which
American editor, has added a series of notes which pertain to a record of personal experiences; it is written in a thoroughly genial and graceful spirit;
supplement Mr. Maberly's text in many important
particulars; and which, for one thing, enable us to and, besides describing the enjoyment which the au
trace the history, prices, successive ownership, and thor had derived from the study and collection of
present resting-place of nearly all the more impor. etchings and engravings, it undertakes to "commu
tant and valuable prints-so that the collector will nicate such knowledge to others as might lead an appreciative reader through the same pleasant paths
learn not only where to look for the special objects
of his search, but just what he will probably have to of art he himself had trodden."
pay for them. Still further to increase the adequacy The general purpose and character of the book
of the book as a print-collector's vade mecum, Mr. being thus defined, we can best convey an idea of its
Hoe has added an appendix which nearly doubles its * The Print-Collector : An Introduction to the Knowl.
size and quite doubles its value. In this appendix edge necessary for forming a Collection of Ancient Prints.
he has reproduced the substance of T. H. Fielding's By J. Maberly. With an Appendix containing Fielding's
excellent treatise on “ The Art of Engraving, with * Treatise on the Practice of Engraving." Edited by the Various Modes of Operation," in which the Robert Hoe, Jr. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 8vo, theory and practice of the art are combined ; he has Pp. 336.
written an account of the principal etchers and en