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inspection. Long lines of handsome streets, with and southwest, that is, toward the distant bouncomfortable and substantial houses or villas, and dary of the United States. In that direction the generally shaded by double rows of trees, lead us eye ranges over a great extent of country rising up to the higher levels, where gardens and shrub- to very distant uplands, and with the intervening beries are pleasantly intermixed. Under the hos- spaces well marked by the perspective of lowpitable guidance of Dr. Campbell, an old and wooded points, knolls, and ridges. To look from hereditary friend, we were driven round “the the height of some three hundred feet down on mountain," which has been secured by the mu- such an estuary, covered with ships and boats of nicipality as a public park. From the whole of all sorts and sizes, and with such a prospect bethis fine hill the prospect is magnificent. For yond, all bathed in sunlight, shining through the many miles above, and for many miles below, fine, clear air of Canada, must always be exhilathe course of the noble river is to be seen, which rating. But at Quebec this great pleasure is is here more than a mile wide, and which up to heightened by the inseparable associations of the Montreal is navigable for vessels of a large size. place—the memory of Wolfe and of Montcalm. The vast extent of country over which the eye The hollows and recesses of the Laurentian ranges in every direction has the same general Hills in the neighborhood of Quebec are often character as that seen from the heights of Queens- occupied by small lakes. An expedition to one town. It is everywhere richly wooded, and, al- of these—the Lake of Beauport-enabled me to though the mountains which vary this landscape see in detail the character of the range and of are not broken or picturesque in surface, they the forests which clothe it. The drive led us have fine and flowing outlines, with long and through an open country full of comfortable habitable slopes.
farms and villas. As we approached the lower It was with no small pleasure that I made slopes of the hills, I was delighted to see the the acquaintance of that distinguished man, Prin- characteristic rocks of that oldest of all the sedicipal Dawson, of McGill College, with whose mentary deposits of the globe, which from this writings on Canadian geology I had been long range of hills has been called the Laurentian familiar, and over whose most interesting collec- gneiss. The mineral aspect of rocks is by no tions I had time only to cast a very hasty glance. means always a safe guide to their geological po
Of Quebec I need not speak. Its peculiar sition. There are sandstones, and limestones, situation is so well known, and the beauty of the and slates, and quartzites of all ages, and one of view from its citadel has been so often described, these is often so very like another as to be hardly that one's expectations are in very close corre- distinguishable even by a practiced eye. But the spondence with what one finds. The St. Law- mineral aspect of the Laurentian gneiss is an rence, however, at Quebec is no longer a river, aspect which, to those who are familiar with it, but an estuary-a very fine estuary certainly, but can never be mistaken. In the loose blocks in point of picturesqueness by no means so beau- which lay scattered in profusion upon the ground tiful as the estuary of the Clyde, or even of the on either side of the road, and in all the walls Forth. Like all the other fine prospects which and dikes which had been built for fences near I saw in the New World, its loveliness is in the it, I recognized in a moment the fine crystals of vastness of the surfaces over which the view hornblende and of feldspar, with which I was faextends—in its immense vanishing distances of miliar in the Island of Tyree, one of the Hebriwater and of land. The peculiar steeples of the des, and on the west coast of Sutherland. The French-Canadian churches alone remind one of rock, wherever it was visible in situ, presented the Old World. In everything else the view has surfaces rounded and smoothed by the passage all the characteristic features of the American of floating ice. It was pleasant, too, to pass a Continent. The great range of the Laurentian real little “burn," a fast-running little stream, Hills, which rise below Quebec on the Canadian making its way in trouty pools and ripples over shore, are by no means impressive. In that im- stones and gravel. Presently we were among mense horizon, and in that clear atmosphere, the woods—such delicious woods of aspen, and they have not the effect of mountains, but of a white birch, and maple, with only just a little series of low, rounded, swelling hills, without any mixture of spruce and balsam fir. The aspen broken outlines or rocky surfaces, and wholly in Canada is very often the exclusive growth covered with wood, very uniform in size and col- which comes up after the pine forests have been or. They fall toward the St. Lawrence in long burned. The bark is of a rich, creamy white, and gentle slopes, dotted with farms and villages, and its leaves have a very soft and tender green. except when in the farthest distance the view is Mosses of great beauty attracted my attention bounded by a somewhat steeper headland. The as handsomer than any of the same family with surface over which one looks is more beautiful which I was acquainted at home. A few grassy on the opposite side of the river, to the south clearings in a rolling country, otherwise entirely
covered with thin, shaggy wood, led us gradually rescent white, which it would be very difficult to into a glen with the sound of waterfalls, and this paint, and which it is impossible to describe. glen opened into an amphitheatre of hills, from Any attempt to preserve them was futile. On five hundred to eight hundred feet high, very being handled, they immediately crumbled into steep, and entirely covered with heavier timber, fine powder. But that rocky point was a very both evergreen and deciduous. Pines predomi- paradise of cryptogamic botany. nated toward the top, although even here they I can not pass from the lower St. Lawrence by no means stood alone. But the sides of the and the Saguenay without mentioning one very hills, often so steep as to be almost precipitous, great peculiarity of its scenery, and that is the were covered with elm, and ash, and the black population of white porpoises which inhabit these birch, a very handsome tree, not unlike the wych- waters. These curious creatures are as pure elm in habit of growth. Embosomed in these white as a kid glove, and, when seen opposite to lovely woods and hills lay the little Lake of Beau- the light and against the blue water, they are as port, with its gleaming waters of azure blue, the beautiful as they are peculiar. They seemed to tall forest trees rising from the edges of the lake be very numerous, tumbling about on all sides in every variety of size and foliage. The fish of the vessel, especially toward the mouth of the were shy, and, if we had depended on the suc- Saguenay, where we spent a delicious evening cess of my fly-fishing, our means of refreshment amid the glories of a Canadian sunset in the would have been but scanty. But in the pleasant height of summer. little inn, log-built and verandaed, we found an A fishing excursion to the Restigouche River, excellent supply of the finest trout, and methods which is the boundary stream between the Provof cooking them which left nothing to be de- inces of Canada and New Brunswick, took us by sired.
the Intercolonial line of railway across the broad A very pleasant cruise in the steamer Druid belt of land which lies between the shores of the began with a run for some thirty miles up the St. Lawrence and those of the Bay of Chaleur. Saguenay River. This enabled me still more per- It was in passing through this belt of country, sectly to appreciate the general appearance of between Rivière du Loup, on the southern bank the forests of the Laurentian Hills. The Sague- of the St. Lawrence, and Matapediac, at the head nay is a very remarkable feature in the scenes of the Chaleur Bay, that I first gained what I and in the geology of Canada. It is a deep cleft supposed to be a fairly adequate idea of the prior crack cutting through the range, probably due meval forests of North America. Strictly speakoriginally to some great “ fault” in the stratifica- ing, it is not in its primeval condition, because tion, but no doubt subsequently deepened by that throughout the whole, or nearly the whole, of agent of erosion which was at its maximum of this great extent of country the one most valuable power during the glacial period. So profound is pine for purposes of commerce has been “lumthis cleft that for the distance of about fifty or bered out." That pine is the white pine of the sixty miles the soundings are upward of one hun- markets—the Pinus strobus commonly called in dred fathoms, so that, except in a few bays where England the Weymouth or New England pine. small streams have brought down deposits, and But all the other trees have been allowed to reround the shores of a few islands, there are no main, and, where the white pine did not grow anchorages for vessels. The scenery is undoubtabundantly, the forests are in a state of nature. edly very peculiar and very pretty, but it is far For some miles from the St. Lawrence the counless impressive than I expected. The hills are try is settled, and clearings which we saw in too uniformly covered with forest, there are very progress show that even soil which is so heavily few fine precipices or rock surfaces exposed to encumbered, and which looked by no means rich, view, there are no peaks rising high above the is nevertheless capable of rewarding agricultural general level, and the outlines are rounded and industry. But the interior is one vast and conmonotonous. There is, however, great beauty tinuous forest, in part of which a great fire was of detail, both in some portions of the forest raging, and in another part of which it had done scenery and in features still more minute. On its work in leaving a large area covered with one of the few bare, rocky points which lay in nothing but the scorched and blackened stems. our way we landed, and I was much struck by Huge volumes of yellow smoke were rolling over the lovely vegetation which was growing among the large Matapediac Lake, the waters of which, the rounded surfaces of stone. Besides a profu- with their islands covered with pine and cedar, sion of bilberry and cranberry plants in full flower, seen through the thick and stilling air, had a there was a perfect garden of the most lovely most weird effect. As the train rushed through lichens and mosses. Some of these presented these forests, I saw only one specimen of the the most exquisite dendritic forms in diverse tints white pine, of great size, to show what the tree of silver-gray, of a delicate green, and of efflo- can be in its native habitat. In England and in
Scotland it is seldom a handsome tree, though I almost, if not altogether, completely destroyed have in my own woods some favorable examples. as salmon-rivers by the neglect of the necessary But the one specimen I saw in this forest was a laws and regulations to keep the streams free splendid “stick," growing clean and straight to from pollution by mills and other works, and a great height, without, however, having any from impassable barriers in the way of the ascent very fine head.
of the fish. But most of the rivers in the British Of the Restigouche as a salmon-river it is im- Provinces of North America are still running as possible to say too much. It is a noble and at pure as ever through forests which are either the same time a lovely stream. The breadth of wholly unoccupied or have been only cleared in a its channel, the sweep of its current, the perfect few spots for the purposes of agriculture. The crystal of its water, are all enchanting to an an- richer lands of the far West are attracting those gler's eye. It winds among steep hills covered who now migrate from the Old World, and in with forest, but with forest which has been more all probability it will be centuries before the or less renewed by the various after-growths steep and poor and heavily wooded lands through which follow conflagrations. There are very which these rivers flow are occupied for the purfew rocks, and no rapids which can not be suc- poses of settlement. Although the forests to cessfully breasted by horses towing boats or the south of the St. Lawrence have been genbarges along the shore. The current is quick erally denuded of the white pine, there is still without being violent, seldom “gurgling in foam- an almost inexhaustible supply of the spruce-fir ing water-streak,” but often “loitering in glassy and of the black birch, which is a very beautiful pool.” Almost everywhere there is a gentle wood for the purpose of making furniture. Sawslope of slaty gravel between the water and the mills will, no doubt, be erected in course of time, edge of the forest, which is so even in its width to cut up this timber; but care should be taken and so smooth on its surface that at first it looks that this be done under such regulations as to as if it had been made artificially as a towing- keep the rivers clear of sawdust, which is most path. It is very difficult in a hot day in June to destructive to salmon. Under the care which realize the true cause of this peculiar feature of has within a few years been bestowed upon the the scene. But in winter the whole of this great protection of the river during the spawning seastream is deeply frozen, so that horses can travel son and upon the artificial breeding of the fish, a upon it, and it is the action of the ice every year great effect has already been produced in the rein breaking up which cuts and keeps clean this turns of salmon caught in the estuary and in most convenient road on both banks. When it the Bay of Chaleur. The rod-fishing alone might fails on one side, it is almost always perfect on be made an important source of revenue to the the other; and, if the stream at any such point is Dominion. It has hitherto been let at rents too deep to be waded, the horses employed to which are almost nominal; and, considering that tow get on board the barge, which is punted over no salmon-fishing to be compared with that of to the other side, and there the labor is resumed. the Canadian rivers can now be got in any part It is needless to say that a river of this character of the world, they would undoubtedly, if judiis nearly perfect as a breeding-ground for sal- ciously divided and allotted, command a very mon. The fine streams of Norway are generally, high price indeed. In the first half hour of my if not always, much more rocky, and many of fishing in the Restigouche I killed two salmon them, from the nature of the watershed from of twenty-three pounds and twenty-four pounds which they came, have necessarily a very short respectively, and some of our party, with no course before they are interrupted by impas- previous experience of fishing, killed salmon of sable waterfalls. But the Restigouche, and larger size and weight, up to thirty-one pounds. almost all the rivers of our North American On the Cascapediac River, another magnificent Provinces, are gathered on the slopes of hills stream, which falls farther down into the same of comparatively small elevation. Their course Bay of Chaleur, I saw a salmon of forty pounds, is long, and generally uninterrupted by any which had been caught the previous day; and I impassable barriers. The Restigouche and some learned that many such had rewarded the labors of its tributary streams, such as the Patapediac of the party of Englishmen who had the fishing River, is one vast and continuous spawning-bed, of that river for the season. which, if carefully protected and attended to, is I must not omit to notice the pleasure of capable of affording an inexhaustible supply of canoeing on these rivers. In no other kind of the finest salmon. I was glad to find that the boat is one so conscious of the delightful sengovernment of the Dominion has become awake sation of floating. In larger and heavier boats to the importance of attending closely to this the very solidity of the structure takes off from very important matter. The rivers in the adja- the sensation; but sitting in a canoe with a cent States of the American Union have been very slight basket-like frame, with nothing but birch-bark between one and the water, the mo- air is laden with aromatic odors from the balsambility, and the liquidity, and the instability, and pine and the balsam-poplar. On the sides of the delicate balancings of the supporting me- one of the hills a bear was seen feeding almost dium, are all transmitted directly to the nerves every day, and I picked up on the bank a branch of sensation. At first the feeling of instability is of a tree bearing the marks of the chisel-teeth rather alarming; but the admirable skill with of the beaver. which these beautiful little“ barks” are managed The Indians of this part of Canada belong to by the half-breed Indians very soon gives one the Micmac tribe, and, although now dressed and confidence. Up the stream they are propelled educated like Europeans, are very often almost by “poling” along the banks—and wonderful it purely Indian in feature and in countenance. My is to see and feel the way in which they are first impression of those who exhibited this type “shoved up" the sharper rapids. On the other in a marked degree was that it bore a striking hand, there is no more delicious motion in the affinity to the Mongolian races. The very high world than that of a canoe descending such rivers cheek-bone and the tendency to the oblique eye as the Restigouche, gliding swiftly and silently are prominent characteristics. All those I saw with the glancing water through reaches of liquid on the Restigouche seemed very intelligent and crystal, winding among steep hills of the most very obliging and good-natured men, with whom varied forest. Some of the banks are mainly it was often a real pleasure to converse on the pine, others birch and aspen, others black birch natural features of their native country. and maple. Everywhere there is the impression of boundless spaces of natural woods, and the
ARGYLL (Fraser's Magazine). (To be concluded.)
which indicates how unnecessary this all has been. THE WORLD'S PARADISES.
“ The World's Paradises" is the title of the volume,
the author being Mr. S. G. W. Benjamin, who has (ANKIND has always been dreaming of para- been one of those fortunate persons that Fate has
I dises, and making paradises out of such condi. permitted to go everywhere and enjoy everything. tions as it could find to hand. It has lamented lost His record of the world's paradises is not large in paradises, invented ideal paradises, and sometimes, bulk, yet there are nearly thirty places which are unfortunately, it has converted real paradises into pan- thought fit to be specially set down as worthy to be demoniums. We are apt to imagine, no doubt, that, classed as elysiums. They extend from the far Oriif all the conditions of beauty and healthfulness are
ent to the far Occident, and impress us greatly with supplied - lovely scenes, tempered winds, and the the opulence of the world in beauty and paradisaisweetness of prolonged summer-we shall at once
cal riches. Let us imagine ourselves in a summer enter a true paradise, unmindful of how much more paradise in our own land, in a hammock in the shade important it is to exclude human passions than bitter of a tree, with soft winds blowing from the sea, while winds if we are to enjoy any genuine felicity. The we glance at Mr. Benjamin's Edens. world is really well endowed with many lovely places First there is Damascus, “ for thousands of years where dreamers may rest, lapped in softness and ease, the most famous spot on the globe for the glory of if their hearts will but yield to the gentleness of the its attractions," which lies “ lapped on a verdurous skies and the wooings of the winds.
plain by the side of murmuring streams." The seNature in these favored spots bestows with a
with a cret of the loveliness of Damascus is, according to generous and loving hand, and it only needs a little Mr. Benjamin, very simple : adjustment of human feeling for the paradise to be complete. Do we here, who alternate between In the steady, protracted heat of that climate, not so scorching suns and frosty winds, know how numerous much excessive as continuous, nothing is more grateful are the mundane places that sky and air and sea and than shade and running water, with abundance of flowflora convert into paradises ? The wonder is, that ers to perfume the air, and fruits for idle hours. All men and women who travel do not more often search
these conditions are found admirably combined at Da
mascus. The houses are built in the form of a hollow out the climatic paradises, for breathing delicious air mas
square around a court paved with marble, in the midst of and dreaming under lovely skies are after all the most
which is a fountain surrounded by clambering vines, truly felicitous things in the world. Travelers have
roses, and jasmines, and vaulted over by the dense fomade a literature of suffering and discomfort, but liage of mulberry, orange, fig, and linden trees, and recently there has appeared a little handy volume pomegranates studded with scarlet buds. Stepping from
the narrow, crooked, dusky street, gloomed by meeting tions, still dispensing fruits with a liberal hand, watched eaves, one suddenly finds himself in a paradise of ease, by the old Roman citadel, the grim battlements of the whose quiet and repose are admirably adapted to soothe Knights of St. John still reflected in the waters of her the nerves of the weary.
port, the city of the Moslem, the Greek, and the Frank
is a living poem, but a poem of Byron's, fervid with the This is very charming, and leads one to wonder romance, the passions, and the crimes of the East. He how it is that in those parts of our own country who has sojourned there a fortnight dreams of her in his which are exposed to great or continuous heats this subsequent wanderings; and he who has happily dwelt Eastern style of house has not been adopted. So
there for years longs for her in other lands, and sighs far we have not developed forms of architecture
that destiny separates him from the vineyards and olive
groves, the villas and ruins, the Caravan Bridge and the adapted to our climatic needs, but from Maine to
bazaars, the delicious breezes and star-eyed maidens of Florida, from East to West, have built our domiciles
Smyrna. upon nearly one plan. Even the fierce tornadoes that sweep annually over the Western Plains, some Adaptation, Mr. Benjamin declares, is the first times burying whole villages in one common ruin, principle of architecture. As we have already said, have not as yet led to any adaptation or modifica. so far from being the first principle with us, it has tion of structure designed to lessen the effects of not even been considered at all. In Smyrna the the evil, such as is always done in earthquake coun- principle of adaptation has led to the construction tries.
of villas of one floor, with a central or reception hall From Damascus we are led to Brusa, the first surrounded by the apartments of the family. “The capital of the Turkish Empire, at the foot of Mount house generally faces east and west ; and this central Olympus, where our traveler arrives in the night: room opens on two spacious porticoes profusely
shaded by clambering vines laden with blossoms, At morning, unexpectant of the scene that unfolded and facing the grounds laid out with shade-trees and itself, I Aung open the jalousies, and, leaning on the flowers. During the first half of the day the family
flowers. During the first half of the day the family window-sill, looked down upon one of the world's paradises. Fame has not exaggerated the opulence of its
occupy one portico; in the afternoon they move to charms. The moss-green tiles of the city's peaked roofs,
the other side of the mansion. Thus they contrive the domes, the minarets, the gardens, lay spread below,
to have shade and coolness during the whole day." embosomed in a sea of verdure, bounded in the distance There are brigands on the outskirts of Smyrna, which by the blue waters of the Marmora. ... The melting fact does not exactly fall into line with the idea of a snows of Olympus form many streams, which rush foam- paradise, unless we are to assume that every Eden ing through the streets of the ancient city with perpetual must have its serpent. After Smyrna we go to Scio; music, blending with the cooing of the turtle doves that but Scio is so like Smyrna in its characteristics that haunt
s of the
the idler over Mr. Benjamin's book may wish to mosques, and the nightingales that warble by the sequestered mausoleums of the founders of a once mighty em
hasten to scenes with more marked contrasts. Yet
the softness of a clime “never too warm or too cool," pire.
a land where one's stay is "like a long dream of deFrom Brusa the journey to the Bosporus is but light, an unbroken reverie in which one feeds on the a short night's sail. Here the climate, except from lotus and drinks of the waters of Lethe,” make asDecember to February, is both seductive and salu- suredly an earthly paradise in every essential condi. brious. The Bosporus and the Golden Horn are tion. From Scio to Naples, which is not only the enchanting, a scene in which nature and man have choicest spot in Hesperia, but one that, like most of combined to produce the utmost degree of splendor: the world's paradises, receives a tone from the sea
which caresses its shores; then from Naples to Cor. The Bosporus is inclosed by steep hills, which decline sica, in which Ajaccio, the birthplace of Napoleon, so rapidly to the water that the largest ships can any is the favorite spot : where lie alongside the land. These hills are indented with gorges and valleys, which occur generally where the The Bay of Ajaccio is one of the most charming and land retires and forms the most beautiful and inviting poetically beautiful spots among many which enchant coves. A continuous series of summer-houses and pal- the eye and captivate the fancy. It is indeed a noble aces lines the shores, the kiosks often actually overhang- prospect that greets one as he walks the quay of Ajaccio, ing the water, and flanked by the most delicious gardens and gazes over the imperial blue of the sea, looking and terraces, planted with every variety of favorite flow, southward. Around him are lemon- and orange-groves, ers and shrubs.
and the circular sweep of the bay is inclosed by the ma
jestic range of mountains which form the citadel of CorWe but glance at these lovely shores, and then sica. ... These grand, gray mountains, that seem to are transported to Smyrna, which excites the enthu. hedge Ajaccio landward and crowd it down to the wasiasm of our traveler to the utmost, and leads him to ter's edge, also serve the useful purpose of shielding it exclaim :
from the piercing winds of the north. And thus we find
that, to the amenity of its scenery, Ajaccio adds the Who has not eaten the figs and raisins of Smyrna, highly important advantage of being a valuable sanitathe “ornament of Asia," the “crown of Ionia"? Sit- rium for invalids during the winter season. uated at the head of a broad, beautiful bay, environed with perennial gardens, girt with a diadem of lovely vil- Mentone, Nice, and Monaco, probably the most lages, fragrant with the odorous airs that lade the serene noted sanitaria in the world, are too well known for Ægean skies, dowered with a wealth of historic associa- us to more than mention them. Moving westward,