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Etymology,” lookiel, i.e. s the true notation of words. Syntax, gy J which is l the right ordering of them. * A word is a part of speech, or note, whereby a thing is known, or called; and consisteth of one or more syllabes. “A syllabe is a perfect sound in a word, and consisteth of one or more letters. * A letter is an indivisible part of a syllabe, whose prosody," or right sounding is perceived by the power; the orthography, or right writing, by the form. * Prosody, and orthography, are not parts of grammar, but diffused like the blood and spirits through the whole.

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* Litera, à lineamdo; undè, limemre, limeaturæ, literæ, et liturae. Veque emim à lituris literae quia dele^remtur; priùs emim factæ, quàm deletæ sunt. At formæ potius, atque oJoria; ratiomem, quàm interitás, habeamus. Scal. ibid. * Litera gemus quoddam est, cujus species primariæ duæ vocalis et consonans, quarum matura, et constitutio mom potest percipi, misi prius cognoscantur differemtiae formales, quibus factum est, ut inter se non comvemiremt. Scal. ibid. * Literæ differentia gemerica est potestas, quam mimìs rudi comsilio veteres Accidems appellárumt. Est enim /orma quædam ipse /?eacus im voce, quasi in materiâ, propter quem /?exum fit ; aut vocalis per se possit promumciari : Muta mom possit. A'igura autem est accidems ab arte imstitutum ; potestque attributa mutari. Jul. Caes. Scal. ibidem. De vi, ac potestate /iterarum tam accuratè scripsérumt Amtiqui, quàm de quâvis aliâ suæ pro/essionis parte. Elaborârunt in hoc argumento Varro, Arìsciamus, Appiom, ille, qui ¢ymbalum dicebatur mumdi : et imter rhetores non posfremi fudicii, Diomysius Ha/icarmassaeus, Caius quoque Cæsar, et Octavius Augustus. Smith. ibid. ' Literae, quae per seipsas possimt promumciari, vocales sumt; quæ mom, //zsz cum aliis, comsonamtes. Voca/ium momima simp/icâ somo, mec differente â potestate, proferantur. Comsomamtes, additis voca/ibus, quibusdam præpositis, a/iis postóositis. " Ææ comsomamtibus, quorum momen incipit â Consomamte, //utæ sumt ; quarum â vocali, semi-vocales: A/utas mom ámdè appe//atas, quòd parùm somaremt, sed quòd mi/ii/.

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CHAP. II.

OF LETTERS AND THEIR Powers."

§N our language we use these twenty and four letters, A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. - #9 K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. V. W. of X. Y. Z. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. k. 1. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. v. w, x, y, z. The great letters serve to begin sentences, with us, to lead proper names, and express numbers. The less make the fabric of speech.

Our numeral letters are,
I

5 IO for 50 IOO 5OO IOOO 'All letters are either vowels or consonants; and are principally known" by their powers. The figure is an accident. ' A vowel will be pronounced by itself: a consonant not without the help of a vowel, either before or after.

The received vowels in our tongue are,
a. e. i. o. 4.

* Consonants be either mutes, and close the sound, as 3. c. d. g. 4. p. g. t. Or half-vowels, and open it, as f. l. m. m. r. s.a. 2.

H. is rarely other than an aspiration in power, though a letter in form.

W. and Y. have shifting and uncertain sounds as shall be shewn in their places.

i

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palati; alteram genuinos prementis. Tertia est labri inferioris, Ramus, lib. 2. Duas primas Terentianus notavit; tertiam tacuit.

Terentianus I.

E, quae sequitur, vocula dissona est priori: quia deprimit allum modico tenore rictum, et remotos premit hinc, et hinc molares.

* Apud Začinos, e latius somat in adveróio bené, guám in adveróio here : husus enim posteriorem vocalem exi/tos pronunciaéant; ità, ut etidm in maxime exilem somum transferit heri. Id, quod latius in multis 7uoyue patet: ut ad Eo, zerāo, deductum, ire, iis, et eis : diis, et deis : febrem, febrim : turrem, turrim : priore, et priori : Ram. et Scalig. At proster hand vicinitatem (ait Quinct.) e quoque Joco i suit: ut Menerva, leber, magester: pro Minerva, liber, magister.

s I
Porrigit ictum genuino prope ad opsos
Minimumgue renialet supero tenus labello.
Terent.

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Where it endeth, and soundeth obscure and faintly, it serves as an accent to produce the vowel preceding: as in made, steme, strope, &re, core, which else would sound, mdd, stem, strip, or, cior.

It altereth the power of c, g, s, so placed, as in hence, which else would sound henc; swinge, to make it different from swing; use, to distinguish it from us.

It is mere silent in words where l is coupled with a consonant in the end; as whistle, gristle, brittle, fickle, thimble, &c.

Or after v consonant, as in

/ove, glove, move.

Where it endeth a former syllabe, it soundeth

longish, but flat; as in
dérive, prépare, résolve.

Except in derivatives, or compounds of the sharp e,
and then it answers the primitive or simple in the
first sound; as
agreeing, of agree; foreseeing, of foresee; being, of Če.

Where it endeth a last syllabe, with one or more consonants after it, it either soundeth flat and full; aS 111

descent, intent, amend, offend, rest, best. Or it passeth away obscured, like the faint i ; as in these, written, gotten, open, sayeth, &c.

* Which two letters e and i have such a nearness in our tongue, as oftentimes they interchange places; aS 111

enduce, for induce; endite, for indie.

s A Is of a narrower sound than e, and uttered with a less opening of the mouth, the tongue brought back to the palate, and striking the teeth next the cheek teeth. It is a letter of a double power.

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