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more eloquent. Yet these men I could not but love and admire, that they returned to their studies. They left not diligence (as many do) when their rashness prospered ; for diligence is a great aid, even to an indifferent wit; when we are not contented with the examples of our own age, but would know the face of the former. Indeed, the more we confer with, the more we profit by, if the persons be chosen.

LXXVIII.

Dominus Verulamius.-One, though he be excellent, and the chief, is not to be imitated alone : for no imitator ever grew up to his author; likeness is always on this side truth. Yet there happened in my time one noble speaker, who was full of gravity in his speaking

His language (where he could spare or pass by a jest) was nobly censorious. No man ever spake more neatly, more pressly, more weightily, or suffered less emptiness, less idleness, in what he uttered. No member of his speech, but consisted of his own graces.

His hearers could not cough, or look aside from him, without loss. He commanded where he spoke ; and had his judges angry and pleased at his devotion. No man had their affections more in his power.

The fear of every man that heard him was, lest he should make an end.

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LXXIX.

Scriptorum Catalogus."—Cicero is said to be the only wit that the people of Rome had equalled to their empire. Ingenium par imperio. . We have had

'Sir Thomas Moore. Sir Thomas Wiat. Henry, earl of Surrey. Sir Thomas Chaloner. Sir Thomas Smith. Sir Thomas Eliot. Bishop Gardiner. Sir Nicholas Bacon, L. K. Sir Philip Sidney. Master Richard Hooker. Robert earl of Essex. Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Henry Savile. Sir Edwin Sandys. Sir Thomas Egerton, L. C. Sir Francis Bacon, L. C.

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many, and in their several ages (to take in but the former seculum) sir Thomas Moore, the elder Wiat, Henry earl of Surrey, Chaloner, Smith, Eliot, B. Gardiner, were for their times admirable ; and the more, because they began eloquence with us. Sir Nicholas Bacon was singular, and almost alone, in the beginning of queen Elizabeth's time. Sir Philip Šidney, and Mr. Hooker (in different matter) grew great masters of wit and language, and in whom all vigour of invention and strength of judgment met. The earl of Essex, noble and high ; and sir Walter Raleigh, not to be contemned, either for judgment or style. Sir Henry Savile, grave, and truly lettered ; sir Edwin Sandys, excellent in both ; lord Egerton, the chancellor, a grave and great orator, and best when he was provoked. But his learned and able (though unfortunate) successor, is he who hath filled up all numbers, and performed that in our tongue, which may be compared or preferred either to insolent Greece, or haughty Rome. In short, within his view, and about his times, were all the wits born, that could honour a language, or help study. Now things daily fall, wits grow downward, and eloquence grows backward : so that he may be named, and stand as the mark and axuń of our language.

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LXXX.

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De Augmentis Scientiarum.-Julius Cæsar.Lord St. Alban.- I have ever observed it to have been the office of a wise patriot, among the greatest affairs of the state, to take care of the commonwealth of learning. For schools, they are the seminaries of state; and nothing is worthier the study of a statesman, than that part of the republic which we call the advancement of letters.

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Witness the care of Julius Cæsar, who in the heat of the civil war writ

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his books of Analogy, and dedicated them to Tully.
This made the late lord St. Alban entitle his work
Novum Organum : which though by the most of
superficial men, who cannot get beyond the title of
nominals, it is not penetrated, nor understood, it
really openeth all defects of learning whatsoever,
and is a book

Qui longum noto scriptori proroget ævum.S
My conceit of his person was never increased
toward him by his place, or honours : but I have and
do reverence him, for the greatness that was only
proper to himself, in that he seemed to me ever, by
his work, one of the greatest men, and most worthy
of admiration, that had been in many ages.

In his
adversity I ever prayed, that God would give him
strength; for greatness he could not want. Neither
could I condole in a word or syllable for him, as
knowing no accident could do harm to virtue, but
rather help to make it manifest.

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LXXXI.

De Corruptela Morum.There cannot be one colour of the mind, another of the wit. If the mind be staid, grave, and composed, the wit is so; that vitiated, the other is blown and deflowered. Do we not see, if the mind languish the members are dull ? Look upon an effeminate person, his very gait confesseth him. If a man be fiery, his motion is so; if angry, it is troubled and violent. So that we may conclude wheresoever manners and fashions are corrupted, Language is. It imitates the public riot. The excess of feats and apparel are the notes of a sick state ; and the wantonness of language, of a sick mind.

Imp

unity

5 Horat, de Art. Poetica.

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LXXXII. De rebus mundanis.- If we would consider what our affairs are indeed, not what they are called, we should find more evils belonging to us, than happen to us.

How often doth that, which was called a calamity, prove the beginning and cause of a man's happiness ? and, on the contrary, that which happened or came to another with great gratulation and · applause, how it hath lifted him but a step higher to his ruin? as if he stood before, where he might fall safely.

LXXXIII. Vulgi Mores.-Morbus comitialis.—The vulgar are commonly ill-natured, and always grudging against their governors : which makes that a prince has more business and trouble with them, than ever Hercules had with the bull, or any other beast; by how much they have more heads than will be reined with one bridle. There was not that variety of beasts in the ark, as is of beastly natures in the multitude ; especially when they come to that iniquity to censure their sovereign's actions. Then all the counsels are made good, or bad, by the events : and it falleth out, that the same facts receive from them the names, now of diligence, now of vanity, now of majesty, now of fury; where they ought wholly to hang on his mouth, as he to consist of himself, and not others' counsels.

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LXXXIV.

Princeps.--After God, nothing is to be loved of man like the prince: he violates nature, that doth it not with his whole heart. For when he hath put on the care of the public good, and common safety, I am a wretch, and put off man, if I do not reverence and honour him, in whose charge all things divine

and human are placed. Do but ask of nature, why all living creatures are less delighted with meat and drink that sustains them, than with venery that wastes them ? and she will tell thee, the first respects but a private, the other a common good, propagation.

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De eodem.--Orpheus' Hymn.--He is the arbiter of life and death : when he finds no other subject for his mercy, he should spare himself. All his punishments are rather to correct than to destroy. Why are prayers with Orpheus said to be the daughters of Jupiter, but that princes are thereby admonished that the petitions of the wretched ought to have more weight with them, than the laws themselves.

LXXXVI.

De opt. Rege Jacobo.It was a great accumulation to his majesty's deserved praise, that men might openly visit and pity those, whom his greatest prisons had at any time received, or his laws condemned.

LXXXVII.

De Princ. adjunctis.-Sed verè prudens haud concipi possit Princeps, nisi-simul et bonus.Lycurgus. -Sylla.-Lysander.-Cyrus.—Wise, is rather the attribute of a prince, than learned or good. The learned man profits others rather than himself; the good man, rather himself than others : but the prince commands others, and doth himself. The wise Lycurgus gave no law but what himself kept. Sylla and Lysander did not so; the one living extremely dissolute himself, inforced frugality by the laws; the other permitted those licenses to others, which himself abstained from. But the prince's prudence is his

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