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. are kept separate in the eye of their Lord, and by him shall be considered as his own.

Ib. Garmentswhite.] By an easy and obvious metaphor *, what raiment is on the body, its cover and ornament, such is the habit of practice to the soul. "I put on righteousness, and it clothed me,” says Job; “my judgment was a robe and a diadem.” Conformably to which method of speaking, the Christian is required “ to put off the old man, to put on the new, to put on Christ t ;" which expressions are explained by their context to signify, that he should“ be renewed in the spirit of his mind, and put “ on the righteousness which is by faith.” In this allegorical form of speech, our Lord describes his servants as invited to the wedding of their great Master ; when one of them, appearing without a wedding garment, is sentenced to be cast into outer darkness. This garment is white, pure, free from stain of sin, made clean, as it is expressed not only in the Apocalypse but in other passages of Scripture, by the blood of the Lamb f. Sin defiles the soul, as earthly impurities do the bodily raiment; and there is no other means of cleansing, but propitiating blood; not the blood of bulls and goats, for these were only typical, but the blood of the Redeemer, of the holy victim, slain, in the counsel of God, from the foundation of the world. If we would be clothed in this raiment, in which alone we can appear pure and ac


* For the gradual formation of which, see 1 Sam. xviii. 4. 2 Sam. i. 24. Is, xxii. 21. lxi. 10. Dan. v. 7. Luke xv. 22. xvi, 19. Also, Herodotus, Thalia, lxxxiv. Xenoph. Anab. lib. i.

Eph. iv, 22. 27. Gal. iii. 27. 1. See 1 John i. 7. Ps. li. 7. Dan. xi, 35. 1 Pet. i. 19. Heb. xi. 13. Rev. vii. 14.


ceptable before God, we must put on faith, working in us, by love, the best moral conduct; agreeably to which explanation, this acceptable white garment is (in chap. xix. 8,) affirmed to be “the righteousness “ of the Saints *.”

Ver. 5. White raiment.] See the preceding note, to which we may add this observation ; that the expression Ev AeUxoiç is peculiar to Saint John; see chap. xx. , 12. where it is applied to the shining appearance of angels; also Mark xvi. 5. Otoan deurn, which in SaintLuke is expressed by εν εσθησεσιν αστραπτεσαις, whence we may collect that neunos applied to garments means a white of a dazzling brightness and splendour, such as arrays angelic beings.

Ib. Book of life.] As in states and cities, those who obtained freedom and fellowship, were enrolled in the public register, which enrolment was their title to the privileges of citizens; so the King of heaven, of the new Jerusalem, engages to preserve in his register and enrolment, in the book of life, the names of those, who like the good Sardians, in a corrupted and supine society, shall preserve alle. giance and a faithful discharge of their Christian duties. He will own them as his fellow-citizens, before men and angels t.

, * The result of these observations will enable us perhaps to explain a passage in the 2d Epistle to the Corinthians, (ch. v. 3.) which seems to have perplexed the commentators : “ If so, that being “clothed, we shall not be found naked : that is, if at the day of Judgment, when we must necessarily appear without our corporeal integuments, we shall have obtained that clothing, which alone can make us fit to appear in the Divine presence; that white, pure wedding garment, the righteousness of the Saints, without which no one can be admitted to the presence of God.

+ Matt. ix. 32. Luke xii. 8. See also Psalm 1xix. 28. Ezek. xiii. 9. Exod. xxxii. 33. Dan. xii. 1. Mal. iii. 16. Luke x. 20.



The Address to the Church in Philadelphia.

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tñs äças rõ WH- 1 hour of trial, which is l which shall come upon φασμα της μελλό about to come upon all the world, to try σης έρχεσθαι επί the whole region, to . them that dwell upon της οικεμένης όλης, try those who dwell | 11 the earth. Behold, wazásai Tès saloon 11 upon the earth. I am | I come quickly: hold nerlas ini tins gño coming soon; hold fast that fast which thou 11 "Esxou.com Telgún that which thou hast, hast, that no man take

ugáte o fxes, its that no one take thy | 12 thy crown. Him that

undens hábor Tòv se- 12 crown. He that over I overcometh, will I 12 Qaror op. 'Ovixão, cometh, him will I make a pillar in the

σοιήσω αυτόν σύλoν make a column in the Temple of my God, εν τω ναώ το Θεό Temple of my God; and he shall go no με, και έξω και μη and out of it he shall more out; and I will iftabm iti rý vçá never more depart ; write upon him the twit' aitòr ovoua and I will write upon name of my God, and τ8 Θεέ με, και το him a name of my God, the name of the city of όνομα της πόλεως and the name of the my God, which is new Tð Orð ko, tās

city of my God; of Jerusalem, which coxaurñs 'leguradnjeg

the new Jerusalem, meth down out of hea. και καταβαίνεσα εκ

which cometh down ven from my God : το έραν από το

out of heaven from my and I will write upon Θεέ με, και το όνο

God; even my new 13 him my new name. He μά με το καινόν.

13 name. He that hath an that hath an ear, let 13°oixay 4s, 4x8cd-1

ear, let him hear what him hear what the τω, τί το σνεύμα

the Spirit saith unto Spirit saith unto the Néyet tais éxxcam the Churches.


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Ver. 7. Philadelphia.] This city, in the times of Strabo, that is, not long before the date of this vision, had been so often shaken by earthquakes, that it was in a great measure deserted by its inhabitants; which may in some degree account for the poverty of its Church, as described in this Epistle. And its poverty may also in some degree account for its virtue, which is so highly commended * Melito, an eminent Bishop of this see, and a Christian apologist in the second cen,

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tury, appears to have written on the Apocalypse *. That such a man, in such a situation, so near to the time when the Apocalypse was published, should acknowledge it as divine, by commenting upon it, is a strong argument for its authenticity. Unfortunately this work of his is lost.

Philadelphia appears to have resisted the attacks of the Turks in 1312, with more success than the other cities t; but at length it fell under their domination. It still contains (probably as being the last which was subdued) more Christian families than most of the others. Modern travellers represent four Christian Churches standing in this place, and above 200 houses inhabited by Christians.

Ib. He that is holy.] This epithet belongs appropriately to the Deity. He alone is holy $: the Holy One. But, by communication, the same epithet descends to the only begotten Son, who, as such, partaking the nature of the Father, is styled the Holy One ş.

Ib. He that is true.] This epithet, like the preceding, is applicable only to the Father, who is povos way orvos 80s, the only true God (John xviii. 3.); but descends also to the Son, “the express image of the “ Father," " the Truth and the Lifell.” He is the · true bread, the true vine, the true light, and is emphatically denominated The True One 1.

Ib. Key of David.] See note, ch. i. 18.

Ver. 8. Opened door.] Our Lord has rendered the everlasting glories of his kingdom of easy access to the faithful and repentant: 1st, Because he, has made

* Euseb. Hist. Eccl. p. 147. + Gibbon, vi. 314.
| Exod. xxviii. 36. Is. vi. 3.
§ Psalm xvi. 10. Mark i. 24. Luke iv. 34. Acts iii. 14.
ll John xiv. 6.

f 1 John v. 20.


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