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are kept separate in the eye of their Lord, and by him shall be considered as his own.

Ib. Garmentswhite.] By an easy and obvious metaphor *, what raiment is on the body, its cover and ornament, such is the habit of practice to the soul. “I put on righteousness, and it clothed me,” says Job; “my judgment was a robe and a diadem." Conformably to which method of speaking, the Christian is required “to put of the old man, to put on the new, to put on Christ †;" which expressions are explained by their context to signify, that he should " be renewed in the spirit of his mind, and put

on the righteousness which is by faith.” In this allegorical form of speech, our Lord describes his servants as invited to the wedding of their great Master ; when one of them, appearing without a wedding garment, is sentenced to be cast into outer darkness. This garment is white, pure, free from stain of sin, made clean, as it is expressed not only in the Apocalypse but in other passages of Scripture, by the blood of the Lamb I. Sin defiles the soul, as earthly impurities do the bodily raiment; and there is no other means of cleansing, but propitiating blood l; not the blood of bulls and goats, for these were only typical, but the blood of the Redeemer, of the holy victim, slain, in the counsel of God, from the foundation of the world. If we would be clothed in this raiment, in which alone we can appear pure and ac

* For the gradual formation of which, see 1 Sam. xviii. 4. 2 Sam. i. 24. Is. xxii. 21. lxi. 10. Dan. v.7. Luke xv. 22. xvi, 19. Also, Herodotus, Thalia, lxxxiv. Xenoph. Anab. lib. i.

† Eph. iv, 22. 27. Gal. iii. 27.

See 1 John i. 7. Ps. li. 7. Dan. xi, 35. 1 Pet. i. 19. Heb. xi. 13. Rev. vii. 14.

ceptable The result of these observations will enable us perhaps to explain a passage in the 2d Epistle to the Corinthians, (ch. v. 3.) which

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ceptable before God, we must put on faith, working in us, by love, the best moral conduct; agreeably to which explanation, this acceptable white garment is (in chap. xix. 8,) affirmed to be “the righteousness of the Saints *."

Ver. 5. White raiment.] See the preceding note, to which we may add this observation ; that the expression Ev Aevxois is peculiar to Saint John; see chap. xx. 12. where it is applied to the shining appearance of angels; also Mark xvi. 5. Otomy deury, which in Saint Luke is expressed by εν εσθήσεσιν αστραπτεσαις, whence we may collect that neunos applied to garments means a white of a dazzling brightness and splendour, such as arrays angelic beings.

Ib. Book of life.] As in states and cities, those who obtained freedom and fellowship, were enrolled in the public register, which enrolment was their title to the privileges of citizens; so the King of heaven, of the new Jerusalem, engages to preserve in his register and enrolment, in the book of life, the names of those, who like the good Sardians, in a corrupted and supine society, shall preserve allegiance and a faithful discharge of their Christian duties. He will own them as his fellow-citizens, before men and angels t.

to have perplexed the commentators : “ If so, that being clothed, we shall not be found naked : that is, if at the day of Judgment, when we must necessarily appear without our corporeal integuments, we shall have obtained that clothing, which alone can make us fit to appear in the Divine presence; that white, pure wedding garment, the righteousness of the Saints, without which no one can be admitted to the presence of God.

+ Matt. ix. 32. Luke xii. 8. See also Psalm lxix. 28. Ezek. xiii. 9. Exod. xxxii. 33. Dan, xii. 1. Mal. iii. 16. Luke x. 20.

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Ρ Α R T Ι.

SECTION IX.

The Address to the Church in Philadelphia.

CHAP. iii. VER. 7-13.

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7 Και των αγγέλων της 7 And unto the Angel

έν Φιλαδελφεία εκ- of the Church in Phiκλησίας γράψον

ladelphia, write: Thus Τάδε λέγει ο άγιο, saith He that is holy; ο αληθινός, ο έχων He that is true; He την κλειδα το Δα- who hath the key of G8· και ανοίγων, και David; He who openέδεις κλείει» και

eth and no one shut. κλείει, και έδεις ανοί

teth, and shutteth and Oide τα

8 no

one openeth : 1 έρτα αδέ, δέδωκα

know thy works; beενώπιόν σε θύραν hold, I have set before ανεωμένην, ήν έδεις

thee an opened door, δύναται κλείσαι αυ

which no one can shut: την: ότι μικράν έ

because thou hast little χεις δύναμιν, και ετή

strength, and hast kept ρησάς με τον λόγον,

my word, and hast και εκ ηρνήσω το όνο

not denied my name, 9 μα με. Ιδε, δίδωμι

9 Behold, I give unto εκ της συναγωγής thee those of the syniaτε σατανά τδν λε

gogue of Satan, (who γόνlων έαυτές In

say

of themselves that δαίες είναι, και εκ ει

they are Jews, and are σιν, αλλά ψεύδονίαι»

not, but speak falsely, ιδε, σοιήσω αυτές,

behold, I will make ένα ήξωσι και προσο

thenm) to come and κυνήσωσιν ενώπιον

worship before thy των σοδων σε, και

feet, and to know that γνώσιν, ότι εγώ ή

I have loved thee. 10 γάπησά σε: “Ότι

10 Because thou hast ετήρησας τον λόγον

kept the word of my της υπομονής με,

patience, I also will καγώ σε τηρήσω εκ

keep thee from the

7 And to the Angel of

the Church in Philadelphia, write, These things saith He that is holy; He that is true; He that hath the key of David; He that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth,

and no man openeth: 8 I know thy works :

behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it: for thou hast a little strength, and hast kept my word, and

hast not denied my 9 name. Behold, I will

make them of the synagogue of Satan (which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie); behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that

I have loved thee, 10 Because thou hast

kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation,

11 upon

tñs üçus rĞ THεασμα της μελλέσης έρχεσθαι επί της οικεμένης ύλης, , σειράσαι τες καλοι

κενίας επί της γης. . 11"Έρχομαι ταχύ

κράτει και έχεις, ένα

μηδεις λάση τον τε12 φανόν σε. Ο νικών,

ποιήσω αυτον σύλoν εν τω ναώ τέ Θεέ pes, naci & å un εξέλθη έτι και γράψω επ' αυτον όνομα τ8 Θεέ με, και το όνομα της πόλεως το Θε8 με, της καινής Ιερsσαλήμ, και καταβαίνεσα εκ το έραν από το Θεέ με, και το όνο

μά με το καινόν. . 13 ο έχων ές, ακεσά

τω, τί το σνεύμα λίγει ταϊς εκκλησίαις. .

hour of trial, which is

which shall come upon about to come upon

all the world, to try the whole region, to

them that dwell upon try those who dwell

11 the earth. Behold, the earth. I am I come quickly: hold coming soon; hold fast that fast which thou that which thou hast, hast, that no man take

that no one take thy 12 thy crown. Him that 12 crown. He that over- overcometh, will I

cometh, him will I make a pillar in the make a column in the Temple of my God, Temple of my God;

and he shall go no and out of it he shall

more out; and I will more depart; write upon him the and I will write upon name of my God, and bim a name of my God, the name of the city of and the name of the my God, which is new city of my God; of Jerusalem, which cothe new Jerusalem, meth down out of heawhich cometh down ven from my God: out of heaven from my and I will write upon

God; even my new 13 him my new name. He 13 name. He that hath an that hath an ear, let

ear, let him hear what him hear what the the Spirit saith unto Spirit saith unto the the Churches.

Churches,

never

Ver. 7. Philadelphia.] This city, in the times of Strabo, that is, not long before the date of this vision, had been so often shaken by earthquakes, that it was in a great measure deserted by its inhabitants; which may in some degree account for the poverty of its Church, as described in this Epistle. And its poverty may alsa in some degree account for its virtue, which is so highly commended * Melito, an eminent Bishop of this see, and a Christian apologist in the second cen

Strabo, ii. lib. xii,

tury,

tury, appears to have written on the Apocalypse *. That such a man, in such a situation, so near to the time when the Apocalypse was published, should acknowledge it as divine, by commenting upon it, is a strong argument for its authenticity. Unfortunately this work of his is lost.

Philadelphia appears to have resisted the attacks of the Turks in 1312, with more success than the other cities T; but at length it fell under their domination. It still contains (probably as being the last which was subdued) more Christian families than most of the others. Modern travellers represent four Christian Churches standing in this place, and above 200 houses inhabited by Christians.

Ib. He that is holy.] This epithet belongs appropriately to the Deity. He alone is holy £: the Holy One. But, by communication, the same epithet descends to the only begotten Son, who, as such, partaking the nature of the Father, is styled the Holy One ş.

Ib. He that is true.] This epithet, like the preceding, is applicable only to the Father, who is povos anyosvos 80s, the only true God (John xviii. 3.); but descends also to the Son, “the express image of the “ Father,” “ the Truth and the Lifell.” He is the true bread, the true vine, the true light, and is emphatically denominated The True One f.

Ib. Key of David.] See note, ch. i. 18.

Ver. 8. Opened door.] Our Lord has rendered the everlasting glories of his kingdom of easy access to the faithful and repentant: 1st, Because he has made

* Euseb. Hist. Eccl.

po
147.

+ Gibbon, vi. 314. 1 Exod. xxviii. 36. Is. vi. 3.

Psalm xvi. 10. Mark i. 24. Luke iv. 34. Acts iii. 14. ll John xiv. 6.

1 John v. 20.

atonement

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