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cesses the white stone was the mark of acquittal, the black one of condemnation :

Mos erat antiquus niveis atrisque lapillis;
His damnare reos, illis absolvere culpa*.

The white stone, presented to the conquering Christian, may be supposed to signify, "well done, thou good and faithful servant."

But this white stone is inscribed with characters; so were the fudor of the ancients. The letter © with the Greeks was the token of condemnation; or, in a general sense, of disapprobation. So Persius ;

Et potis es nigrum vitio præfigere Thetat.

But on this white stone, given by our Lord to his approved servants, was written a new name, which will be explained in the following note.

Ver. 17. A new name.] By the custom of nations, from the earliest ages, a person raised to dignity was commonly invested with a new name or title, expressive of his deserts. Many instances occur in Scriptures. It is the promise of God to Zion, that, becoming the glory and the light of the Gentiles," she shall “ be called by a new name, which the mouth of the “ Lord shall name. He has promised also to the Eunuchs and Gentiles, who shall “ keep his covenant, “ and love the name of the Lord, a place and a name “ better than of sons and of daughters, an everlast“ ing name which shall not be cut off g.” Of this kind and nature is the new name or title, given by the Lord of Heaven to his elected servants. The

+ Sat. iv. is. # Gen. xli. 45. 2 Sam. xii. 25. Dan, i. 7. John i. 42, Matt. xvi. 18. s Is. xlii. 1, 6. lvi. 5.

Ovid. Metam. lib. xv. 41.


honour which they shall receive at his hands, when their spiritual warfare is accomplished, is beyond conception, and can only be known by being enjoyed.



The Address to the Church in Thyatira.

CHAP. ii. VER. 18-to the end.


18 Και τα αγέλη της

έν Θυατείροις εκ- xκλησίας γράψον" Τάδε λέγει ο υιός το Θεό, ο έχων της οφθαλμές αυτά ως φλόγα πυρός, και

οι σόδες αυτέ όμοιοι 19χαλκολιβάνω. Οίδα

σε τα έρία, και την αγάπην, και την διακονίαν, και την πίσιν, και την υπομονής σε, και τα έρβα συ τα έσχαία

πλείονα των πρώ20 των 'Αλλ' έχω

καλα σε ότι αφείς την γυναίκα σε Ιεζαςήλ, η λέγεσα εαυτην τροφήτιν, και διδάσκει και πλανά τες έμες δέλυς,

៨០ខ្ញុំ។បើ៣al , ២21 λόθυλα φαγείν. Και

έδωκα αυτή χρόνον, ,

18 And to the angel of 18 And unto the angel of the Church in Thya

the church in Thya. tira write: Thus saith tira, write, These the Son of God, who things saith the Son hath his eyes as

of God, who hath his flame of fire, and his eyes like unto a flame

feet like smelting brass. of fire, and his feet are 19 I know thy works, 19 like fine brass; I know

even thy love, and thy thy works, and chari. service, and thy faith, ty, and service, and and thy patience, and faith, and thy patience, thy last works to be and thy works; and

more than the first : the last to be more 20 But I have against 20 than the first. Notthee, that thou sufferest

withstanding, I have thy woman Jezebel, a few things against who calleth herself a thee, because thou sufprophetess, and teach- ferest that woman Jeeth and seduceth my

zebel, which called servants to commit herself a prophetess, fornication, and to eat to teach and to se

meats sacrificed unto duce my servants to 21 idols: And I have commit fornication,

given her a time, that and to eat things sashe might repent, and crificed

unto idols. she will not repent of



21 And I gave

ένα μελανοήση, και η 22 her fornication, Be- to repent of her forniκαι θέλει μελανοήσαι hold, I cast her into a cation, and she re

έκ της πορνείας bed, and those who 22 pented not. Behold, 99 αυτής ιδε, βάλλω commit adultery with

I will cast her into a αυτήν εις κλίνην, her, into great tribu- bed, and them that και της μοιχεύονίας lation, unless they commit adultery with μεσ' αυτης εις θλίψιν

shall repent from her her into great tribulaμεγάλην, εαν μη | 23 works ; And her chil- tion, except tliey re

μελανοήσωσιν εκ των dren will I slay with pent of their deeds. 23 έςων αυτής. Και

death ; and all the 23 And I will kill her τα τέκνα αυτής churches shall know children with death; αποκτενώ εν θα- that I am he which and all the churches νάτω, και γνώσονίαι

searcheth the reins and shall know that I am πάσαι αι εκκλσία:

hearts; And I will he which searcheth ότι εγώ είμι και give unto every one of

the reins and hearts ; έρευνών νεφρές και you according to your and I will give unto καρδίας και δώσω 24 works. But unto you every one of you acυμίν εκάσω καλα

I say, unto the rest cording to your works. τα έργα υμών. in Thyatira, as many

24 But unto you I say, 24 Υμίν δε λέγων, as hold not this doc- and unto the rest in [τοίς] λοιπούς τους

trine, (whosoever have Thyatira, As many as έν Θυατείροις, όσοι not known the depths

have not this doctrine, έκ έχεσι την δι- of Satan, as they

and which have not δαχήν ταύτην, οίτι- speak,) I shall put up

kuown the depths of νες εκ έγνωσαν τα

on you none other Satan, as they speak, βάθη τα σαλανά, 25 burthen; Only that

I will put upon you ως λέγεσιν" Oů which which ye have, none other burden. βαλω εφ' υμάς hold fast until I come. 25 But that which

ye 25 άλλο βάρG». Πλήν | 26 And he who over

have already, hold fast και έχετε, κρατήσατε

cometh, and who keep- | 26 till I come. And he άχρις και αν ήξω

eth even unto the end that overcometh, and 26 Και ο νικών, και my works, to him will

keepeth my works unκαι τηρών άχρι τέλες

I give power over the to the end, to him will τα έρα με, δώσω

27 nations, (And he shall I give power over the αυτω εξεσίαν επί

rule over them with 27 nations; (And he shall . 27 των εθνών, Και an iron sceptre, as the

rule them with a rod ποιμανεί αυτές εν vessels of earthen ware

of iron: as the vessels δας δω σιδηρά ως

are broken to pieces,) of a potter shall they τα σκεύη τα

28 Even as I have re- be broken to shivers :) εαμικά συνιρίείαι,

ceived from my fa- even as I received of 28 Ως καγώ είληφα

ther; and I will give ! 28 my Father. And I will παρά το ταίρος give him the morning 48. xy Show av Tū29 star. He that hath τον αςέρα τον πρω

an ear, let him hear 29 ινόν. ο έχων ές, what the Spirit saith ακοσάτω, τί το

unto the churches. πνεύμα λέγει ταϊς εκκλησίαις. .

give him the morning 29 star. He that hath an

ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

Ver. 18. Thyatira.] This was a considerable city in the road from Pergamos to Sardis*, Lydia, who at Philippi received the Apostles Paul and Silas, was of this place; and being a person of consequence, and divinely called to receive the Christian Religiont, probably became the cause of establishing a Church here. So that, on this account, as well as because this address of our Lord is directed to the Church of Thyatira, we can give no credence to the notion which was holden by some persons in Epiphanius's time, (300 years after the date of this epistle,) that the church in this city was founded after the time of Saint John's seeing this vision. No Christians are at this time reported to be found in the remains of this city.

Ib. Eyes as a flame of fire, &c.] Thus the Son of God appeared in ch. i. 14, where see the note, and the meaning of the word χαλκολιβανον. .

Ver. 19. Thy last works to be more than the first.] This is great commendation, and the reverse of the fault for which the Ephesians are reproved, (v. 4.) and of that lamentable state, described in Saint Luke, xi. 26. 2 Pet. ii. 20. TU Ermalice zespove Twv wgwiwv, the last state worse than the first.

Ver. 20. Jezebel.] This might be literally, a wo

• Strabo and Pliny,

+ Acts xvi. 14,


man of great rank and influence at Thyatira, who seduced the Christians to intermix idolatry and heathen impurities with their religion. Such seducers were in the church in Saint Paul's time. And the history of Queen Jezebel, that eminent patroness of idolatry, as delivered in the Books of Kings, shews that such a woman would be fitly represented under that name. But there is another sense in which it also may be applied; for, in symbolical language, by a woman is signified a city, a nation, a community, a church t. This passage is so understood by Venerable Bede, who explains the term Jezebel to mean † a synagogue of false apostles pretending to be Christian ; and it may signify a sect of seducers, 'like that described in verses 14 and 15 of this chapter ; for the same doctrines are ascribed to both. In the comment of Andreas Bishop of Cæsarea, written about the year 500, and containing the matter, writer professes, of more ancient commentators on the Apocalypse, of Irenæus, Papias, Methodius, &c. it is said, that the Nicolaitan heresy is here called Jezebel figuratively s, on account of its impiety and intemperance. See also the note below, ver. 24.

Ver. 20. Fornication.] The edict of the Apostles, (Acts xv.) forbids to the Gentile converts that which is here mentioned: 1. Nogueid, fornication, under which word are comprehended all those carnal impurities, which were common among the heathens, and even made a part of their sacred rites. 2. Ειδωλαθυτα, Αλισγηματα των EidWwv, meats offered unto idols; to partake of which, when declared to be such, was to partake of the

as the

* 2 Cor. vi, 14, &c.

+ See note below, v. 22. Synagogam pseudo-apostolicam, quæ se Christianam fingit, 5 Τροπικως οινομαζεμενην Ιεζας ηλ, δια την δυσσεβειαν και ασελγειαν,


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