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cesses the white stone was the mark of acquittal, the black one of condemnation :

Mos erat antiquus niveis atrisque lapillis;
His damnare reos, illis absolvere culpa.

The white stone, presented to the conquering Christian, may be supposed to signify, " well done,

, " thou good and faithful servant."

But this white stone is inscribed with characters; so were the fullor of the ancients. The letter with the Greeks was the token of condemnation; or, in a general sense, of disapprobation. So Persius ;

Et potis es nigrum vitio præfigere Thetat.

But on this white stone, given by our Lord to his approved servants, was written a new name, which will be explained in the following note.

Ver. 17. A new name.] By the custom of nations, from the earliest ages, a person raised to dignity was commonly invested with a new name or title, expressive of his deserts. Many instances occur in Scripture. It is the promise of God to Zion, that, becoming the glory and the light of the Gentiles, “she shall “ be called by a new name, which the mouth of the “ Lord shall name." He has promised also to the Eunuchs and Gentiles, who shall “keep his covenant, “ and love the name of the Lord, a place and a name “ better than of sons and of daughters, an everlast“ing name which shall not be cut off g.” Of this kind and nature is the new name or title, given by the Lord of Heaven to his elected servants. The

+ Sat. iv, 13. Gen. xli. 45. 2 Sam. xii. 25. Dan, i. 7. John i. 42, Matt. xvi. 18. Is. xlii. 1, 6. lvi, 5.

. Ovid. Metam, lib. xv. 41.

honour οι σόδες αυτά όμοιοι 19χαλκολιβάνω. Οίδα

honour which they shall receive at his hands, when their spiritual warfare is accomplished, is beyond conception, and can only be known by being enjoyed.



The Address to the Church in Thyatira.

CHAP. ii. VER. 18-to the end.


18 Kai tū olyénw rões

år Ovaleigos ixκλησίας γράψου: Τάδε λέγει ο υιός το Θεό, ο έχων τας οφθαλμές αυτά ως φλόγα πυρός, και

18 And to the angel of 18 And unto the angel of the Church in Thya

the church in Thya. tira write: Thus saith tira, write, These the Son of God, who things saith the Son hath his eyes as

of God, who hath his flame of fire, and his eyes

σε τα έρία, και την αγάπην, και την διακονίαν, και την πίσιν, και την υπομονής σε, και τα έρία συ τα έσχαία

σλείονα των πρώ20 των 'Αλλ' έχω

καλά σε ότι αφείς την γυναίκα σε Ιεζαςήλ, η λέγεσα

{culino woo¢ntin, kj διδάσκει και ταλανά τες έμες δέλες, ,

σορνεύσαι και είδω21 λόθυλα φαγείν. Και

έδωκα αυτή χρόνου,

like unto a flame feet like smelting brass. of fire, and his feet are 19 I know thy works, 19 like fine brass; I know

even thy love, and thy thy works, and chariservice, and thy faith, ty, and service, and and thy patience, and faith, and thy patience, thy last works to be and thy works; and

more than the first : the last to be more 20 But I have against 20 than the first. Not

thee, that thou sufferest withstanding, I have thy woman Jezebel, a few things against who calleth herself a thee, because thou sufprophetess, and teach- ferest that woman Jeeth and seduceth my zebel, which called servants to commit

herself a prophetess, fornication, and to eat to teach and to se

meats sacrificed unto duce my servants to 21 idols: And I have commit fornication,

given her a time, that and to eat things sashe might repent, and


unto idols. she will not repent

of 21 And I


her space

ένα μελανοήση, κι 22 her fornication; Be8 θέλει μελανοήσαι hold, I cast her into a

εκ της πορνείας bed, and those who 90 αυτής Ιδε, βάλλω commit adultery with

αυτήν εις κλίνην, her, into great tribu• και της μοιχεύονίας lation, unless they

μετ' αυτής είς θλίψιν shall repent from her μεγάλην, εαν μη | 23 works ; And her chilμελανοήσωσιν εκ των

dren will I slay with 23 έςΓων αυτής. Και death; and all the

τα τέκνα αυτής churches shall know αποκτενώ έν θα- that I am he which νάτω, και γνώσονίαι searcheth the reins and πάσαι αι εκκλσία:

hearts; And I will ότι εγώ είμι και give unto every one of έρευνών νεφρές και, you according to your καρδίας και δώσω 24 works. But unto you υμίν εκάσω καλα

I say, unto the rest τα έργα υμών. in Thyatira, as many 24 Υμίν δε λέγω, as hold not this doc[τοίς] λοιπούς τους

trine, (whosoever have έν Θυατείροις, όσοι not known the depths έκ έχεσι την δι

of Satan, as they δαχήν ταύτην, οίτι- speak,) I shall put upγες εκ έγνωσαν τα

on you none other βάθη τα σαλανά,

25 burthen; Only that ως λέγεσιν Ου which which ye have,

βαλώ εφ' υμάς hold fast until I come. 25 άλλο βάρο. Πλήν 26 And he who overκαι έχετε, κρατήσαιε

cometh, and who keepάχρις και αν ήξω

eth even unto the end 26 Και ο νικών, και

my works, to him will και τηρών άχρι τέλες

I give power over the τα έρα με, δώσω

27 nations, (And he shall αιτω εξεσίαν επί

rule over them with . 27 των εθνών, Και

an iron sceptre, as the ποιμανεί αυτές εν

vessels of earthen ware μας δω σιδηρά ως

are broken to pieces,) τα σκεύη τα κε

28 Even as I have reεαμικά συντρίλαι,

ceived from my Fa28 Ως καγώ είληφα

ther; and I will give

to repent of her forni

cation, and she re22 pented not. Behold,

I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with her into great tribulation, except they re

pent of their deeds. 23 And I will kill her

children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts : and I will give unto every one of you ac

cording to your works. 24 But unto you I say,

and unto the rest in Thyatira, As many as have not this doctrine, and which have not known the depths of Satan, as they speak, I will put upon you

none other burden. 25 But that which ye

have already, hold fast 26 till I come. And he

that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will

I give power over the 27 nations: (And he shall

rule them with a rod of iron: as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers :)

even as I received of 28 my Father. And I will

παρά τα σαθρός give him the morning give him the morning Ms. j dúow avtų | 29 star. He that hath 29 star. He that hath an τον αςέρα τον πρωan ear, let him hear

ear, let him hear what 29 ϊνόν. ο έχων ές, what the Spirit saith the Spirit saith unto ακοσάτω, τί το

unto the churches. the churches, πνεύμα λέγει ταις εκκλησίαις. .

Ver. 18. Thyatira.] This was a considerable city in the road from Pergamos to Sardis*, Lydia, who at Philippi received the Apostles Paul and Silas, was of this place; and being a person of consequence, and divinely called to receive the Christian Religiont, probably became the cause of establishing a Church here. So that, on this account, as well as because this address of our Lord is directed to the Church of Thyatira, we can give no credence to the notion which was holden by some persons in Epiphanius's time, (300 years after the date of this epistle,) that the church in this city was founded after the time of Saint John's seeing this vision. No Christians are at this time reported to be found in the remains of this city.

Ib. Eyes as a flame of fire, &c.] Thus the Son of God appeared in ch. i. 14, where see the note, and the meaning of the word χαλκολιβανον. .

Ver. 19. Thy last works to be more than the first.] This is great commendation, and the reverse of the fault for which the Ephesians are reproved, (v. 4.) and of that lamentable state, described in Saint Luke, xi. 26. 2 Pet. ii. 20. Tu Ermalce Xeigova Tūv wgwiūv, the last state worse than the first.

Ver. 20. Jezebel.] This might be literally, a wo

• Strabo and Pliny.

+ Acts xvi. 14,


man of great rank and influence at Thyatira, who seduced the Christians to intermix idolatry and heathen impurities with their religion. Such sedus cers were in the church in Saint Paul's time. And the history of Queen Jezebel, that eminent patroness of idolatry, as delivered in the Books of Kings, shews that such a woman would be fitly represented under that name. But there is another sense in which it also may be applied; for, in symbolical language, by a woman is signified a city, a nation, a community, a church t. This passage is so understood by Venerable Bede, who explains the term Jezebel to mean a synagogue of false apostles pretending to be Christian; and it may signify a sect of seducers, 'like that described in verses 14 and 15 of this chapter ; for the same doctrines are ascribed to both. In the comment of Andreas Bishop of Cæsarea, written about the year 500, and containing the matter,

the matter, as the writer professes, of more ancient commentators on the Apocalypse, of Irenæus, Papias, Methodius, &c. it is said, that the Nicolaitan heresy is here called Jezebel figuratively ș, on account of its impiety and intemperance. See also the note below, ver. 24.

Ver. 20. Fornication.] The edict of the Apostles, (Acts xv.) forbids to the Gentile converts that which is here mentioned : 1. Ilogveid, fornication, under which word are comprehended all those carnal impurities, which were common among the heathens, and even made a part of their sacred rites. 2. Ειδωλαθυτα, Αλισγηματα των Eidw.wv, meats offered unto idols; to partake of which, when declared to be such, was to partake of the

2 Cor. vi. 14, &c.

+ See note below, v. 22. Synagogam pseudo-apostolicam, quæ se Christianam fingit, 5 Τροπικως ωνομαζεμενην Ιεζας ηλ, δια την δυσσεβειαν και ασελγειαν.


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