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και σενθύντες, λέγον- Ι ' « smoke of her burn- | 21 And a mighty angel τες: Ούαι, εαι, ή | 19« ing, saying, What I took up a stone like a σόλις και μεγάλη, “ city like to that great millstone, and έν ή επλέτησαν great city! And they cast it into the sea, στάντες και έχοντες “ cast dust on their saying, Thus with vioτα πλοία εν τη « heads, and they cried lence shall that great θαλάσση, έκ της « out, weeping and city Babylon be thrown τιμιότητG- αυτής, “wailing, saying, Alas! down, and shall be

ότι μιά ώρα ηση « alas! that great city, found no more at all. 20 μώθη, Ευφραίνε επ' « by which all who 22 And the voice of har

αυτήν, έρανέ, και οι “possess ships in the pers, and musicians, άγιοι και οι απότολοι « sea were enriched, and of pipers, and και οι προφήται, ότι : “ by reason of her trumpeters, shall be έκρινεν ο Θεός το « costliness; for in one heard no more at all

κρίμα υμών εξ αυ “ hour she is made in thee; and no crafts21 της. Και ήρεν εις 20“ desolate. Rejoice man, of whatsoever

άγγελς ισχυρός « over her, Ο heaven, craft he be, shall be λίθον, ως μύλον “ and ye saints, and found any more in μέγαν, και έβαλεν εις " apostles and pro. thee; and the sound την θάλασσαν, λέ « phets, because God of a millstone shall be γων. Ούτως ορμή “bath avenged your heard no more at all ματι βληθήσεται | “cause upon her.” | 23 in thee; And the light Βαβυλών η μεγάλη | 21 And one mighty an of a candle shall shine

πόλις, και ο μη gel took a stone, like no more at all in thee; 22 ευρεθή έτι. Και a large millstone and and the voice of the

φωνή κιθαρωδών και cast into the sea, say bridegroom and of the μεσικών και αυλητών ing, « Thus violently bride shall be heard και σαλπισών και μη “shall Babylon, the no more at all in thee; ακασθή εν σοι έτι. “ great city, be hurl for thy merchants were και τις τεχνίτης “ed, and shall never the great men of the πάσης τέχνης 8 | 20:« be found more: And | earth; for by thy sorμη ευρεθή εν σοι "the voice of harpers ceries were all naότι και φωνή μύλα « and musicians, and | 24 tions deceived : And

και μη ακεσθη εν σοι “ of pipers and trum in her was found the 23 έτι: Και φώς λύχ “peters, shall never be blood of prophets, and

8 8 μη φανή εν “ heard in thee more; of saints, and of all σοι έτι και φωνή « and never shall that were slain upon νυμφίε και νύμφης και * craftsınan, of what the earth. μη ακεσθή εν σοι « soever craft,be found έτιότι έμποροι. Ι « in thee Imore; nor

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Ver. 1. After these things.] The angel of the Vials having fulfilled the purpose for which he had taken the Prophet apart into the wilderness; to shew him “the harlot,” the mystical Babylon, whose fall had been denounced in ch. xiv. 8. xv. 19; the same scenery is renewed, which had attended the exhibition of the warnings and Vials. Heaven is again restored to view, and the angels descend to perform the parts allotted them. The prophecy now to be produced, is connected with ch, xiv. 8, where the same words are used by the angel, who proclaims the fall of Babylon. That which is there said in few

words,

words, is now particularly described. It is a sequel also to the seventeenth chapter, in which the angel proposed to shew, not only Babylon, the great harlot, but also her judgment; which is now pronounced. It is connected also with the seventh Vial; for it is here, that Babylon is remembered," as was promised under that Vial *; her plagues are come, and she is finally destroyed by fire, as, in ch. xvii, it was said she shall be.

Ver. 2. An habitation of Dæmons.] The mystical Babylon, like the ancient and literal one its type, is to be utterly destroyed. And when the utter destruction of a city is denounced in Scripture, the site of that city is commonly described as becoming the haunt and habitation of wild beasts, and of such loathsome reptiles, as are found in the forsaken ruins of a city. (See for examples, Isa. xiii. 20-22; xxxiv. 10-16. Jer. ix. 11; li. 37.) On one of these passages it is observed by Bishop Lowth, that Hebrew words expressive of such animals are translated in the Septuagint by the word deuovia, which is used here t.

Ver. 3. Because all the nations-&c.] The cause of her judgment and fall is assigned. She who, as a Church of Christ, should have been the teacher and preserver of pure Religion and morality, had become the seducer and corrupter of the nations and their kings; and had set the example of that insolent luxury, disposing to irreligion, which it was her duty to oppose. It will be seen clearly from this verse, as well as from other passages of this chapter, that the great harlot of the seventeenth chapter, there called

* Ch. xvi. 19.

+ Bp. Lowth on Is. xxxiv. 14.. See Schleusner or Parkhurst in voc. spmyos.

Babylon,

Babylon, and the Babylon whose judgment is here pronounced, are the same. The same intoxicating cup, the same nations and kings are repeated as the causes of the Divine judgments upon her.

"As the destruction of Rome is here compared “ to the destruction of Tyre, we easily see how pro. “per it was, to describe the sins of Rome, by figures "taken from the sins of Tyre. The profit of trade “created a commerce between that city, then the

chief mart of the world, and all nations; so that Tyre spread her luxury and superstition, far and “ wide, with her trade. Rome, in like manner, corrupted distant and remote nations, by reward"ing her votaries with considerable wealth, encou“raging their ambition and luxury; and thus, like Tyre of old, she made her corruptions general, and “almost universal *.”

“ If;” says Bishop Newton, “this fall of Baby"lon was effected by Totilas, king of the Ostro“ goths, as Grotius affirms, or by Alaric, king of " the Visigoths, as the Bishop of Meaux contends; " how can Rome be said, ever since, to have been the “ habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul “ spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful “ bird; unless they will allow the Popes and Cardi“nals to merit these appellations t?”

Ver. 4. Come out of her, my people.] The same commanding call is to be seen in Jer. li. 6, which is again repeated after the fall of the literal Babylon I. Of this injunction, great use was made by the Reformers. The sentence of retaliation is to be seen

ICTS

* Lowman on the Revelation, p. 219. + Dissert. on Propb. jii. 312.

I 2 Cor. vi. 17, 18.

also

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