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“ of blood; a way of speaking not unknown to the
Jews; for, the Jesúralem Talmud, describing the “ woeful slaughter which the Roman Emperor Adrian "made of the Jews at the destruction of the city of “ Bitter, saith, that the horses waded in blood up to the " nostrils. Nor are similar examples wanting even in “ the classic authors; for, Silius Italicus, speaking of “ Annibal's descent into Italy, useth the like expres
sion; the bridles flowing with much blood*.”
Bp. Newton, Dissert. iii. p. 267. Svo edit.
CHAPTER XV. & CHAP. xvi. ver. 1. 1 ΚΑΙ είδον άλλο | And I saw another 1 And I saw another sign
σημείον εν τω έρανών sign in Heaven, great in heaven great and μέγα και θαυμασών, and wonderful: seven marvellous, seven anαγέλες έπλα, έχον- angels having the seven gels having the seven τας πληγάς επτα
last plagues: for in last plagues, for in τας εσχάτας, ότι them was completed thein is filled up the εν αυταίς ετελέσθη
the wrath of God. 2 wrath of God. And I ο θυμός τα Θε8.
2 And I saw, as it were, saw as it were a sea of 2 Kai sioon as dú
a sea, glassy, mingled glass, mingled with λασσαν υαλίνην με
with fire, and those fire; and them that μιιμένην συρί» και της
who had gotten the γικώνlας έκ τα θηρία
had gotten the victory victory over the beast, over the beast, and και εκ της εικόνος αυ
and over his image, τέ, και εκ τε άριθμα
over his image, and and over the number τα ονόματος αυτά, ,
over his mark, and over of his name, standing the number of his εσώτας επί την θά
upon the glassy sea, λασσαν την ζαλίνην, ,
name, stand on the sea έχoνίας κιθάρας τα having harps of God.
of glass, having the 3 Oiš. Kai ģdeos TWY 3 And they sing the
3 harps of God. And υδήν Μωσέως δέλα song of Moses, the
they sing the song of T& 9:8, > Tv san servant of God, and
Moses the servant of το αρνίε, λέγοντες: the song
of the Lamb; God, and the song of Μεγάλα και θαυsaying, “ Great and
the Lamb, saying, μας τα έργα σε, ,
" wonderful are thy Great and marvellous Κύριε ο Θεός ο παν- works, O Lord, the
are thy works, Lord τοκράτωρ δίκαιαι
“ Almighty God; just God Almighty; just και αληθιναι αι οδοί " and true are thy ways, and true are thy ways, ο βασιλεύς των
thou King of saints. 6 αιώνων. .
“ Who shall not fear, 4 Who shall not fear un pocnañ [oo], * (thee] O Lord, and thee, O Lord, and gloΚύριε, και δοξάση glorify thy name, for rify thy named for το όνομά σε; ότι “ thou alone art holy !
thou only art huly: for
μόνος όσιο.· ότι
σάνια τα έθνη ήξεσι καροσκυνήσσεινένρίπιόν σε ότι τα δι
καιώμαλά σε εφα5 νερώθησαν. Και
μεία ταύτα είδον, και ήνοίγη ο ναός της
σκηνής το μαρυσία 6 εν τω έρανω. Και
εξήλθον οι επτα αγγελοι οι έχοντες τας επία πληγας [έκ τ8 ναυ1, ενδεδυμένοι λίνον καθαρόν λαμπρόν, και σεξ.εζωσμένοι σερί τα
Σήθη ζώνας χρυσάς. 7 Και ενέκτων τεσσά
εων ζώων έδωκε τους επία αγέλοις έπια φιάλας χρυσας, γεμάσας, το θυμά τα Θεά τα ζώνιος
εις τες αιώνας των 8 αιώνων. Και έγε
μίσθη ο ναός καπνα έκ της δόξης τα Θεέ, και εκ της δυνάμεως αυτο και όλεις ήδύνατο εισελθείν εις τον ναόν, έχει τελεσθώσιν αι επία
σληψαι των επια Ο αγέλων. Και ήκη
σα φωνης μεγάλης έκ το ναι, λεγέσης τοις έπλα αγγέλοις *Υπάγελε, κέκχέρω τας έπια φιάλας το θυμα τύ Θεξ είς την γην.
“ For, all the nations
all nations shall come « shall come and wor- and worship before “ship thee; for thy thee; for thy judg“ righteous judgments ments are made mani“ have been made ma
5 fest. And after that I 5 « nifest.” And after looked, and belhold,
this, I looked, and the temple of the tathere was opened the
bernacle of the testitemple of the Taberna- mony in heaven was
cle of tlie Testimony | 6 opened: And the se6 in Heaven. And the
ven angels came out of seven angels, who had
the temple, having the the seven plagues, seven plagues, cloathcame out [of the tein
ed in pure and white ple] clothed in pure,
linen, and having their resplendent linen, and breasts girded with golgirt about their breasts
7 den girdles. And one with golden girdles.
of the four beasts gave
unto the seven angels, 7 And one of the four living-creatures gave
seven golden vials full
of the wrath of God, unto the seven angels
who liveth for everand seven golden Vals, full of the wrath of
8 ever. And the temple
was filled with smoak God, who liveth for
from the glory of God, 8 ever and ever. And
and from his power ; the temple was filled
and no man was able with smoke from the
to enter into the temglory of God, and from
till the seven his power; and no one
plagues of the seven was able to enter into
angels were fulfilled. the temple, until the
1 And I heard a great seven plagues of the
voice out of the temseven angels should be
ple, saying to the se1 completed. And I
ven augels, Go your heard a loud voice out of the temple, saying
ways, and pour out
the vials of the wrath the seven angels,
of God upon the Go, and pour out
Ver. 1. Another sign in heaven-seven angels ; &c.] The scene of the vision continues the same, heaven and earth in view, and the angels, who are the actors, passing between both. The present exhibition is preparatory. Such a general representation had preceded the seven Seals, and the seven Trumpets; this precedes the seven Vials. We are now in the midst of the warfare carried on by the Church of Christ, under his auspices, to resist the formidable efforts of the combined enemies. It is a silent warfare, operating chiefly in the human heart. But heaven is now seen interposing visibly to repress the pride and arrogance of the antichristian usurpers. And as seven angels, by sounding the alarm, had foreshewn the several shocks of battle, which the Church should sustain from her enemies: so seven angels, by pouring forth seven Vials, express the vengeance of the Almighty, poured out on the triumphant worldly powers, checking their career, imbittering their success, and finally overwhelming them in destruction.
They are to be accounted, as the word wayn expresses, so many blows or strokes; visitations of Divine Providence on unrepentant sinners. Such fell
Pharaoh and the hardened Ægyptians, who, persisting in their obstinate opposition, were overwhelmed in the Red Sea. The number seven implies a complete visitation* “When I begin, I will also make an end, saith “the Lord t.” So, with the last of these Vials, “ the “ wrath of God will be completed.” And it is in allusion to this completion, that they are called “the “ last plagues;” for they do not seem to extend to the very last times of final judgment, but to end with the beast and false prophet finally and completely subdued; with whose action therefore they seem cotemporary.
Note, ch. i. 4.
t i Sam. iii. 12.
Ver. 2. A sea, glassy, mingled with fire; &c.] This glassy sea has been already displayed as standing before the throne of God", where it was seen to represent the purifying blood of the Redeemer; the price of human redemption, in which alone the vestments can be washed white; by which alone the Christian can be presented pure before God. But the Redeemer has two characters, conformably to the offices assigned him on earth; the one of meekness, in which he came to suffer; the other of exaltation, in which he returns to reign, and to pour out vengeance on his enemies. We are now arrived at that point of the prophetic history, in which this vengeance begins to be poured out. We therefore see the glassy sea mingled with fire; its waves flashing flame; symbolically expressive of anger and vengeance t. Here we see collected, as in an appropriate situation, those who, during the usurpation of Antichrist, had contended for the faith; and suffering, had gained that victory, which is only to be acquired " by the blood of the Lamb f.” The purification of the priests for the service of the earthly temple was in the brazen sea; these, who are to minister before the God of heaven, are purified by the heavenly sea; by the blood of the Redeemer. And many of them, having poured out their own blood in his cause, and after his example, now begin to enjoy the triumph which was promised them under the fifth Seal s. They are now to be“ avenged."
Ib. Of the beast.] Én T8 Supis, “not,” says Dr. S. Clarke, over the beast, but from out of the midst of the beast : for, by this expression is implied, not only their conquest, but the difficulty of it, by a few persons, ad.
* Ch. iv. 6.
+ See note, ch. viii. 7. I Ch. xii. 11; vii. 13. 1 John v. 4, &c. Ś Ch. vi. 9-13; where see the note.