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the glory of the Father, to preside at the general judgment*.

• They who have pierced him," are not only the Jews, who demanded his crucifixion of Pilate, but likewise all those who wound him by their transgressions, who “ crucify to themselves the Son of God “afresh, and put hiin to open shame."

Ver. 8. In the same spirit of exultation he continues to set forth the supreme dignity of the Son of God, ascribing to him, as our Lord had done to himself in the visiont, those sublime attributes of the Father by which he fills all eternity, and exercises all powers. This application of the attributes of the Father to the Son, pervades all the sacred writings of the New Testament, and is represented to be by communication, or inheritance. “As the Father has life in himself, 156 so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself. " I and my Father are one. I am in the Father and “ the Father in me. All things that the Father hath 66 are mine. Whatsoever things the Father doeth, " these also doeth the Son likewise. The Father judg" eth no man, but hath committed all judgment to " the Son." These are our Lord's words, as recorded by Saint John, according to whom he was "in the

* See Dan. vii. 13. Mat. xxiv. 30. Mar. xiii, 26. xiv. 62. but more particularly Zech. xii. 10. where these images occur.

+ Heb. vi. 6.- n confirmation of the received opinion, that St. John the Evangelist was the author of the Apocalypse, we may observe, that ttexasinoar is the very word used by that Apostle in his Gospel, (xix. 37,) and is a word used by no other writer of the New Testament.

Cb. i, ii. 13. § See Is, xliv. 6. lvi. 15. Mic. v. 2.

. beginning," beginning,” and “from the beginning with God*.” The apostle to the Hebrews enforces the same notion of our Lord's eternity, when he calls him “ Jesus

Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, and for evert." He is Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the original Creator, and the final Judge, of the world; to whose illustrious advent, and final triumph over his enemies (as being the grand catastrophe of the Apocalypse) the prophet, who had already seen it exhibited in vision, exultingly adverts, even before he begins his narration. This was natural, in one who had seen such a vision, but it would not easily have occurred in a work of mere imagination and art.

* John i. 1. 13. v. 26. 19. 22. xiv. 11. xvi. 15, also Col. i. 16. 17. Heb. i. 2, 3, 8. 1 John v. 20.

+ Heb, xiii. 8,

PART 1

SECTION III. The Appearance of the Lord Jesus with the Symbols of

his Power; and the Commission given by him to Saint John to write what he beholds.

CHAP. i. ver. 9-to the end.

9 'Eryw 'Iwauns, ó, 9 I John, your brother, 19 I John, who also am

ádencos inwy, xy and fellow-sbąrer in your brother, and comquixosvwròs min the trịbulation and panion in tribulation, θλίψει και βασιλεία kingdom and patience and in the kingdom and xai inrouoon 'Inca of Jesus Christ, was in patience of JesusChrist, Xgıső, éyevókann iv the Island called Pat was in the isle that is po row th xanda mos, for the word of called Patmos, for the

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14 golden girdle; llis foot, and girt about di regado avrš head and his hair the paps with a golden rej sai teixes aev white, as white wool, 14 girdle. His head and xai, Nori ligos

as snow; and his eyes his hairs were white Asușor, ws Xváre

as a flame of fire; like wool, as white riy oi oqeangol ay | 15 And his feet like as snow; and his eyes tö ás pads augos,

smelting brass, as if were as a flame of 15 Kai oi wódes aúts

burned brightly in a 15 fire ; And his feet nosos xadxoduCS

furnace; and his like unto fine brass, mlede asigur, üv “ right hand, and my right hand, and sides ei täs degiãs " the seven golden the seven golden des, xai tas irla " lamp-bearers. The candlesticks. The λυχνίας τας χρυς seven stars are the seven stars are the cãs• oi emla esiges, “ angels of the seven angels of the seven αγελοι των επία έκ “ churches; and the churches į and the κλησιών είσι και

ww, ss fv xaliyot voice as the voice of l as if they burned in WIMURNÉHos xai | 16 many waters; And a furnace; and his i pwrn airë is having in his right voice as the sound of

our idátwy wore hand seven stars, and 16 many waters. And 162Wv Käilgour ex from his mouth atwo. he had in his right

The dig ayti yorigi edged sharp sword hand seven stars : asépas izlao xai ix coming forth; and his and out of his mouth το τόματος αυτά countenance as the went a sharp two. ρομφαία δίσομος Sun shineth in his edged sword, and bis óteix ixtrogsvouém. 17 power. And when I countenance was as και η όψις αυτ8, saw him, I fell at his the sun shineth in us ó ý #cos países feet, as dead; and 17 his strength. And

šv zi, durciusi avrõ. he laid his right hand when I saw him, I 17 Kaiőre sida ajrin, upon me, saying (to fell at his feet as

I'TE0% após Tès 18 me) " Fear not; I am dead; and he laid wódzs autó s “ the first and the his right ha:id upon νεκρός και επέθηκε

“ last, and he who me, saying unto me, anu dečiar airë " liveth; and I was Fear not; I am the in' fue, déyour “ dead, and bebold I 18 first and the last : I [ro] MÀ polo “ am alive for ever am he that liveth, εγώ είμαι ο πρώτος " and ever; and I and was dead; and

και ο έσχαίος, “ have the keys of behold, I am alive 18 Kai ó füve xai « Death and of hell. for evermore, Amen ;

éyerózamy nexgos, tai 19 “ Write therefore and have the keys of Add Cwr eius eis tès " those things which hell and of death, alwvas tās aiórwo “thou seest, even 19 Write the things xxi 'xw tas xats " the things which which thou hast seen,

το θανάτε και το " are present, and and the things which 19de. Spes for more “ which are about to are, and the things

å sides, xe å tios, 20 “ be after these : The which shall be hereκαι αμέλλει γίνεσ " mystery of the 29 after, The mystery

Que pela raūra “ seven stars which of the seven stars 20 To pusagros Tün thou seest in my which thou sawest in

" seven lamp-bearers seven candlesticks ai étoilà augrísi, “ are the seven which thou sawest are izle txarangizo sisi, “ Churches."

the seven churches,

Ver. 9. I John, &c.] 'Who this John was, and why, and whither banished, may be seen in note, c. i. 1. His dignity, as an apostle, and as a prophet favoured with this vision, and honoured with this commission, was at all events considerable; but, in the spirit of the Gospel, he calls himself only a brother, as his Lord had called himself before him *, and a fellowsharer in the afflictions which the faithful were then suffering, under the persecution of Domitian. But to partake the sufferings of Christ, is to partake also his kingdomt, which are here therefore emphatically united.

For the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus.] The sense of this expression becomes clear, by com, paring it with chap. vi. 9, where the Martyrs are represented as having suffered δια τον λόγον το Θεε και δια paplugicev yv eixov, “for the word of God, and for the “ testimony which they bare.” John was, like them, a persecuted şufferer and confessor, in the Island of Patmos, to which he was . banished for his adherence to the faith, and where he was favoured with this vision I.

Ver. 10. I was in the Spirit.] It is in vain to inquire the exact manner in which these sacred visions were coinmunicated. The Jewish writers have said much upon the subject, but nothing which can satisfy a rational and sober mind. So far however is plain froin Ezek. ii. 2. iii. 24. 2 Cor. xii. 2. and other passages of Scripture, that the prophet commonly perceived the impulse of the Spirit acting upon him in a sudden and extraordinary manner ; yet so mysteriously, that

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+ 2 Tim. ii. 12. Euseb. Eccl. Hist. lib. iii. cap. 18.

* John xx. 17.

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