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the glory of the Father, to preside at the general judgment".

· They who have pierced him," are not only the Jews, who demanded his crucifixion of Pilate, but likewise all those who wound him by their transgressions, who “ crucify to themselves the Son of God “afresh, and put hiin to open shamet.'

Ver. 8. In the same spirit of exultation he continues to set forth the supreme dignity of the Son of God, ascribing to him, as our Lord had done to himself in the visiont, those sublime attributes of the Father by which he fills all eternity, and exercises all powerg. This application of the attributes of the Father to the Son, pervades all the sacred writings of the New Testament, and is represented to be by communication, or inheritance. “ As the Father has life in himself,

so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself. “I and my Father are one. I am in the Father and - the Father in me. All things that the Father hath " are mine.

Whatsoever things the Father doeth, " these also doeth the Son likewise. The Father judg“eth no man, but hath committed all judgment to " the Son." These are our Lord's words, as recorded by Saint John, according to whom he was " in the

* See Dan. vii. 13. Mat. xxiv, 30. Mar. xiii, 26. xiv. 62. but more particularly Zech, xii. 10. where these images occur.

+ Heb. vi. 6.-on confirmation of the received opinion, that St. John the Evangelist was the author of the Apocalypse, we may observe, that stexalroux is the very word used by that Apostle in his Gospel, (xix. 37,) and is a word used by no other writer of the New Testament.

I Cb. i. ii. 13.
§ See Is, xliv. 6. Ivi. 15. Mic. v. 2.

beginning,"

beginning,” and “from the beginning with God *.” The apostle to the Hebrews enforces the same notion of our Lord's eternity, when he calls him “ Jesus “ Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, and for evert.” He is Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the original Creator, and the final Judge, of the world; to whose illustrious advent, and final triumph over his enemies (as being the grand catastrophe of the Apocalypse) the prophet, who had already seen it exhibited in vision, exultingly adverts, even before he begins his narration. This was natural, in one who had seen such a vision, but it would not easily have occurred in a work of mere imagination and art.

* John i. 1. 13. v. 26. 19. 22. xiv. 11. xvi, 15. also Col. i. 16. 17. Heb. i. 2, 3, 8. 1 John v. 20.

+ Heb, xiii. 8.

PART I,

SECTION III.

The Appearance of the Lord Jesus with the Symbols of

his Power; and the Commission given by him to Saint John to write what he beholds.

CHAP. i. ver. 9-to the end.

9 'Eyà 'Iwáumns, ó, 9 I John, your brother, 1 9 I John, who also am

αδελφός υμών, και and fellow-sbærer in your brother, and comGulxbravos y Ty the tribulation and panion in tribulation, θλίψει και βασιλεία kingdom and patience and in the kingdom and και υπομονη 'Ιησε of Jesus Christ, was in patience of JesusChrist, Χρισέ, εγενόμην εν the Island called Pat- was in the isle that is τη νήσω τη καλα- mos, for the word of called Patmos, for the

μένη Πάτμω, δια God, and for the τον λόγον τε Θεέ, testimony of Jesus και δια την μαρία- 10 [Christ]. I was in the

είαν Ιησύ [Χρις]. Spirit on the Lord's 10 Εγενόμην έ, Θεύ- day; and I heard μαι εν τη κυριακή

behind me

a loud ημέρα" και ήκεσα voice, as of a trumοπίσω με φωνής | 11 pet, Saying, « That

μεγάλην ως σαλ- (6 which thou seest 11 πιγξ, λεγέσης" « write in a book,

“ο βλέπεις, γρά- " and send unto the ψαν εις βιβλίο»,

seven churches; to και σέμψον ταϊς “ Ephesus; and to επια εκκλησίαις, εις « Smyrna; and to "Εφισον, και εις «« Pergamos; and to Σμύρναν, και εις

“ Thyatira; and to Πέραμον, και εις “ Sardis; and to PbiΘυάτειρα, και εις “ ladelphia; and to Σάρδεις, και εις Φι- 12 “ Laodicea." And I

λαδέλφειαν, και εις turned to see what 12 Λαοδίκειαν. Και

the voice was which επέςρεψα βλέπεις

spake with me; and την φωνήν, ήτις being turned, I saw ελάλησε με εμά seven golden lampκαι επισρέψας είδος

13 bearers; And in the

midst of the seven 13 σας, Και εν μέσω lamp-bearers one like

των επτά λυχνιών the Son of man, όμοιον υιώ ανθρώπε, clothed with a long ενδεδυμένον ποδήρη,

garment down to the και περιεζωσμένον feet, and girt about

προς τους μασούς the breasts with a 14 ζώνην χρυσήν· “Η 14 golden girdle; His δε κεφαλή αυτά

head and his hair και αι τρίχες λεν

white, as white wool, και, ωσεί έριον

as snow; and his eyes λευκόν, ώς χιών

as a flame of fire; και οι οφθαλμοί αυ

15 And his feet like τα ως φλόξ συρός,

smelting brass, as if 15 Και οι σόδες αυτά

burned brightly in a όμοιοι χαλκολιά

furnace; and bis

word of God, and for

the testimony of Je10 sus Christ. I was in

the Spirit on thie Lord's day, and heard behind me a great

voice, as of a trum. 11 pet, Saying, I am

Alpha and Omega, the first and the last : and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven Churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Perga. mos, and unto Tliyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadel

phia, and unto Lao12 dicea. And I turned

to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw

seven golden candle13 sticks; And in the

niidst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, cloathed with a gar. ment down to the foot, and girt about

the paps with a golden 14 girdle. His head and

his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes

were as a flame of 15 fire; And his feet

like unto fine brass,

επία λυχνίας χρυ

as the

17 puwer.

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νω, ώς εν καμίνω voice as the voice of as if they burned in

υπνευμένοι και 16 many waters; And a furnace: and his i pain aurš as

having in his right voice as the sound of φωνή υδάτων σολ- hand seven stars, and 16 mnany waters. And 162 Kalixiy from his mouth a two.

he had in his right TORBA ayrë xuigi edged sharp sword

hand seven stars : asépaes inlk. xai ix

coming forth; and his and out of his mouth το τόματος αυτο countenance

went a sharp two. ρομφαία δις ομος Sun shineth in his edged sword, and his οξεία εκπορευομένη"

And when I countenance was as και η όψις αυτό, , saw him, I fell at his the sun shineth in ώς ο ήλιος φαίνει feet, as dead; and 17 his strength, And εν τη δυνάμει αυτό. .

he laid his right hand when I saw him, I 17 Και ότε είδος αυτόν, ,

upon me, saying (to fell at his feet as έπεσα προς τις

18 me)" Fear not; I am dead; and he laid αυτά as " the first and the his right ha:id upon νεκρός και επέθηκε

“ last, and he who me, saying unto me, την δεξιάν αυτά " liveth; and I was

Fear not;

I
um

the επ' εμέ, λέγων

“dead, and behold I 18 first and the last ; I [40]: Mi pufo am alive for ever am he that liveth, εγώ είμι ο σεώτος " and ever; and I and was dead; and

και ο έσχαίος, “ have the keys of behold, I am alive 18 Kai ó Siro xai " Death and of hell. for evermore, Amnen ; εγενόμην νεκρός, και

19 “ Write therefore and have the keys of ίδα ζων είμι εις τες

" those things which bell and of death, αιώνας των αιώνων: “ thou seest, even

19 Write

the και έχω τας κλάς

" the things which which thou hast seen, τ8 θανάτε και το

are present, and and the things which 19 άδε. Γράψον εν "! which are about to are, and the things

å sides, xa å sies, 20 “ be after these : The which shall be hereκαι α μέλλει γίνεσ

" mystery of the 20 after, The mystery θαι μεθα ταύτα, seyen stars which

things

of the seven stars 20 Το μυστήριον των $thou seest in my

which thou sawest in επία ατέρων, ών “ right hand, and my right hand, and sidesni tñs estras " the seven golden the seven golden με, και τας επτα

" lamp-bearers. The candlesticks. The λυχνίας τας χρυ- seven stars are the seven stars are the cãs of inla asiges, angels of the seven angels of the seven άγγελοι των επlα έκ

“ churches; and the churches ; and the κλησιών είσι και "seven lamp-bearers

candlesticks αι επlα λυχίαι, , are the

which thou sawest are izlaixxngizi sici, , “ Churches."

the seven churches.

seyen

seven

V'er. 9. I John, &c.] 'Who this John was, and why, and whither banished, may be seen in note, c. i. 1. His dignity, as an apostle, and as a prophet favoured with this vision, and honoured with this commission, was at all events considerable; but, in the spirit of the Gospel, he calls himself only a brother, as his Lord had called himself before him *, and a fellowsharer in the afflictions which the faithful were then suffering, under the persecution of Domitian. But to partake the sufferings of Christ, is to partake also his kingdomt, which are here therefore emphatically united.

For the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus.) The sense of this expression becomes clear, by com; paring it with chap. vi. 9, where the Martyrs are represented as having suffered δια τον λογον τ8 Θεα και δια μαρτυριαν ήν είχον, , “ for the word of God, and for the “ testimony which they bare.” John was, like them, a persecuted sufferer and confessor, in the Island of Patmos, to which he was . banished for his adherence to the faith, and where he was favoured with this vision I.

Ver. 10. I was in the Spirit.] It is in vain to inquire the exact manner in which these sacred visions were coinmunicated. The Jewish writers have said much upon the subject, but nothing which can satisfy a rational and sober mind. So far however is plain from Ezek. ii. 2. iii. 24. 2 Cor. xii. 2. and other passages of Scripture, that the prophet commonly perceived the impulse of the Spirit acting upon him in a sudden and extraordinary manner; yet so mysteriously, that

* John xx. 17.

+ 2 Tim. ii. 12. | Euseb. Eccl. Ilist. lib. iii. cap. 18.

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