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The irruption of the barbarous nations of the North, upon the declining Empire, is of great importance in civil history. It occasioned a signal revolution in power and property, and produced wonderful effects on the manners, customs, and laws of Europe. But although it took crowns from kings, and property from rich laymen, and overwhelmed multitudes in slavery, its disastrous influence was small, or of no permanency, on the Christian Church. That Church had already degenerated, through ignorance and corrupt worship; but it retained its property, and power, and the number of its subjects: nay, it greatly increased all these ; for the conquering nations forsook their pagan creed for the religion of the conquered *.

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SECTION III.

Denunciation of the Three Woe.

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εκ των λοιπών φωκων της σάλπιγο. των τριών αγγέλων των μελλόνίων σαλπίζειν,

the trumpet of the three angels which are yet to sound.

“ who dwell upon the
“ eartb, from the re-
“maining voices of
“ the trumpet of the
“ three angels, who are

yet to sound !"

Ver. 13. And I beheld, and I heard one Seagle?

{angel flying ; &c.] Griesbach has admitted the word det! (eagle) into the text, and seems to produce powerful authorities for the adınission. But the received reading, Alyas (angel) seems also supported by good authorities; and internal evidence will appear decisive in its favour. The two words have resemblance in Greek character, and might be confounded by transcribers. I prefer the word angel, because, in the scenery of the Apocalypse, the action is almost entirely and exclusively administered by angels. And in ch. xiv. 6, the Prophet sees “ another angel flying in the space between heaven and earth.To what former angel does this other angel refer, but to this of the eighth chapter, who is the only one before described as flying? And it is in the same “

space between “heaven and earth.” And this angel of the xivth chapter is followed by others, all of them angels, no eagle. I reniark also the application of the word ¿vos, one, to this angel or eagle, whichsoever it may be. If it be to be applied to an eagle, why does the Prophet say one eagle; why not an eagle? for no eagles had been mentioned. But there is a propriety, if it be an angel, in saying one angel, because many angels had been, and were then, employed in the action. The cohort of seven angels were then standing forth with their trumpets.

Ib. In the space between heaven and earth.] The METBpeva appears to have been one of the cardinal points in the Chaldean astronomy, opposed to the hypogæum *: but in this passage, it seems simply to mean the intermediate space between heaven and earth, as they appeared in this vision; the one extended above, the other below t.

Ib. Woe! woe! woe!] The Divine messenger, at the command of God, leaving heaven, and hovering over the earth, proclaims three woes, or dreadful calamities, to happen to its inhabitants, under the three remaining Trumpets. No greater calamity can happen to the sons of inen, than the corruption, the rejection, the loss of true Religion. Under the four preceding Trumpets, an hostile invasion of the whole Christian Church, in its fourfold division, had taken place; but the view of its effects had been hitherto general, and representative of few particulars. The warfare s now exhibited more plainly and openly; and Antichrist will soon stand confessed. In the apostolic times, in the times when this vision was exhibited (and the four first Trumpets seem to have their date from those times, ch. i.), Antichrist already was said to be comef; the mystery of iniquity did then work Ş, " and waxed

worse and worse ||.” So, under the four first Trumpets, the storm seems increasing; but the calamity is as yet described only in general terms, previous to a more particular exhibition. Now it advances to its maturity, and most desolating effects, by three distinct and particular explosions, under the three last Trumpets. The fifth Trumpet, and first IVoe.

* Brucker, Hist. Crit. Philos. i. 139.

+ See note, ch vii. 1. I i John ii. 18, 22. iv. 3. 2 John 7.

§ 2 Thess. ii. 7. 11 2 Tim. iii. 13. What is thus expressed by the Sacred writers, has always been understood to signify the beginnings of Antichristian power.

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PART not injure the grass of σαν χλωρών, έδε

PART III. .

SECTION IV.

CHAP. ix. VER. 1–19.

1 Kali Wiuria är 1 And the fifth angel

γελG- εσάλπισε, και sounded : and I saw a είδον αγέρα έκ τα star from heaven fall έρανε σεπτωκότα

to the earth: and to sis Thy yone xj idé him was given the key θη αυτώ ή κλείς τα of the pit of the botφρέατος της αβύσσε. .

2 tomless deep. And he 2 Και ήνοιξε το φρέας opened the pit of the

της αβύσσα και α- bottomless deep. And νέβη καπνός εκ το there arose smoke out φρέατο, ως καπνός of the pit, as the smoke καμίνε μεγάλης και of a great furnace. And έσκολίσθη ο ήλιος και the sun was darkened,

ο αήρ εκ τε καπνού and the air, by the 3 të Opiatos. Kai 3 smoke of the pit. And

έκ τα καπνά έξηλ. out of the smoke came θον ακρίδες εις την forth locusts

upon

the γην, και εδόθη αυταίς earth. And to them εξεσία, ως έχεσιν was given power, as εξεσίαν οι σκορπίοι

the scorpions of the 4 rñs yms. Kai ipfé 4 earth have power, And

θη αυταίς, ίνα μη it commanded αδικήσωσι τον χός- them, that they should τον της γης, έδε

the earth, nor any war dévdgovo si un

green thing, nor any της ανθρώπους, οί

tree; but only the men Tives óx fyeon

whosoever have not σφραγίδα του Θεά

the seal of God upon επί των μετώπων 5 their foreheads. And 5 Útä. Και εδό

it was given them not

1 And the fifth anget

sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key

of the bottomless pit. 2 And he opened the

bottomless pit, and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened,

by reason of the smoke 3 of the pit. And there

came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth; and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth

And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the

seal of God in their 5 foreheads. And to

them it was given that

4 have power.

was

θη αυταίς, να μη to kill them, but that they should not kill αποκλείνωσιν αυτές, ,

they should be tor- them, but that they αλλ' ένα βασανισ- mented five months : should be tormented Θυσι μήνας σέντε and the torment of five months: and their και ο βασανισμός them is as the torment torment was as the torαυτών ως βασανισ- of a scorpion, when it ment of a scorpion, pès orogris, Öræv 6 striketh a man. And when he striketh a παίση άνθρωπος in those days shall the

6 man.

And in those 6 Και εν ταϊς ημέραις men seek death, and days shall men seck

εκείναις ζητήσωσιν οι shall not find it; and death, and shall not άνθρωποι τον θάνα

shall desire to die, and find it; and shall de-' τον, και ο μη ευρή- death shall flee from sire to die, and death 081 avráv rj épre 17 them. And the ap

shall flee from them. θυμήσεσιν αποθα

pearances of the lo-7 And the shapes of the νεϊν, και φεύξεται και

custs were like horses locusts were like unto θάναλος απ' αυτών:

prepared for battle : horses prepared unto 7 Και τα ομοιώματα and upon their heads,

battle; and on their των ακρίδων όμοια,

as it were, crowns of heads were as it were ίπποις ήτοιμασμέ

gold; and their faces crowns like gold, and τοις εις πόλεμον και as the faces of men : their faces were as the ini tås xepare's 8 And they had hair, as

8 faces of men, And αυτών ως τέφανοι

it were, the hair of they had hair as the χρυσού, και τα πρόwomen; and their teeth

hair of women, and aútly Ws

9 were as of lions. And their teeth were as the πρόσωπα ανθρώ

they had breast-plates, 9 teeth of lions. And 8 πων.

as it were, breast- they had breast-plates, τρίχας ως τρίχας

plates of iron. And as it were breast-plates γυναικών, και οδόνες

the sound of their of iron ; and the αυτών ως λεόνlων ή- na

wings as the sound of sound of their wings 9 σαν. Και είχον θώ

chariots of many horses was as the sound of ρακας σιδηρές και

10 rushing to battle. And chariots of many horses i parin Tür wlagu

they have tails like to 10 running to battle. And γων αυτών ως φωνή

scorpions; and stings they had tails like unto αρμάτων, ίππων

were in their tails. And scorpions, and there πολλών τρεχόντων their power was

to were stings in their 10 εις πόλεμον. Και injure the men five

tails: and their power έχεσιν έράς ομοίας

11 months. They have was to hurt, men five σκορπίοις, και κένθρα

over them a king, the 11 months. And they had ήν εν ταϊς Βραίς αυ

angel of the bottomless a king over them, των και η εξυσία

deep; his name in He- which is the angel of αυτών αδικήσαι τες

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