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The irruption of the barbarous nations of the North, upon the declining Empire, is of great importance in civil history. It occasioned a signal revolution in power and property, and produced wonderful effects on the manners, customs, and laws of Europe. But although it took crowns from kings, and property from rich laymen, and overwhelmed multitudes in slavery, its disastrous influence was small, or of no permanency, on the Christian Church. That Church had already degenerated, through ignorance and corrupt worship; but it retained its property, and power, and the number of its subjects: nay, it greatly increased all these; for the conquering nations forsook their pagan creed for the religion of the conquered *.
* Mosheim, Cent. vi. part i.-Gibbon narrates the number of the barbarous nations which had become Christian before the age of Charlemagne; and remarks that the Christians were then in possession of all the fertile lands of Europe, which had been seized by these Warriors. (Decline of the Roman Empire, ch. xxxvii. p. 532, 4to.)
Denunciation of the Three Woe$.
13 Kaitidos, vi xxcx | 13 And I beheld, and I | 13 And I beheld, and s dets ?
heard an angel flying
through the midst of silauéve ev yerga flying in the space be
heaven, saying, with a gavmale, abyovla tween heaven and loud voice, Wo, wo, Pwes meyang Duai, earth, saying, with a
wo to the inhabiters of sæi, sai zais xeflor- loud voice, “ Woe!
the earth, by reason xãown ini tõs vñs, woe! woe! to those
of the other voices of
Ver. 13. And I beheld, and I heard one eagle?
(angels fying ; &c.] Griesbach has admitted the word dets (eagle) into the text, and seems to produce powerful authorities for the adınission. But the received reading, Asyals (angel) seems also supported by good authorities; and internal evidence will appear decisive in its favour. The two words have resemblance in Greek character, and might be confounded by transcribers. I prefer the word angel, because, in the scenery of the Apocalypse, the action is almost entirely and exclusively administered by angels. And in ch. xiv. 6, the Prophet sees “ another angel flying in “ the space between heaven and earth.” To what former angel does this other angel refer, but to this of the eighth chapter, who is the only one before described as flying? And it is in the same “ space between “ heaven and earth.” And this angel of the xivth chapter is followed by others, all of them angels, no eagle. I reniark also the application of the word ¿vos, one, to this angel or eagle, whichsoever it may be. If it be to be applied to an eagle, why does the Prophet say one eagle; why not an eagle? for no eagles had been mentioned. But there is a propriety, if it be an angel, in saying one angel, because many angels had been, and were then, employed in the action. The cohort of seven angels were then standing forth with their trumpets.
Ib. In the space between heaven and earth.] The Megglavapiat appears to have been one of the cardinal points in the Chaldean astronomy, opposed to the hypogæum *: but in this passage, it seems simply to mean the intermediate space between heaven and earth, as they appeared in this vision; the one extended above, the other below t.
Ib. Woe! woe! woe !] The Divine messenger, at the command of God, leaving heaven, and hovering over the earth, proclaims three woes, or dreadful calamities, to happen to its inhabitants, under the three remaining Trumpets. No greater calamity can happen to the sons of inen, than the corruption, the rejection, the loss of true Religion. Under the four preceding Trumpets, an hostile invasion of the whole Christian Church, in its fourfold division, had taken place; but the view of its effects had been hitherto general, and · representative of few particulars. The warfare s now
exhibited more plainly and openly; and Antichrist will soon stand confessed. In the apostolic times, in the times when this vision was exhibited (and the four first Trumpets seem to have their date from those times, ch. i.), Antichrist already was said to be come $; the mystery of iniquity did then work , " and waxed “worse and worse l.” So, under the four first Trumpets, the storm seems increasing; but the calamity is as yet described only in general terms, previous to a more particular exhibition. Now it advances to its maturity, and most desolating effects, by three distinct and particular explosions, under the three last Trumpets.
* Brucker, Hist. Crit. Philos. i. 139. .. See note, ch vii. 1. 1 i John ii. 18, 22. iv. 3. 2 John 7. $ 2 Thess. ii. 7.
11 2 Tim. iii. 13. What is thus expressed by the Sacred writers, has always been understood to signify the beginnings of Antichristian power
The fifth Trumpet, and first IVoe.
them, that they should that they should not TOY Tūs gyñs, édè
not injure the grass of hurt the grass of the wär tawgir, the earth, nor any earth, neither any green hãy obydgose si len
green thing, nor any thing, neither any tree; This debpumus, o
tree; but only the men but only those men τινες εκ έχεσι την
whosoever have not which have not the oopzoyida tê Ook
the seal of God upon seal of God in their štai tūv METÁTW 5 their foreheads. And | 5 foreheads. And to 5 útãr. Kai idó
it was given them not them it was given that
On aitaīs, isa rin to kill them, but that they should not kill αποκλείνωσιν αυτές, they should be tor them, but that they ára isce Bacania mented five months : should be tormented θώσι μήνας σέντε and the torment of five months: and their και ο βασανισμός them is as the torment torment was as the torkütün is Bacano of a scorpion, when it ment of a scorpion, pós orogais, örær 6 striketh a man. · And when he striketh a
waion öv@gwmoyo in those days shall the 6 man. And in those 6 Kelly Tais huigais men seek death, and days shall men seck
ixtivas Comoure os shall not find it; and death, and shall not άνθρωποι τον θάνα shall desire to die, and find it; and shall deTov, xai ó un súpa death shall flee from sire to die, and death o'quv ajtór vjeto 17 them. And the ap
shall flee from them. θυμήσεσιν αποθα
pearances of the lo 7 And the shapes of the veiv, rj Debteran custs were like horses locusts were like unto Sáralos ár' airūve
prepared for battle : horses prepared unto 7 Και τα ομοιώματα
and upon their heads, battle; and on their Tão augidwe ovoca
as it were, crowns of heads were as it were ίπποις ήτοιμασμέ
gold; and their faces crowns like gold, and nous eis worsporo rý
as the faces of men : their faces were as the ini Tas xepalas 8 And they had hair, as 8 faces of men, And QÚTWY WS separos it were, the hair of they had hair as the χρυσού, και τα πρό women; and their teeth hair of women, and owma aütlev uso were as of lions. And their teeth were as the πρόσωπα ανθρώ
they had breast-plates, 9 teeth of lions. And 8 mar. Kai gizor
as it were, breast they had breast-plates, τρίχας ως τρίχας
plates of iron. And as it were breast-plates γυναικών, και οδόνlες
the sound of their of iron; and the ajrür ws deovlar na
wings as the sound of sound of their wings 9 par. Kai sizou Já
chariots,of many horses was as the sound of ρακας σιδηρές και
10 rushing to battle. And chariots of many horses ý para tão elegi
they have tails like to 10 running to battle. And yw aútūv ús parin
scorpions; and stings they had tails like unto αρμάτων, ίππων
were in their tails. And scorpions, and there πολλών τρεχόντων
their power was to were stings in their 10 tis pólsuor. Kai
injure the men five tails : and their power έχεσιν έράς ομοίας
11 months. They have was to hurt, men five oxogtrios, xy xéolga
over them a king, the 11 months. And they had ทษ ง rais exis g
angel of the bottomless a king over them, Tãro xain itxoia
deep; his name in Hel which is the angel of αυτών αδικήσαι τις