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is by no means warranted by the original *. But if the censer were not cast to the earth, its contents must have been : and what were they? To answer this ques. tion, we are to observe the method in which the angel seems to have proceeded. He offered the incense, most probably, not upon the censer, but upon the altar; the golden altar; the altar appropriated for that use; as he is expressly appointed to do, in the third verse. And if it seem an objection to this supposition, that the smoke is said to ascend from the hand of the angel, it may be answered, that so it would, if, as may seem probable, he took the incense from the censer, and with his hand applied it to the fire upon the altar. The smoke would then ascend from his hand, alınost in contact with the fire. It would be only in the same manner," from his hand,” if the incense were burned upon the censer. But the censer seems to have been, in this case, only the receptacle of the incense; for the angel came forth with the censer in his hand; and then the incense was given to him. He had no vial, which was the usual receptacle t. The angel, therefore, seems to have taken the incense from the censer, and to have burned it upon the fire, which was on the altar. He now reverses the mode; he first takes the censer, and then the fire from the altar, which he applies to the censer, in which was the remainder of the incense: and the fire and the incense, thus burning, he casts to the earth. But the incense, thus burning, as we have before remarked, means the Christian worship and Religion ; pure and heavenly in its nature and origin; but, sent down to the earth, and mixing with the passions and worldly designs of men, it produces signal commotions, expressed in the prophetical language by • * Και εβαλεν εις την γην. + See note, ch. v. 8, on the word Vial.

“voices

. [Pt. III. Q 1. “ voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, and earth“quake.” Or, if it be, as it may perhaps be, that the fire alone is cast to the earth, (the incense being exhausted,) the interpretation will be nearly the same. For our Lord has declared, in the same kind of figurative language, that in sending forth his holy Religion to the earth, he had cast fire thereon ;--wue ya lov Ballery EIS TUV guve-it is the very same expression *: and this fire he afterwards explains to signify divisions and contention t. Thus, in the representation before us, the Christian Religion begins in peace; and pure incense I, rendered effectual by the Saviour's atonement, and accompanying the devout prayers of the Church, is offered for a time; till, mingling with earthly corruption, with human passions and prejudices, it becomes the instrument of discord and violence. But this is only a general, symbolical, preluding view of the subject; the heresies, divisions, commotions, which, under the name of Christianity, miserably afflicted the Christian world, and almost banished true Religion, are to be more especially developed in the sequel of this seal. The significant action now exhibited, prepares us for the kind of history which is to follow. And it seems to confine our interpretation of the sequel, to the history of the CHRISTIAN RELIGION, thus producing commutions upon the earth. * Luke xii. 49. . See Grotius and Whitby, in loc. Mal. i, 11.

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PART

PART III.

SECTION II.
The four first Trumpets.

CHAP. viii. ver. 6–12. 6 Kai oi inte etapedor , 6 And the seven angels, 6 And the seven angels

oi ixcooles täs old who had the seven which had the seven ráamilyas, štobus trumpets, prepared trumpets, prepared

sur Sautés, isce themselves to sound. · themselves to sound. 7 palkitwo. Kai 7 And the first sounded; 1 7 The first angel sound

ó agūrą irán and there were hail ed; and there followe · 11107, rý byévelo ge and fire mingled with ed hail and fire mingled daca nj Tõg paephora blood; and they were with blood; and they μένα έν αίματι, και cast upon the land ; were cast upon the • Cahon sis the grave and the third part of earth: and the third rý rò rgitoy tas the land was burnt part of trees was burnt vs x Texam, 9 và up; and the third part up, and all green grass τρίτος των δένδρων of the trees was burnt 8 was burnt up. And the xalexán, xai was up; and all green grass second angel sounded,

χόριο χλωρός κα 8 was burnt up. And and as it were a great 8 Texán. Kzi o desen the second angel sound mountain burning with

Top @ ãgryan@ ed; and, as it were, a fire was cast into the σάλπισε, και ως όρος great mountain, burn sea; and the third part μέγα συρί καιόμε ing with fire, was cast of the sea became you ifason is the into the sea; and the 9 blood: And the third Sáracoar rý áryés third part of the sea part of the creatures »To rò rgitoy tñs | 9 became blood: And

which were in the sea, Janácons, aixecto | the third part of the and had life, died; and 9 Και πέθανε το τρί creatures in the sea, the third part of the

τον των κλισμάτων which had life, died; ships were destroyed. των εν τη θαλάσ and the third part of | 10 And the third angel ση, τα έχοντα ψυ the ships was destroy sounded, and there fell xác 9 TạiToy | 10 ed. And the third a great star from hea

των πλοίων διεφθά angel sounded; and ven, burning as it were 20 pn. Kais agitos there fell from heaven a lamp, and it fell upon

älyen @ icátios, a great star, burning the third part of the και έπεσεν εκ τύ - like a meteor; and it rivers, and upon the

gavő ásig Milyos fell upon the third part | fountains of waters : xzcóuerv@ ás haus of the rivers, and upon | 11 And the name of the nàs, rý TEOSV ŠTO the springs of waters. star is called WormTò Tpítoy tãy wola-"| 11 And the name of the wood: and the third

pär, rj éri tason star is called the Worm part of the waters be11 ya's vdátwe. Kai wood; and the third came wormwood; and

το όνομα το άσέρος part of the waters be maný men died of the aéyela Afondoso comes wormwood; and waters, because they και γίνεται το τρί many of the men died | 12 were made bitter. And τον των υδάτων εις of the waters, because the fourth angel soundštolov, rj wondoi they were made bitter. ed, and the third part são ározásaw ané 12 And the fourth angel of the sun was smitten, θανον εκ των υδάτων,

sounded; and the third and the third part of Öto śmiugáronoar.

part of the sun was the moon, and the third 12 Kai ó métagra

'smitten, and the third part of the stars; so as ayed @ toántice,

part of the moon, and the third part of them και επλήγη το τρίτον

the third part of the was darkened, and the sẽ xe, 9 Tri

stars; so that a third day shone not for & TOY twv asigure free

part of them should third part of it, and σκολισθη το τρίτον

be darkened, and the the night likewise. ajtūr, rj s muiga

day might not shine, μη φαίνη το τρίτον

as to the third part of airns, nacin vor o

it, and the night likepoiws.

wise.

Ver. 6. And the seven angels, who had the seven trumpets, prepared themselves to sound.] The former part of this chapter having prepared us for a new kind of representation, in which we may expect to find the history of those commotions which followed the descent of Christianity upon earth ; we will in the next place observe, with what propriety they are severally introduced by the sound of Trumpets. Trumpets were in use among the Israelites for several purposes : first, for assembling the people *, or their leaders t; or,

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secondly, to express joy and exultation on solemn festivals * ; or, lastly, to give signal when the camp was to move, or the host to go forth to battle t; on which occasion, the trumpets were to “sound an alarm," after a manner not used on other occasions t. It was: the signal of hostile invasion g; it was fearful :-“Shall " the trumpet be blown in the city, and the people " not be afraid | ?” Of such kind we may account the seven trumpets of the angels. They are not the trumpets of the new moons and feast days; there is no joy and festivity in them; they are not for the quiet and peaceful calling of the assembly; they sound an alarm; an alarm of war; and woe! woe! woe! accompanies their notes (ver. 13.): they foretel to the Church of Christ the invasions of its enemies, and are so many signals on the approach of each antichristian foe. And from the preparatory vision, in which incense and fire from the altar in heaven, are cast down to earth, producing violent commotions, we have reason to expect that Religion, or the pretence and abuse of it, is intimately connected with this warfare. This expectation will be confirmed by our observing, that the representation under every trumpet appears to have some reference to, or connection with, the preparatory vision. At the sounding of almost every one of which, somewhat is seen to fall from heaven to earth, as the incense and fire had fallen, and to occasion the commotions which ensue.

Ver: 7. And the first sounded.] The prophetic history of the four first trumpets is dispatched in few words, containing few images; so that much particular

* Numb. x. 10. + Ib. x. 5, &c.

Deut. x,
Jer. iv. 5, 19, 21. vi. 1, 17, U Amos iü. 6.
Psalm lxxxi, 3.

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